body a little raised, and supported of gold and silver, ftill more vaby cushions, and the lower part luable for the fineness of the work stretched at length upon the bed than for the materials themselves. behind the back of the next in On that of Crassus were seen vessels order. They leaned upon the left of silver which cost him for the elbow, and made use of the right fashion at the rate of fix thousand hand. He who was second, had sesterees the pound weight. Amongst his head opposite to the breast of the them were two goblets particularly first

. If he wanted to speak to him, remarkable, the work of Mentor, especially if the thing was to be a celebrated artist, for which he secret, he was obliged to lean upon had paid one hundred thousand his bosom; and in conversation, he felterces *. who spake sat almost upright, with When they went to sup with his back supported by cushions. any one, a Nave bore the napkin,

A piece of cloth was hung and took care to carry it back, but above the table, to prevent the not empty; they put into it some guests from being incommoded with pieces of the entertainment. It was dust, or other filth.

not even unusual, in the middle of Before they placed themselves the meal, to send something to a at table, they took off their shoes, wife, a relation, a neighbour, or a and left them at the bed-feet, that friend. the rich ftuffs they were covered They always began by libations, with might not be spoiled with duft which consisted in pouring out a and mire. Thus, they took their · little wine upon the table in honour places bare-footed, or with a kind of the gods, and were accompanied of flippers, and resumed their shoes with some prayers. when they rose from table. Plautus They placed little images upon fays, in one of his comedies, the table t, befides which they put " Good, I find myself better, take the falt; by that they thought to “ off my shoes, give me some consecrate the table. They looked " drink. And, some time after, upon salt as a sacred thing.

If it " Quick, give me my shoes, and was forgot, or happened to be 66 haste to remove the table.

overturned, the table was profaned, The guests being thus placed, and they thought, that some mifeach having his own cover, they fortune was threatened : a superdistributed among them bills of stition which the Romans derived fare, then they placed cups before from the Greeks, and which many them.

people keep up at this day, as well as These cups were brought from that other of dreading the number a buffet loaded with other vessels thirteen at table.

* The Roman pound was only twelve ounces, as it is at this day; fix thousand festerces made about 750 livres; and one hundred thousand sesterces 12,500 livres.

+ Besides the Penates and Lares, they placed on the table Hercules and Mercury. They esteeined these gods the native presidents of the table, Genii menfæ præfides, and called them Epitraperii, that is to say, gods of the table. It was for them especially that the libations were made.


The feasts usually consisted of three to sing the praises of great men, courses, comprehending the dessert. accompanied with the flute and the They began with eggs, and finished lyre; but the Romans had no soonwith fruit.

er conquered the Asiatics, than I have said, that the Roman buffoons, farce-players, female mufeasts were of three courses. The ficians, and dancers, and pantofirst was composed of fresh eggs, al- mimes, came into fashion, and there paragus, olives, oysters, fallads, &c. was no good feast without all that Like us they boiled their asparagus train. very lightly; we learn this little In the interval of the courses, particularity from a common saying and after the feast, they played ac, of Augustus. When that emperor dice, already in use in the times of wanted to have an affair dispatched the republic'; for although gaming quickly, You muit,” said he, was prohibited by the Roman laws, “ take no more time about it than

except during the Saturnalia *, that “ would boil asparagus, asparago prohibition was not always re6 citius.

garded. The second

The fupper was commonly folhended the ragouts and roast meats, lowed by an extraordinary regale, amongst which they always min- called comeffatio, from the word gled some dishes of fish; a favou- xūna, because the ancient Romans, rite food of the Romans, and with who dwelt more willingly in the out which they reckoned no good country than in the city, regaled cheer.

each other there in their turns, For the third, they served up Sometimes, even after having fupfruits and confections, and all those ped in one place, they repaired to delicacies which the Greeks called another; and it happened but too pihíonxle and the Latins Dulcia. Often, that they passed whole nights ria and Bellaria. The custom was, in debauchcery and drunkennels. to serve it upon another table ; fo Lastly, the guests taking leave Virgil calls it, Mensa grata fecunda of their hosts, received presents, calldona.

ed apophoreta. In the times that immediately The Romans, in the early followed the re-establishment of the times, lay upon straw, or upon republic, it was the custom at feasts, leaves, having no covering but the

course compre

* The intention of this feast was, to represent the equality which reigned in the time of Saturn among men living under the laws of nature, without difference of condition. The power of masters over their Naves was suspended. They eat together. The Naves had full freedom of speech. The masters took pleasure in changing condition and habit with them. The statue of Saturn, tied all the rest of the year with fillets of woollen, probably in memory of the captivity he had been reduced by the Titans and by Jupiter, was unloosed during his feaft, either to signify his deliverance, or to represent the liberty which reigned in the golden age, and that which they enjoyed during the Saturnalia. These were days of feasting and rejoicing. The Romans quitted the toga, and appeared in public in the dress made use of at table. They sent presents to each other. Games of chance, forbid at all other times, were then allowed. The fenate and the bar were vacant, and the schools fhut up. They thought it ominous to begin a war, and punith criminals, in a time consecrated to pleasures.

skins of animals, which also served was a party-coloured mantle, called them for mattresses.

alicata chlamys, to take the robe But afterwards they not only prætexta. Girls wore it till they employed mattresses, and the finest were married, and youths till they down, but the frames of them were took the viril robe, so called because adorned with figures in relief or in- it was the habit worn by men full laid. They had them of ivory, and grown. It was white, and without even of massy filver, with coverings ornament. of purple, heightened with gold. The day on which they affum. These beds, made much like our ed this dress, was a day of feasting coaches, or day beds, without cur and rejoicing in the family. The tains or canopies, but with a back father of the young man gave a feast which went on one side from head for his relations, and friends, and to foot, were so high that they as- all his family; at the end of the recended them by several steps. past they took off the robe prætexta,

The toga, which was the first and the golden ball, which they habit they wore, appears to have consecrated to the gods Lares, and been a robe, round and ample, o cloathed him with the toga virilis. pen before as far as the girdle, and After which the father, accompawithout sleeves. It enveloped the nied with his friends and relations, whole body : they fastened it


and followed by all the domestics, the left shoulder, leaving the right led his son to the Capitol, to do hoarm and shoulder at liberty. The mage to the gods on his entering on measure of it was not fixed, it varied the flower of man's age, by offering as well as the finenefs of the stuff,

facrifices and prayers. according to the fortune, rank, or From thence the young man, taste for finery of the wearer. attended by the same train, was

They had togæ of different conducted to the forum, to make his kinds. That which they called entry into the world. picta, or palmata, was interwoven They called that ceremony with purple and gold, imbossed and tirocinium, noviciate, and those for embroidered with leaves represent- whom it was performed tirones, ing palms. The generals of ar- novices. mies wore these when they entered The men as well as the women, Rome in triumph. The toga call wore a tunic under the


with ed trabea, was of purple stripped with this difference, that the tunic of the scarlet and white; it had been the men went no lower than the knees, habit of the kings; it was that of the and that of the women to the heels; Roman knights the day of their ge- it had also sleeves, which they only neral review, yearly on the Ides of were allowed to wear. July. The prætexta was edged They fastened the tunic more or with a binding of purple; it was less with a girdle, to keep it tight, the role of the magiftrates and the or to tuck it up. These girdles were principals among the priests. different, according to the time of

Young people of rank wore it life, and served also for purses to with a golden ball hung to a collar. keep the money they carried about At the


of twelve years they them. quitted the infantine habit, which


In time of peace, and in the made use of a composition which city, they did not commonly wear a came from Spain, into which there sword, or any arms. The

emperors entered urine. They cleansed them themselves conformed to that cus- with little brushes, and tooth-picks; tom.

they had some of silver; those of In the early ages, the Romans the wood of the lentik were regardsuffered their hair and beard to ed as the best. grow, contenting themselves with In time their tunics multiplied ; clipping them from time to time; it became the fashion to wear three. but they afterwards resumed that of Taste soon formed the difference beThaving:

tween them; the first was a simple In place of stockings the Romans shift; the second, a kind of rochet; wrapped their legs in bands of stuff; and the third, having insensibly reneither did they commonly wear ceived more folds, and grown more breeches; only with the military ha- voluminous, formed, by the help of bit, or in their exercises, or mount the ornaments of which it was found ing on horseback, they put on a sort capable, a woman's dress, called stola, of drawers.

which banished the toga, or, at least, The Roman ladies dressed al- left the use of it to the men, and to ways in their hair; there was no courtezans. difference but in the manner of ar The consent of the father was neranging it. In the early ages, on the cessary, they did not require the mocontrary, they never went out un ther's, tho’ it was ak'd out of decency. covered with a veil, but that mode They then proceeded to the contract. went out with the fimplicity of man It was accompanied with ceremonies,

at which the priests and the augurs The fashion of dressing the head assisted. They agreed upon the was at that time infinitely various ; portion, and other conditions, of it kept pace with the inconftan which a deed was drawn and execy of the ladies, and of the mode. cuted in the presence of witnesses, They stuck in their hair bodkins, who set their seal to it. They broke loaded with pearls ; they knotted a straw as in other contracts, which them with little chains and rings of was called ftipulation, from fipula, gold, with purple, or white ribands, a straw. The bridegroom made, enriched with precious stones, and presents to his bride in money, trinthey wore rich ear-rings of gold and kets, &c. and gave her a ring for a pearls.

pledge of the friendship which was The Roman ladies were to unite them *. Both of them gave tremely careful of their teeth ; most presents to those who had negotiatpart washed them with water, others ed or favoured their marriage. The

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* This ring was called annulus sponsalitius, genials, or pronubus. In the time of Pliny, it was only of irin, ar.d plain; it was afterwards of gold. The wife was accustomed to put it on the fourth finger of the left hand, because the believed there was a vein there which went to the heart. There were some also of


emperors regulated, that these pre- some pieces of money. This way sents should

be proportioned to the of marrying subsisted longer than portion. Lastly, the father, or the that of contarreation, which accordnearest relation of the bride, gave a ing to Tacitus, was no longer pracfeast.

tised in the time of Tiberius.

Aco They never made a marriage cording to fome authors, it was acwithout having first taken the auf- companied with the same ceremopices, and without having offered nies, and gave the same right to the facrifices to the gods, especially to wives. Juno, who presided over matrimonial That which they called usage, engagements and marriages. They had place, when a woman, with took the gall out of the animals that consent of her parents, or her guarthey facrificed, alluding to the kind- dians, had cohabited a whole year ness which ought to reign in mar with a man, with a view of being riage.

married to him: she then became It was celebrated in three ways, his lawful wife without any other distinguished by the names of con ceremony: it even appears, that farreatio, coemtio, et usus; cunfar- he had the same rights as the reation, mutual purchase, and usage. others." The first was the most ancient. Ro After a pretty full account of these mulus had established it. A priest, two customs of adoption and divorce, in presence of ten witnesses, pro- our author proceeds to the Roman nouncing certain words, offered, in education. facrifice to the gods, a cake made of “ The custom of the great at salt, water, and wheat flour, called Rome was, to keep, even in their far: the bride and bridegroom eat houses, some philosopher, or other of it, to fignify by that the union learned Grecian, giving him liberty that ought to bind them. That to keep open school for the young manner of celebrating marriage, nobility, who came thither to be gave the wives a right of sharing in taught with their children. the particular facrifices, attached to Whatever might harden the body, the family of their husbands, and increase its strength, give nimbleeven to their goods, if they died in- ness and agility, form them for war, testate, and without children ; if and give dexterity in arms, made a they left

any, the wives were equal part of education, as well as politewith them. Children born of these nefs and address. marriages, were preferred for the After having gone through the dignity of the priest of Jupiter. studies of childhood, the young

The mutual purchase was a people were made to take the viril kind of imaginary bargain, that the robe. bride and bridegroom contracted, They then put them under the by the form of giving each other special protection of some senator,

brass and copper, with the figure of a key, to signify that the husband, in giving that ring to his wife, delivered her the keys of his house, of which it was her business to take

Some of them have been found with these inscriptions or devices, Benam vitam. Amo te. Ama me. I wish you a happy life. I love you. Love me.

celebrated 5


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