« 前へ次へ »
From the south-east end of Berings in the middle of May, occasioned ifand, they saw to the south-east also, by great rains, and by the sudanother island, but not very clearly: den thawing of the snows. Neverit seemed to lie between Berings theless, those floods were moderate, island and some low part of the con- in comparison with those of which tinent.
there still remained undoubted From the west and south-west marks : for there have been carried fides, it was observed, that even in many trees, and whole ikeletons of clear weather, there is a perpetual sea animals, to the height of thirty fog higher up than the mouth of fathoms or more, above the surface the river Kamtchatka; and from of the sea (above the common was thence, in some measure, they came ter mark, or level]: from which our to know the inconsiderable distance author judges, that in the year of the land of Kamtchatka from Bern 1737, there happened likewise in
this island such an inundation as that North of the fo often mentioned at Kamtchatka, Berings island, there is another Earthquakes happen here several island, in length from 80 to 100 times in the year. The most vioverstes, which lies parallel to it, lent that was observed, was in the i. e. from the south-east to the beginning of February, which, dunorth-west. The freights between ring a westerly wind, lasted exaclly these two islands, at the north-west, fix minutes ; and before it was measure 20 verftes, and at the south- heard a noise, and a strong wind, east about 40. The mountains up- under ground, with a hissing, which on it are lower than the ridge of went from south to north. mountains in Berings island. At Among mineral things, which are both ends of it, there are, in the sea, found in that island, one may reckon many rocks at low water mark, and as the most remarkable, the fine waperpendicular rocks like pillars. ters, which, upon account of their
With regard to the weather, it pareness and lightness, are very differs from that at Kamichatka on wholesome: and this virtue of them ly in this, that it is more severe and was observed upon fick people, Tharp: for the island has no shelter with advantage and the desired safrom any quarter; and, besides that, tisfaction. With regard to the it is narrow, and without woods. plentifulness of them, there is not a
Moreover, the force of the winds valley but what has a streain running increases to such a degree, in those through it ; and the number of deep and narrow valleys, that one them all together exceeds fixty ; can scarce stand upon one's legs. among which there are some, which In February and April months, are from 8 to 12 fathoms broad; were observed the sharpest winds, and some are two, and some even which blew from the south-east and five fathoms deep, when the water from the north-west. In the for: is high; but there are few such, mer case, the weather was clear, but and the greater part of them is extolerable; but in the latter case, it tremely thallow at the mouth; bewas clear indeed, but extremely cold. cause that they have a very rapid
The highest rising of the water course, on account of the steep slopes happened in the beginning of Fe- of the vallies, and that near the sea bruary month, during north-west they divide into many rivulets. winds: the other inundation was
of some hermit; or, perhaps, places defcription of Kamtchatka by Pron of security for the monks
fesjor Krajhennicoff' printed at tire to in time of danger. Near Peterfourg, in two volumes, 40 Penrith, a little below the con in 1759; and translated by Dr. fluence of the Eimot and Eden, is Dumarejque, chaplain to the English also a large grotto dug out of the factory at Petersburg. rock, said to have been once a place of some strength, known by the Read before the Royal Society, Jan. name of Ils Parlith, And at Little
24, 1760. Salkeld, not very far from thence, may be seen that great curiosity HE continent of America, called Long Meg and her daughters, which now is known from not perhaps well accounted for by $2
to 60° of north latitude, extends any of our antiquarians.
from the south-west to the northWhen speaking of prospects, I east, every where almost at an equal ought to have mentioned that vaitly distance from the Kamtchadalian extensive and much admired one
fhores, viz. about 37° longitude ; for from Warnal, which takes in all the
the Kamtchadalian shore, also, from low country, and bounded on the
the Kurilian Lopatka (the shovel] north by Solway Frith, and a fine
to cape Tchukotski, in a strait line chain of Scottith mountains. Not (except where there are bays and far from hence, near Denton's,
capes) lies in the very fame direcesquire, is a petrifying spring. Theretion.' So that one has ground to inis also another in the estate of fir fer, that those two lands were once William Dalston, at Uldale, out of which have been taken several large
joined, especially in those parts,
were lies cape Tchukotski : for, be-, and extremely curious petrifactions tween that and the coast that proof moss, leaves, roots, &c. but it je&ts, which is found at the east, didoes not appear that this mutation
rectly over against it, the distance would be produced in any substance does not exceed two degrees and a put therein, but in a rotation of a half. prodigious number of years. In Steller, in his Memoirs, brings fome parts of the country are some four arguments to prove this : mineral waters, much resorted to at
!. The state of the shores, which, the season, and several rich mines of both at Kamptchatka and in Amerilead, fome
ca, are cragged. Upon the whole, from what I have
2. The many capes, which adsaid, it may appear that Cumberland
vance into the fea, from 30 to 60 is as well worth visiting, on several verstes. accounts, as most other counties in
isands in the sea, England.
which separate Kamtchatka from America.
4. The situation of those islands, An account of that part of America, and the inconsiderable breadth of
which is the nearest to the land of that fea. Kamtchatka. Extracted from the The sea, which divides Kamtchat
Ita from America, is full of islands, they are decked with thick and very which lying over against the south- fine trees. At the foot of them west end of America, extend to- grow herbs proper to dry places, wards the streights of Anian, in such and not to marshy ones ; besides an uninterrupted series as the Kuri- that, for the most part, those plants lian islands do towards Japan. That are of the same largeness and appearrow of isands is found between 51 ance, both on the lower grounds and 54° of latitude, and lies direct- and on the very tops of the mounly east; and it begins not farther tains ; by reason that there is every than 5 degrees from the Kamtcha- where the same inward heat and dalian shore.
moisture. But in Asia, there is so Steller thinks, that Company's- great a difference between them, land is to be found between the Ku- that of one kind of plants growing rilian and American islands (which there, one would be apt to make many doubt of), if one setting out several kinds, if one did not observe from the south-west extremity of a rule, which holds generally with America advance fouth-west : 'for, regard to those places, viz. that in in his opinion, Company's-land most lower grounds herbs grow twice as be the base of a triangle, which it large as on the mountains. forms, with the Kurilian and the In America, even the sea-shores, American islands. This seems not at 60° latitude, are woody; but in to be destitute of foundation, if Com- Kamtchatka, at 51° latitude, no pany’s-land be rightly laid down on place set with small willows and
alder-trees, is found nearer than 20 The American land is in a much verstes from the sea: plantations or better ftate, with regard to climate, woods of birch-trees are, for the than the farthermoft eastern part of most part, at the distance of 30 Asia, though it lies near the sea, and verites, and, with regard to pitchhas every where high mountains, trees, on the river Kamtchatka, they some of which are covered with per are at the distance of 50 verstes, or petual snows; for that country, more, from its mouth. At 62°, when its qualities are compared there is no wood at Kamtchatka. with those of Asia, has by far the In Steller's opinion, from the advantage. The mountains of that aforementioned latitude of America, part of Asia are every where ruin- the land extends as far as 70', and ous and cleft; from whence they farther ; and the chief cause of the have, long since, loft their confift- abovesaid growth of woods in that ency, they have lost their inward country, is the cover and shelter it warmth; upon which account, they has from the west. On the other have no good metal of any kind; hand, the want of wood on the no wood nor herbs grow there, ex- Kamtchadalian fhores, especially on cept in the valleys, where is seen the shore of the Penthinian fea, small brush-wood and stiff herbs. doubtless, comes from a sharp north On the contrary, the mountains of wind, to which it is much exposed. America are firm, and covered on That those parts which lie from the the surface, not with moss, but with Lopatka, farther to the north, are fruitful earth or mold; and there- more woody and fruitful, is owing fore, from the foot to the very top, to .cape Tchukotski, and the land
that tas been offered over again. The hair of the bead is black, and it, by which thufe parts are heltered forait, and they wear it loose. Their fron tbe (r.2.D vidis.
face is broun, and flat as a plate; For this rezion alfo fth come up their note is fiat, but not very broad; the rivers of America earlier, than their eves are as back as jet; their mnie of Kamtchaik2. The 20th lips thick; their beard imall; and ef Jely, there has been observed a their neck stort. great flery of fih in those rivers; They wear firts with leeres Sluit at Kamtchatka, it is then which reach lower than the knee; but the beginning of an abundant and they tie them oy, with thongs finery.
of leather, below the belly. Their Of berries they saw there an un breecries and boots, shich are made known kid ot' ia berries, which of the kins of kals, and dyed with bore berries of an extraordinary big- alder, much resemble the Kamtchasels and tifte. As to the reft, there calian. They carry at their girdles, grow in that country black-bernes, iron knives with handles, like those with several other kinds of berries, of the Rusian boors. Their hats called in Ruis, jimclef, golubit/a, are plaited of herbs, as with the brufrit fa, and fitzkina, in as great Kamtchadalians, without a rifing plenty as at Kamtchatka.
top, in the shape of an umbreila; There are creatures enough, good they are dyed in green and in for the support of the inhabitants of black, with falcon's feathers in the those parts; particularly feals, sea- fore part, or with some herb, combdogs,' ka-beavers, whaies *, canis ed, as if it were a plume of feathers, Carcharias, marmottes marmotta such as the Americans use about minor) and red and black foxes, Brasil. They live upon fish, sea wbich are not so wild as in other animals, and the sweet herb, which places, possibly because they are not they prepare after the Kamtchatka much hunted.
Befides this, it has been Of known birds, they saw there observed, that they have also the magpies, ravens, sea-mews, sea- bark of poplar, or of the pine-tree, ravens, Twans, wild ducks, jackdaws, dried, which, in case of necessity, is woodcocks, · Greenland pigeons, made use of as food, not only at and mitchagatki, otherwise call- Kamtchatka, but likewise throughed northern ducks. But, of un out all Siberia, and even in Ruflia known birds, they observed more itself, as far as Viatka : also feathan ten forts, which it was not dif. weeds made up into bundles, which ficult to distinguish from European in look and in strength, are like birds, by the liveliness of their co- thongs of raw leather. They are lours.
unacquainted with spirituous liWith regard to the inhabitants of quors, and tobacco; a fure proof, those parts, they are such a wild peo- that, hitherto, they have had no ple, as the Koriaki and Tchutchi. communication with the Europeans. As to their persons, they are well They reckon it an extraordinary set, broad and strong shouldered. ornament, to bore, in several places,
* In Russ, akul, or mokoia ; in bigness it is inferior to the whale; and it is like it in this, that it cafts no ipawn, but brings 1orth young; upon which account, come reckon it a Species of whale,
the lower parts of the cheeks, near interpreters could understand the the mouth; and in the holes they American language, possibly that set fome stones and bones. Some comes from the great difference in wear, at their nostrils, slate pencils, the dialect, or from a difference of about four inches long; some wear pronunciation; which is observed, a bone of that bignets, under the not only among the wild inhabitlower lip; and others a like bone on ants of Kamtchatka, but also among the forehead.
the European nations, in different The nation, that lives in the provinces. In Kamtchatka, there islands round about cape Tchukot- is hardly any small * ostrog, whose fki, and frequents the Tchutchi, is, fpeech differs not somewhat] from certainly, of the fame origin with that of another that lies nearest. As those people : for with them also it for those small otrogs, which are at is thought an ornament, thus to in- fome hundreds of verstes from one lay bones.
another, they cannot even underMajor Paulutskoi, deceased, after stand each other, without trouble. a battle which he once fought a The following remarkable regainst the Tchutchi, found, among semblances between the American the dead bodies of the Tchutchi, and Kamtchadalian nations, have two men of that nation, each of been observed : whom had two teeth of a sea-horse 1. That the Americans resemble under the nose, set in holes made on the Kamtchadales in the face. purpose : for which reason, the in 2. That they, eat the sweet herb, habitants of that country call them after the fame manner as the KamtZubatui (toothed). As the pri- chadales ; a thing which was never foners reported, these mendid observed any where else. not come to the affistance of the 3. That they make use of a woodTchutchi, but to see how they used en machine to light fire with. to fight with the Russians.
4. That, from many tokens, it is From this, it may be inferred, conjectured, that they use axes made that the Tchutchi converse with of stones, or of bones; and it is them, either in the same language, not without foundation, Mr. Steller or, at least, in languages of fo great thinks, that the Americans had once affinity, that they can understand a communication with the people of one another withoat an interpreter, Kamtchatka. consequently, their language has no 5. That their cloaths and their small resemblance with that of hats do not differ from the Kamtthe Koriaki : for the Tchukotchian chadalian. comes from the Koriatikian lan 6. That they dye the skins with guage, and differs from it only in alder, after the Camtchatkamanner. dialect: nevertheless, the Koriat Which marks thew it to be very skian interpreters can speak with poslible, that they came from the them without any sort of difficulty. fame race. This very thing, he With regard to what Mr. Steller rightly judges, may help alto to writes, that not one of the Russian solve that question,
os Whence came
* Ostrojka, a small offrog, is a place fenced and fortified with a pallisade, made of trees, fixed perpendicularly in the ground, and cut sharp at the top ; sometimes there are bcams Jaid over each other. Ofrui, in Russ, signifies Marp. 2