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that has heen observed over against The hair of their head is black, and it, by which those parts are sheltered trait, and they wear it loose. Their from the sharp winds.
face is brown, and flat as a plate; For this reason also fish come up their nose is flat, but not very broad; the rivers of America earlier, than their eyes are as black as jet; their those of Kamtchatka. The 20th lips thick; their beard small; and of July, there has been observed a their neck short. great plenty of fish in those rivers; They wear shirts with fleeves whilst at Kamtchatka, it is then which reach lower than the knee; but the beginning of an abundant and they tye them up, with thongs fishery.
of leather, below the belly. Their Of berries they saw there an un breeches and boots, which are made known kind of jalberries, which of the skins of seals, and dyed with bore berries of an extraordinary big- alder, much resemble the Kamtchaness and tafte. As to the reft, there dalian. They carry at their girdles, grow in that country black-berries, iron knives with handles, like those with several other kinds of berries, of the Russian boors. Their hats called in Russ, jimoloft, golubitja, are platted of herbs, as with the brusnitsa, and thiksha, in as great Kamtchadalians, without a rising plenty as at Kamtchatka.
top, in the shape of an umbrella; There are creatures enough, good they are dyed in green and in for the support of the inhabitants of black, with falcon's feathers in the those parto; particularly seals, sea- fore part, or with some herb, combdogs, fea-beavers, whales *, canis ed, as if it were a plume of feathers, carcharias, marmottes marmotta such as the Americans use about minor) and red and black foxes, Brasil. They live upon fish, sea which are not so wild as in other animals, and the sweet herb, which places, poflibly because they are not they prepare after the Kamtchatka much hunted.
Besides this, it has been Of known birds, they saw there observed, that they have also the magpies, ravens, fea-mews, fea. bark of poplar, or of the pine-tree, ravens, swans, wild ducks, jackdaws, dried, which, in case of necessity, is woodcocks, Greenland pigeons, made use of as food, not only at and mitchagatki, otherwise call- Kamtchatka, but likewise throughed northern ducks. But, of un- out all Siberia, and even in Russia known birds, they observed more itself, as far as Viatka : also seathan ten forts, which it was not dif-: weeds made up into bundles, which ficult to distinguish from European in look and in strength, are like birds, by the liveliness of their co- thongs of raw leather. They are lours.
unacquainted with spirituous liWith regard to the inhabitants of quors, and tobacco; a fure proof, those parts, they are such a wild peo- that, hitherto, they have had no ple, as the Koriaki and Tchutchi. communication with the Europeans. As to their persons, they are well They reckon it an extraordinary set, broad and strong shouldered. ornament, to bore, in several places,
* In Russ, akul, or mokoia ; in bigness it is inferior to the whale ; and it is like it in this, that it cafts no spawn, bút brings 1orth young; upon which account, come reckon it a fpecies of whale,
the lower parts of the cheeks, near interpreters could understand the the mouth; and in the holes they American language, possibly that set fome stones and bones. Some comes from the great difference in wear, at their nostrils, fate pencils, the dialect, or from a difference of about four inches long; some wear pronunciation; which is observed, a bone of that bignels, under the not only among the wild inhabitlower lip; and others a like bone on ants of Kamtchatka, but also among the forehead.
the European nations, in different The nation, that lives in the provinces. In Kamtchatka, there islands round about cape Tchukot- is hardly any small * ostrog, whose fki, and frequents the Tchutchi, is, fpeech differs not [somewhat] from certainly, of the fame origin with that of another that lies nearest. As those people : for with them also it for those small Ostrogs, which are at is thought an ornament, thus to in- fome hundreds of verstes from one lay bones.
another, they cannot even under· Major Paulutskoi, deceased, after stand each other, without trouble. a battle which he once fought a The following remarkable regainst the Tchutchi, found, among semblances between the American the dead bodies of the Tchutchi, and Kamtchadalian nations, have two men of that nation, each of been observed : whom had two teeth of a sea-horse 1. That the Americans resemble under the nose, set in holes made on the Kamtchadales in the face. purpose: for which reason, the in 2. That they, eat the sweet herb, habitants of that country call them after the same manner as the KamtZubatui (toothed). As the pri- chadales ; a thing which was never soners reported, these mendid observed any where else. not come to the assistance of the 3. That they make use of a woodTchutchi, but to see how they used en machine to light fire with. to fight with the Ruflians.
4. That, from many tokens, it is From this, it may be inferred, conjectured, that they use axes made that the Tchutchi converse with of stones, or of bones; and it is them, either in the same language, not without foundation, Mr. Steller or, at least, in languages of so great thinks, that the Americans had once affinity, that they can understand a communication with the people of one another withoat an interpreter, Kamtchatka. consequently, their language has no 5. That their cloaths and their small resemblance with that of hats do not differ from the Kamtthe Koriaki : for the Tchukotchian chadalian. comes from the Koriatikian lan 6. That they dye the skins with guage, and differs from it only in alder, after the Camtchatkamanner. dialect: nevertheless, the Koriat
Which marks Thew it to be very skian interpreters can speak with possible, that they came from the them without any sort of difficulty. fame race. This very thing, he With regard to what Mr. Steller rightly judges, may help alto to writes, that not one of the Russian solve that question,
« Whence came
Ofrojka, a small offrog, is a place fenced and fortified with a pallisade, made of trees, fixed perpendicularly in the ground, and cut sharp at the top ; sometimes there are beams laid over each other. Ofrui, in Russ, signifies Marp. 2
as the inhabitants of America ?” loosen as a purse, with the help of For though we should suppose, that thongs of leather, passed through America and Asia were never join- fmall holes, at the edge. An Ameed; nevertheless, considering the rican, sitting in that place, stretches kearness of those two parts of the his legs and gathers round him the world at the north, no one can fay, stomach abovementioned, that wathat it was impracticable for people ter may not fall into the canoe. from Asia to go over to settle in With one oar, some fathoms long, America; especially, as there are they row on both sides alternately, Elands enough, and at so small a dif- with such a progressive force, that tance, which might facilitate not a contrary winds are but a small hin. Ettle such a passage in order to drance to them; and with so much fettle.
fafety, that they are not afraid to go Their armour for war is a bow upon the water, even whilst the sca and arrows. What kind of a bow rises in terrible surges. On the it is, we cannot say, as it did not contrary, they look with some terkappen to our people to see any; ror upon our larger vessels, when but their arrows are much longer they are tofied, and advise those, than the Kamtchadalian, and great
who fail in them, to beware, left ly resemble the Tungufian and their vessels should be cverset. This Tartarian arrows. Those, which happened to the boat Gabriel, came in the way of our people, were which, some years since, was going dyed black, and planed fo smooth, to cape Tchukotski. As to the rest, that they left no room to doubt their canoes are fo light, that they of the Americans having also iron carry them with one hand. tools.
When the Americans fee upon The Americans fail upon the fea their coasts people whom they'da in canoes made of skins, in the not know, they row towards them, fame manner as the Koriaki and and then make a long speech : but the Tchutchi. Their canoes are it is not certain, whether this is by about fourteen feet long, and about way of a spell, or charm, or some two feet high. The fore part of particular ceremony used at the rethem is sharp; and they are fat-ception of strangers; for both the bottorned. Their inward frame one and the other are in use among consists of sticks, which are linked the Kurilians, But before they together at both ends, and in the draw near, they paint their cheeks middle are pressed outwards, in a with black lead, and stuff their nose founding or belly, with cross-sticks, trils with some herb. which keep the sides at a proper dif
When they have guests, they aptance. The fins, which they are pear friendly; they like to conversa covered with, all around, seem to with them, and that in an amicable be those of sea-dogs, dyed of a cher- manner, without taking off their
The place where the eyes from them. They treat them Americans fit is round, about two with great submission, and present arshines (four feet eight inches) them with the fat of whales, and from the poop; there is sewed with black lead, with which they upon it the stomach of some great used to besmear their cheeks, as was sih, which one may gather and before observed; doubtless from a
notion, that such things are as depth of 100 fathoms, or indeed at agreeable to others as they are to a much lesser depth; upon whichi themselves,
account they also breed always near With regard to the navigation the shore. about those parts, it is safe enough It remains to speak of some islands in fpring and in summer ; but in nearest to Kamtchatka, which are autumn it is so dangerous, that not found in a ftrait line with the hardly a day passes, but one has above-mentioned, but north of thems reason to fear being shipwrecked; especially of Berings island, whicha for they (the Russians sent upon
the now is so well known to the inhabifea expedition) experienced such a tants of Kamtchatka, that many of violence of winds and storms, that them go thither to catch sea-beavers, even persons who had served forty and the like sea animals. years at sea assured, with an oath, That island extends from the S. E. that they never saw such in their to the N. W. between 55 and 600 lives..
Its N. E. end, which lies almost di· The marks by which they ob- realy over against the mouth of the serve there that land is near, are par- river Kamtchatka, is at about two de-, ticularly the following considerable grees distance from the eastern shore i. When there appears a
of Kamtchatka; and its S. E. end is great quantity of different kinds of about three degrees from cape Krothe (so called) sea-cabbage, fwim- notíki. This island is 165 verites ing upon the water. 2. When one long, but its breadth is unequal sees the herb of which, at Kamt. From the S. E. end to a rock, which chatka, they platt cloaks, mats, and hangs perpendicularly over the fea, bags, for it grows only on the sea- and is at 14 verstes distance from that Shores. 3. When there begin to end, the breadth of the island is from appear at sea, flights of fea-mews, three to four verstes ; from that steep as well as droves of fea animals, such rock to Suiputchei bay, it is five as sea-dogs, and the like; for tho' verftes; from Suiputchei bay to fea-dogs have a hole open at the heart Beaver's steep rock, it is fix verstes ; which is called foramen ovale, and a at Whale's stream, it is five verftes; duct called ductus arteriosus Botalli, but from thence farther on, it grows that account, may remain gradually broader.
Its greatest long under water, and consequently breadth, viz. 23 verstes, is over go to some distance from the shore, against the north cape, which lies without danger, inasmuch as they 115 verstes from the above-mencan, at a greater depth, find food tioned end. proper for them; nevertheless, it In general, it may be faid, that has been observed, that they seldom the length of that island is so difgo farther than ten German, miles proportioned to its breadth, that our from the shore.
author doubts whether there can be, The furest fign that land is near in other parts of the world, any
if is, when there are feen Kamtchat- lands of such a shape; at least
, he ka beavers, which live only upon never heard or read of
such; crabs ; and, from the make of their and he adds, that the islands
which heart, cannot be under water above they saw about America, and all the two minutes at a time: consequent- rows of them lying to the east, have ly, they cannot get food at the the like proportion.
This island consists of a ridge of therefore one may conveniently go rocks, which is divided by many upon it in boats as far as the lake : vallies, that stretch to the north and and upon the lake there is a safe to the south. Its mountains are so ftation ; for it is surrounded with high, that, in clear weather, one rocky mountains, as with a wall, may see them from about half the and sheltered from all winds. The distance between the island and chief mark, by which one may Kamtchatka. The inhabitants of know this stream from the sea, is an Kamtchatka, of old times, thought island, which is about seven verltes there must be some land over-against in circumference, and lies to the the mouth of the river Kamtchatka, south at seven verstes distance from by reason that the sky appeared the mouth of the stream. The there always cloudy, though it were fhore from thence towards the west, never so clear every where else about is sandy and low for five verftes. the horizon.
Round the shores, there are no The highest mountains of the rocks under water; which one may island do not measure above two know from thence, because there verstes in a perpendicular.
are no breakers. [Here follows a description of this From the highest rocks of that barren rocky island, of which the island, one sees the following lands: following four pages are not to our at the south, two islands, one of present purpose. Then at page which measures about seven verstes 136, the account proceeds thus. ] in circumference, as was observed
The south-west side of the island before ; but the other is over. is of a quite different nature from against the very end of Berings the other, as to access : for, though island, at the south-west: it confifts the shore there is more rocky and of two high and cleft rocks, of about craggy, yet there are two places by three verftes in circumference, and which, in flat-bottomed boats, such is at fourteen verftes distance from as are the Tscherbotui *, one may Berings island. not only land on the shore, but even From the north-east end of Beradvance as far as a lake, by the ings island, in clear weather, one streams that flow from it. The first may fee to the north-east, very high of these places is at 50 verstes, and mountains covered with snow, and the other at 115, from the south- their distance may be computed at caft end of the island.
100 or 140 verftes. Those moun. This last place is very remarkable tains our author thought, with betfrom the fea; for the land there ter grounds, to be a cape of the goes rounding from the north to the continent of America, than an island : weft; and, at the very promontory 1. Because thofe mountains, allow. there runs a stream, which is the ing for their distance, were higher largest of any in that island; and, than the mountains on the neighwhen the water is high, its depth is bouring islands. 2. Because that, not less than seven feet. It runs at a like distance towards the east, from a great lake, which lies a one observes plainly, from the island, verst and a half from its mouth; such like white mountains, from the and because that stream grows deep- height and extent of which all judg. er, the farther it is from the sea, ed that it was the continent.
From * Large canoes, or boats, somewhat resembling ferry-boats,