peculiar to the professors of phryfick fon the figure of a naked Venus and law, to the great officers of state, produces leís effect than that of a and the peers of every denomination: dressed figure with the petticoat but all these characters, except upon raised so as to discover the garter. It public occafions, wear the short coat follows therefore, that if the dresses and sword, which is the military dress, most immodestly, who dresses so as that the inroads of the Goths, whose most to excite licentious desires, she trade was war, made general. does not dress most immodestly who

As to the dresses of the women, uncovers most of her person, but they have never been military, and she who covers it so that it may be therefore have never been fort ; accidentally seen. And upon this but besides the alterations that con- principle it was that the Grecian venience and caprice have intro- legislator, when he observed that duced in the female habit, there many of the youth lived unmarried, are several which have had a more directed the women to wear long latent and less innocent cause. The garments which covered the whole dress of women has been long con- person from the shoulders to the fidered as a decoration of beauty, feet, instead of discovering all the and an incitement to desire; and in breast and half the leg; and orderthis view it has been the object of ed that the robe fould be cut in much thought, ingenuity, and so- flashes from the hip to the knee, so licitude; but it does not appear that when they food or fat still, the that those who intended to multiply two sides of the opening should fall or secure their conquests by dress, together, but should by dividing, always knew how beit to exert that when they walked or used any other power which the choice of their motion, cafually discover the parts dress put into their hands. When which at other times were concealthe Britih lady thinks fit to dress ed. so as to discover the whole breast, Many changes of female dress, the British gentleman soon looks that may be traced in this col. upon it with as much indifference, lection, will be found to proceed as the naked Indians look upon all from unskilful attempts to allure, the rest ; but if the covers it with a by discovering more and more of handkerchief, and contrives this the person, and from the disappointcovering to that it Mall accidentally ment which succeeded the experidiscover what it appears intended ment, and at last induced a sudden to hide, the glimpse that is thus transition to a close dress, by which casually given, immediately and the whole person was covered. forcibly seizes the imagination, and to the changes of habit, which every motion is watched in hopes were the effects of mere caprice that it will be repeated ; so if by and wantonness of fancy, it is imany accident a lady discover half possible to trace them in other her leg, the fancy is inftantly alarm- countries, and difficult in our own: ed, though when the actress appears the following particulars, however, in breeches and discovers the whole, may serve to gratify the curious, the is the object of indifference, and excite them to a more critical if not of disgutt: for the same rea- examination.


Party-coloured coats were first first worn in 1633. Breeches were worn in England in the time of introduced inftead of trunk hose in Henry I. chaplets or wreaths of ar.' 1654, and perukes were first worn tificial flowers in the time of Ed. soon after the restoration. ward III. hoods and thort coats As to the stage dresses, it is only without sleeves, called taberts, in necessary to remark, that they are the time of Henry IV. hats in the at once elegant and characteristic : the time of Henry VII. ruffs in the and among many other regulations reign of Edward VI. and it is said of more importance, for which the that they were first invented by a public is obliged to the genius and Spanish or Italian lady of quality to the judgment of the prefent manahide a wen. which grew on her ger of our principal theatre, is neck. Wrought caps or bonnets that of the dresses, which are no were first used here in the time of longer the heterogeneous and absurd queen Elizabeth. Judge Finch, in mixtures of foreign and ancient the time of James I. introduced the modes, which formerly debased our band. French hoods, bibs, and gor- tragedies, by representing a Roman gets, were laid aside by the queen general in a full bottomed peruke, of Charles I. and the commode or and the sovereign of an Eastern tower was introduced in 1687. empire in trunk hose. Shoes of the present fashion were

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Literary and Miscellaneous Efsays.

An Ejay on Augury. and even of Jupiter himself. How[From Stillingfleet's calendar of Flora.] ever absurd such an institution as a

college of Augurs may appear in W

E know from Hefiod, says our eyes, yet, like all other extra

Mr. Stillingfleet, that hus- vagant inititutions, it had in part bandry was in part regulated by the its origin from nature. When men blowing of plants, and the coming considered the wonderful migration or going of birds; and most pro- of birds, how they disappeared at bably it had been in use long before once, and appeared again at stated his time, as astronomy was then in times, and could give no guess its infancy; but when artificial ca- where they went, it was almost na. lendars came into vogue, the na tural to suppose, that they retired tural calendar seems to have been somewhere out of the sphere of this totally neglected; for I find no earth, and perhaps approached the traces of it after his time, whether ætherial regions, where they might for good and fufficient reasons I pre- converse with the gods, and thence tend not to determine.

be enabled to predict events. This, I fhall make no further mention I say, was almoft natural for a fuat present of the use of plants in di- perftitious people to imagine, at recting the husbandman, but take least to believe, as soon as lome imthis opportunity of making a di- postor was impudent enough to af"gression about birds, in relation to fert it. Add to this, that the dis

their prognostic nature. Hence- position in some birds to imitate forward then, i. e. from the time the human voice must contribute of Hesiod, they seem to have been much to the confirmation of such a looked upon as no longer capable doctrine. This inftitution of Auof directing the husbandman in his gury seems to have been much more tural affairs, but they did not, how- ancient than that of Aruspicy: for ever, lose their influence and dig- we find many instances of the for

nity; nay, on the contrary, they mer in Homer, but not a fingle one "? seem to have gained daily a more of the latter that I know of; though

than ordinary, and even wonderful frequent mention is made of facriauthority, till at last no affair of fices in that author. From the consequence, either of private or whole of what I have observed, I public concern, was undertaken should be apt to think, that natural without consulting them. They Augury gave rise to religious Auwere looked upon as the interpre- gury, and this to Aruspicy, as the ters of the gods, and those who mind of man makes a very easy were qualified to understand their transition from a little truth to a oracles were held among the chief great deal of error. men in the Greek and Roman states, A passage in Aristophanes gave and became the assessors of kings, me the hint for what I have been


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to Theer his sheep. After that the. L'INNÆUS, whose fame has

saying. In the Comedy of the with a cosmogony, and says, that Birds, he makes one of them say in the beginning were Chaos and thus : “ The greatest blessings Night, and Erebus and Tartarus. which can happen to you mortals That there was neither water, nor are derived from us; first, we shew air, nor sky; that Night laid an you the seasons, viz. Spring, Win- egg, from whence, after a time, ter, Autumn. The crane points Love arose. That Love, in conjuncout the time for fowing, when he tion with Erebus, produced a third flies with her warning notes into kind, and that they were the first Ægypt; she bids the failor hang of the immortal race, &c. up his rudder and take his rest, and every prudent man provide himself with winter garments, Next

Linnæus's Dream. the kite appearing, proclaims another season, viz. when it is time

spread throughout all Europe, swallow informs you when it is had spent many days in examining time to put on summer cloaths. and clasing those wonderful plants We are to you, adds the chorus, which he had collected from the Ammon, Dodona, Apollo; for af- craggy mountains of Norway. He ter consulting us you undertake admired their beauty and structure, every thing; merchandize, pur- but knew not their use; nor was chases, marriages, &c.” Now, it he able accurately to determine seems not improbable, that the what place they held in the vegesame transition was made in the table creation. He saw much was speculations of men, which appears to be known, and lamented his igin the poet's words, and that they norance;

whilft the world was were easily induced to think, that admiring him as a prodigy and fathe surprising forefight of birds, as ther of science ; nor could he to the time of migration, indicated forbear bitterly bewailing the shortsomething of a divine nature in ness of life, which puts a stop to them; which opinion Virgil, as an philosophical enquiries, and renEpicurean, thinks fit to enter his ders it almost impossible to attain protest againft; when he says, even the smallest degree of perfec

tion, in any one branch of knowHaud equidem credo quia fit di- ledge. " Alas (said he) why is vinitus illis

man's existence circumscribed with Ingenium.

in such narrow bounds; and why,

surrounded as he is with the gloBut to return to · Aristophanes. rious works of God, is he permitThe first part of the chorus, from ted to know so little of them Scarce whence the afore-cited passage is are we born into the world, scarce taken, seems with all its wildness to do we acquire skill to perceive what contain the fabulous cant, which is moft worthy our notice, before the augurs made use of in order to we are snatched away, and hurried account for their impudent impo- to the grave, leaving our under{itions on mankind." It sets out takings unfinished, and in the hande

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of those who either have not kill to pleasing scenes. In the mean time, carry them on, or chuse fome other the sun setting in full glory beneath pursuits.

the waves, caused the horizon to exHis thoughts distressed him, but hibit the brightest colours of the fill he retained that humble ac- rainbow, and these gradually fad. quiescence to the will of the fu- ing, the starry concave of heaven preme being, which is ever insepa. began to be enlightened by the ris. rable from a truly philosophical ing moon. But soon the scene was mind : he knew that whatever changed, the whole sky became veil. the Author of nature appointed ed with thick clouds, and a distant was certainly right and good. roaring proclaimed the approach of Hembled therefore, but not dif a dreadful storm. Already the rain contented or repining, he retired descended in valt torrents, the heato rest, and in the visions of the vens blazed with lightning, and night was initructed:

the rocks resounded with loud claps He fancied himself busied in of thunder. Searching for some extraordinary Linnæus, filled with terror, was plants which he had long desired to seeking where to shelter himself, be possessed of, and that he had when a voice from a cave (whence wandered insensibly to one of the there suddenly issued a gleam of most delightful spots in all Norway. light) bade him approach, and conIt was the brow of an high moun- 'sider what he saw. With trembling tain : the vast ocean was before he obeyed, and entered a spacious him, on which appeared with swell- cavern, adorned on all fides with ing fails, a large fleet, passing to pointed crystals, which had been convey the products of the north to formed by water diftilling from the more pleasing regions of the the rock, and which reflecting the fouth;

and on the other part, light that proceeded from a golden through a vale bounded on each lamp hanging in the midft, made side by craggy rocks, was seen the it as bright as day. Here he found adjacent country, which the warm a venerable old man, in a loose season, juit begun, had clad in all robe of purple ornamented with its verdure. Beyond a river that ermine, who had before him a large bent its course through rich pastures concaye mirrour, and in his hand filled with cattle, appeared to the a golden rod : he seemed calm right a large and populous town, and serene, and approached Linover which the rising ground exhi næus with a smile of complacency bited to the view, corn-fields, and that dissipated all his, feats. “ Beall the variety of a well-watered hold (said he) thy sincerest friend, country: -- and to the left a thick who has defired thy happiness, and wood, through a large opening long fought to discover himself to whereof (formed by nature) was thee. I would gladly always abide seen the ruins of an ancient castle, with thee, but the state of things in heretofore the seat of gothic valour, this world forbids it; and I can Linnæus's attention to his pursuit only use favourable opportunities was for a while suspended ; and he of conversing with thee : at fuch ftopt to survey alternately these times I would make thee partaker


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