concerning the increase of coaches land extraordinary, laid out for among us.

Our present number of meadows, are more than enough to hackney-coaches, which ply in the answer the increase of horses in Lonftreets, 'is eight hundred, besides a don; and the greatness of the quangreat many stages, that do not run tity of hay makes the price more twenty miles off. We are told how regular and uniform, unless a season these matters stood an hundred years of extraordinary barrenness should ago by Mr. Rushworth, a writer of happen. great reputation, and much gravity.

He says the king and council published a proclamation against them, Of the origin of Cards. Translated which he prints in his collections,

from the French alledging that they raised the price of provender against the king, nobi BOUT the year 1390, cards lity, and gentry; and then he pro were invented to divert Charles ceeds to inform us, that they were the fixth, then king of France, who about twenty in number, and did was fallen into a melancholy disponot ply in the streets, but kept at fition. their inns till they were fent for, That they were not in use before, which bespeaks a vast alteration appears highly probable. ift, Because for we are credibly informed, that no cards are to be feen in any painteven in the city of Dublin (which is ing, sculpture, tapestry, &c. more not more than a third part of what ancient than the preceding period, London was an hundred years ago) but are represented in many works there are

two hundred licensed of ingenuity, fince that age. 2dly, hackney-coaches.

No prohibitions relative to cards, Since I am upon this subject, it by the king's edicts, are mentioned, may be necessary to observe, that although some few years before, a under proper regulations, they are most severe one was published, forof excellent use in a great rich city. bidding, by name, all manner of They aslift the dispatch of business, sports and pastimes, in order that are beneficial to the health of those the fubjects might exercise themwho use them, and contribute not a felves in Thooting with bows and little to keep up that breed of strong arrows, and be in a condition to horses fit for service, with which oppofe the English. Now it is this land is stored, and is able, in not to be presumed, that fo luring a time of war, to furnish her own game as cards would have been armies, or in time of peace, to fell to omitted in the enumeration, had they other nations.

been in ufe. It is observable (upon Mr. Rufh 3dly, In all the ecclefiaftical caworth's story above-mentioned) that nons, prior to the said time, there human foresight is very short; for occurs no mention of cards; altho it is highly probable that provender twenty years after that date, cardwas dearer here an hundred years playing was interdicted the clergy, ago, in proportion to the scarcity of by a Gallican fynod. About the money, than it is at this day : we same time is found in the acare sure the fact is fo with respect to count-book of the king's Cofferer, corn; for a large market is always the following charge : * Paid for a fupplied. Ten thousand acres of


pack of painted leaves bought for fants. How this fuit came to be the king's amusement, three livres.” called Clubs I cannot explain, unPrinting and stamping being then lefs, borrowing the game from the not discovered, the cards were Spaniards, who have baftos (ftaves or painted, which made them so dear. clubs) instead of the trefoil, we gave Thence in the above fynodical ca- the Spanish signification to the French nons, they are called pagella picia, figure. painted little leaves.

The history of the four kings, 4thly, About 30 years after this, which the French in drollery fomecame a severe edict against cards in times call the cards, is David, AlexFrance ; and another by Emanuel, ander, Cæsar, and Charles (which duke of Savoy ; only permitting the naines were then, and still are, on ladies this pattime, pre /pinulis, for the French cards.) These respect. pins and needles.

able names represent the four cele

brated monarchies of the Jews, Of the design of Cards. Greeks, Romans, and Franks under

Charlemaigne. The inventor proposed by the By the queens are intended Arfigures of the four suits, or colours, gine, Ether, Judith, and Pallas as the French call them, to represent (names retained on the French cards) the four states, or claffes of men in typical of birth, piety, fortitude and the kingdom.

wisdom, the qualifications residing By the Cours (Hearts) are meant, in each person. Argine is an anathe Gens de Chaur, choir men, or ec- gram for Regina, queen by descent. clesiastics ; and therefore the Spa By the knaves were designed the niards, who certainly received the servants to knights; (for knave, use of cards from the French, have originally, meant only fervant; and copas or chalices, instead of hearts. in an old translation of the bible,

The nobility or prime military St. Paul is called the knave of part of the kingdom, are represented Christ) bat French pages and valets, by the ends or points of lances or now indiscriminately used by various pikes, and our ignorance of the orders of persons, were formerly meaning or resemblance of the figure only allowed to persons of quality, induced us to call them spades. esquires (Escuers) field or armour The Spaniards have espadas (swords) bearers. in lieu of pikes, which is of similar Others fancy that the knights import.

themselves were designed by those By diamonds, are designed the cards, because Hogier and Lahire, order of citizens, merchants, and two names on the French cards, tradesmen, carreaux (square ftones, were famous knights at the time tiles, or the like). The Spa- cards were supposed to be invented. : niards have a coin, dineros, which answers to it; and the Dutch call the French word carreaux, fie. An account of the celebration of the neen, stones, and diamonds from

May-Games, and the reasons of their the form.

Suppreffion. Trefle, the trefoil leaf, or clover, grass, corruptly called clubs) al T was usual, on the ist of May, judes to the husbandmen and pea for all the citizens, who were



along, they saw a company of 200 them to preserve the peace. Upon

able, to divert themselves in the and, in a very inflaming fermon, he woods and meadows with May- incited the people to oppose all gaines, diversions not confined to strangers; this occafioned frequent the lower class, but equally the en- quarrels in the streets, for which tertainment of persons of the high- fome Englishmen were committed to est rank; a remarkable instance of prison. which is inserted in Hall's Chroni. Suddenly å rumour arose, that on cle, under the year 1515, when that May-day all the foreigners would author observes, that king Henry be affaffinated, and several strangers VIII. and queen Catharine, ac fed; this coming to the knowledge companied by many lords and la- of the king's council, cardinal dies, rode a maying from Green- Wolsey fent for the lord mayor and wich to the high ground of Shoot- several of the city council, told them er's-hill, where, as they passed what he had heard, and exhorted

tall yeomen, all cłoathed' in green, this affair a court of common counwith green

hoods and bows and ar cil was assembled at Guildhall, on rows. One, who was their chief. the evening before May-day, in tain, was called Robin Hood, and which it was resolved to order every desired the king and all his com man to shut up his doors, and keep pany to stay and see his men shoot; his servants at home ; and this ad to which the king agreeing, he vice being immediately communi whistled, and all the two hundred cated to the cardinal, met with his discharged their arrows at once, approbation. which they repeated on his whistling Upon this every alderman sent to again.

Their arrows had something inform his ward, that no man should placed in the heads of them that ftir out of his house after nine o made them whistle as they flew, and clock, but keep his doors fhut, and all together, made a loud and very his fervants within till nine in the uncommon noise, at which the king morning. This order had not been and queen were greatly delighted. long given, when one of the alderThe gentleman who assumed the men, returning from his ward, ob. character of Robin Hood then de- served two young men at play in fired the king and queen, with their Cheapfide, and many others look: retinue, to enter the green wood, ing at them. He would have sent where, in arbours made with boughs them to the Compter, but they intermixed with flowers, they were

foon rescued, and the


raised plentifully served with venison and of « 'Prentices! 'Prentices ! Clubs ! wine, by Robin Hood' and his Clubs !” Instantly the people arose ; men.

by eleven o'clock they amounted to About two years after an event fix or seven hundred; and, the croud happened, which occasioned the still increasing, they rescued from epithet of Evil to be added to this Newgate and the Compter the priday of rejoicing. The citizens be- foners committed for abusing the ing extremely exasperated at the en- foreigners; while the mayor and couragement given to foreigners, a heriffs, who were present, made priest, named Bell, was persuaded to proclamation in the king's name ; preach against them at the Spital;



but, inftead of obeying it, they broke time at the privy chamber-door, his open the houses of many French- majeily, with several of the nobility, men and other foreigners, and con- came forth ; upon which, all of tinued plündering them ull three in them falling upon their knees, the the morning, when, beginning to recorder, in the name of the reft, in disperse, the mayor and his attend the most humble and submitive ants took zoo of them, and com terms, begged that he would have mitted them to the several prisons. mercy on them for their negligence, While this riot lasted, the lieutenant and compastion on the offenders, of the Tower discharged several whom he repreiented as a small numpieces of ordnance againit the city, ber of light persons. His majefty let but without doing much mischief; them know that he was reaily difand about five in the morning feve pleased, and that they ought to wail ral of the nobility marched thither, and be forry for it: for, as they had with all the forces they could af not attempted to fight with those semble.

whom they pretended were so small On the 4th of May the lord mayor, a number of light persons, they must the duke of Norfolk, the earl of have winked at the matter; be there. Surry, and others, sat upon the trial fore ordered them to repair to the of the offenders at Guildhall, the lord chancellor, who would give duke of Norfolk entering the city them an answer. Upon which they with 1300 men. That day several retired, deeply mortified. were indicted, and on the next 13 Being informed that the king was were sentenced to be hanged, drawn, to be at Westminster-hall on the zad and quartered; for the execution of May, they resolved to repair thiof whom ten gallowses were set up ther, which they did with the conin several parts of the city, upon fent of cardinal Wolsey, lord highwheels, to be removed from street to chancellor. The king fat at the street, and from door to door. upper end of Westminster-hall, un

On the 7th of May several others der a cloth of state, with the cardiwere found guilty, and received the nal and several of the nobility; fame sentence as the former, and and the lord mayor, aldermen, refoon after were drawn upon hurdles corder, and several of the common to the standard in Cheapfide; but, council attended; the prisoners, when one was executed, and the relt who then amounted to about 400, about to be turned off, a refpite were brought in their shirts, bound came, and they were remanded back together with cords, and with halters to prison.

about their necks, and among these After this, the foldiers who had were eleven women. The cardinal kept watch in the city were with having sharply rebuked the mayor , drawn, which making the citizens aldermen, and commonalty for their flatter themselves that the king's negligence, told the prisoners, that, displeasure against them was not fo for their offences against the laws great as they had imagined, the lord of the realm and against his majesty's mayor, recorder, and several alder crown and dignity, they had deserved men, went in mourning gowns to death; upon which they all set up wait upon the king at Greenwich, a piteous cry, of “ Mercy, gracious when, having attended for some " lord, mercy!" which fo moved

the king, that, at the earnest intreaty ventions which took place after he of the lords, he pronounced them ceased to be as God had created pardoned ; upon which, giving a him, upright. great shout, they threw up their Some bounds however have been halters towards the top of the hall, put to the licentiousness of fancy in crying, “ God save the king !" forming and changing the dress, After this affair,the May games were by various prohibitions and ordonnot so commonly used as before. nances after men had been formed

into civil society : by some it was

intended to keep up a visible diHiftorical remarks on dress. Prefixed Atinction between the different claf

to a colle&tion of the dresses of dif- fes of people, as noble or mean, ferent nations, ancient and modern. ecclefiaftical or lay, magistrate or

private persons; the design of others

was to distinguish the two , ed merely as a covering for and some to prohibit many exthe body, is too generally known to pensive superfluities, which were at need a dissertation: but that cover once productive of poverty, deing which was produced jointly by pendance; and effeminacy; some of weakness and guilt, to defend the these regulations still subfift, and the wearer from the inclemency of the sexes have by a kind of common weather, and to conceal those parts consent been distinguished at all which the loss of innocence had times, and in all civilized countries, made shameful, is but a very incon- by some difference in their dress. fiderable part of what has been long At present indeed the Europeans included under the name of dress. are so much at liberty to follow To trace the modern dress back to their own fancy in the figure and the fimplicity of the firft skins and materials of their dress, that the leaves and feathers that were worn habit is become a kind of index to by mankind in the primitive ages, the mind, and the character is in if it were possible, would be almost some particulars as easily discovered endless; the fashion has been often by a man's dress as by his converchanged, while the materials re- fation. Of the dresses of Europe mained the fame; the materials in general it may be observed that have been different as they were they are now gothic ; that of the gradually produced by fucceflive men is military, for the garments arts that converted a raw hide into are all short, and the dress is con. leather, the wool of the sheep in- fidered as incomplete without a to cloth, the web of the worm into weapon. So that even the physifilk, and flax and cotton into linen cian, who spends the day in going of various kinds. One garment from the chamber of one fick

perhas also been added to another, and fon to another, is not completely ornaments have been multiplied up- dressed without a sword. The old on ornaments with a variety almost Civic habits were long, and are still infinite, produced by the caprices used on particular occasions. The of human vanity, or the new ne. merchant and trader when he apcessities to which man rendered pears as a citizen wears a gown and himself subject by those many in- hood, and there are long garments Vol. IV,



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