have been so well disposed towards several perfons under the specious him, had they known of his horrid pretext of turning Roman Catholic. designs of murder; , but they had From thence he went to Zante, been persuaded that he only meant where he called himself a Swede, to get poffeflion of his wife.

and contracted several debts. Go. The foregoing account must na- ing afterwards to Smyrna, he gave turally suggest lome reflections on himself out in public for a Hanothe high absurdity of those fathers, verian; but he told some people in who, having handsome marriageable pretended confidence that he was a daughters, contract friendships with Swede, and the natural son of a agreeable young gentlemen, and in- great prince deceased. He took vite them to be intimates, without the name of Charles Frederick, intending they should be husbands Count de Taube ; giving to underto, or withing them to succeed with, stand that he had been obliged to their daughters! Are not the eyes, Ay his country for an affair of state. by such means, directed to their na He staid two years at Smyrna, living tural pleasing objects ? And is not on some generous persons, whom he love most likely to be the certain likewise defrauded of fums of moand natural consequence? When ney. From thence palling to Con they meet alone in the garden or the ftantinople, he acted the fame part grove, will not love be their subject? there for eighteen months. At last How much more ridiculous and ab. he quitted that place all of a sudden, surd must such fathers appear, who, in the month of September 1761, when the discovery is made, are fur. after contracting many debts, and prized and exasperated, at what carrying away some jewels belongthey themselves have brought about! ing to different ladies, and some diaIt may be affirmed, that this


mond rings. He also took away a mistake has been the cause of more square gold snuff-box of English real mischiefs, than any other that make, for rapee, which he never can be named. It were to be takes, and a gold watch made at Pawished therefore, that all those, who ris. He speaks Italian tolerably well, have been guilty of so great an

but French, German, and English error, would not only sincerely re much better, and a little Swedish. pent of, but publickiy own it, as He has been suspected to be a Jew, • such a confession might prove a

because he reads and writes a little warning to others.

Hebrew; but he is otherwise illiterate, and very ignorant.

This man is of the middle size, Some account of an extraordinary Im- but rather under it; he is out in

poftor now living. Taken from the right shoulder, has a clear comthe foreign papers.

plexion, large features, black eyes, black hair, which he wears in a

walks faft, is ed several parts of Europe, about: 28 or 30 years age, and imposed upon many people of enriched with every vice, except a Jank and fortune. He called him- pallion for gaming; he plays very self a Lutheran in Italy, and at ill at games of commerce, and

not piay much at games of


y from



Of animals living in folid bodies. fupposed to have got into it. The

egg, whence it was formed, must, N Toulon harbour, and the by some very fingular accident,

, and pertectly entire, containing, in first growth. There the creature different cells, secluded from all had lived without air, feeding on communication with the air, several the substance of the tree, and growliving shell-fish, of an exquisite taste, ing only as the tree grew. This is called Datiyli, i, e. Dates : To attested by Mr. Hubert, professor come at these fith the stones are of philosophy at Caen." broken with manls. Also, along

The volume for the year 1731, the coast of Ancona, in the Adriatic, has a similar observation, expressed are stones, usually weighing about in these words: fisty pounds, and sometimes even “ In 1719 we gave an more, the outside rugged, and easily count of a fact, which, though imbroken, but the inside fo hard, as to probable, was well attested; that require a strong arm, and an iron à toad had been found living and maul to break them; within them, growing in the stem of a middling and in separate niches, are found elm, without any way for the creasmall fhell-fith, quite alive, and very ture to come out or to have got in. palatable, called Solenes, or Cappe M. Seigne, of Nantes, lays before lunghe : The facts are attested by the academy a fact just of the very Gaffendi, Blondel, Mayol, the same nature, except that, instead of learned bishop of Sulturara, and an elm, it was an oak, and larger more particularly by Aldrovandi, a than the elm, which still heightens physician, of Bologna ; the two lat- the wonder. He judges, by the ter speak of it as a common fact, time requisite for the growth of the which they themselves saw. oak, that the toad must have sub

In the iolume for 1719, of the fisted in it, without air, or any adacademy of sciences at Paris, is the ventitious aliment, during eighty or following passage:

a hundred years. M.Seigne seems “. In the foot of an elm, of the to have known nothing of the fact bigness of a pretty corpulent man, in 1719." three or four feet above the root, With the two foregoing may be and exactly in the center, has been claffed a narrative of Ambrose Paré, found a live toad, middle fized, but chief surgeon to Henry III. king of lean, and filling up the whole va- France, who, being a very sensible cant space : no sooner was a paf- writer, relates the following fact, of fage opened by splitting the wood which he was an eye-witness : than it scuttled away very hastily; a “ Being, says he, at my seat, near more firm and sound elm never the village of Meudon, and over grew; so that the toad cannot be looking a quarry-man, whom I had



fet to break some very large and lived there much longer than anihard stones, in the middle of one we mals of the same species when at found a huge coad, full of life, and liberty. without any visible aperture by 4. Yet, during all the time, their which it could get there. I began sole aliment has been the fap of the to wonder how it received birch, tree, or any moisture or liquor penehad grown and lived ; but the la: trating through the thickness of the bourer told me, it was not the firit stones. time he had met with a toad, and 5. That they lived there without the like creatures, within huge any other air than what was conblacks of stone, and no visible open- tained within their scanty cells, ing or fiffure.

which, even with regard to the Observations ofliving toads, found hell fish, these having a kind of rein very hard and entire ftones, oc- {piration, deserves fome enquiry : cur in several authors, particularly but borders on incredibility, with Baptift Fulgosa Doge of Genoa, respect to frogs, toads, and snakes, the famous physicians Agricola whose sensible respiration seems to and Horstius, and lord Verulam : require much more air. others give very specious accounts 6. That to this exclusion of all of snakes, frogs, crabs, and lobsters, external air, the animals, thus enbeing found alive, inclosed within closed, might perhaps owe their blocks of marble, rocks, and large longævity; at least this agrees with stones.

the idea of the celebrated Bacon, Without attempting to explain who, in his Historia vitæ et mortis, facts so very abstruse and surprising, canon 18, lays down the following yet, at the fame time, so well authen- rule as confirmed by experience. ticated, I shall only indicate the in- Aer exclufus confert ad longevitatem, ferences arising from them. fi aliis incommodis caveas.

1. That the teftaceous and crustace 7. Lastly, That instinct taught ous fish, the toads, snakes, frogs, or these animals to provide themselves at the least the eggs, whence these beforehand with niches proportiondifferent kinds of animals proceed. ed to their utmost growth; or at ed, were lodged in the trees at their least, as they grew, they had the safirst growth, or in the soft mud, of gacity to enlarge their niches, either which the stones were afterwards by repelling, or gradually abrading formed

the sides which formed them. 2. That these animals thus en These consequences, I am aware, closed within trees or stones, or at may appear incredible, and I own least which come from eggs hatched not without some reason ; but, in in them, have fubfifted there ever credible as they may seem, they fince, that is, 50, 100, 150 years, or

must be admitted, if we admit the perhaps even more, as less could facts, whence they are deduced, be not be required for the growth of true; and after such vouchers and the trees, or the formation of the attestations, they are scarce to be Mones where they were found. questioned. 3. That consequently they had



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Some account of the Mus Alpinus, the ingenious Peter Collinson, efq; Baubax, or Marmotte, examined this history, and found

that Rzaczinski had classed this HE celebrated cardinal Po- animal among subterraneous creaAnti-Lucretius, which was publish- account of him as the cardinal has ed about the year 7:7, long after given, only that, instead of mentionhis death, has given a very extraor. ing the two kinds fighting, and dinary account of an animal, which making flaves of the prisoners taken he calls a Polish animal, and named in battle, he mentions only, that Baubax. He says, that these ani- each kind makes flaves of such of mals are of two kinds, fome black, the other kind as they discover near and some of a yellowish red; that their dwellings and magazines, as if these two kinds keep separate, and they supposed them to be spies. It make war upon each other, draw- appeared also, that the animal called ing up in large bodies, and encamp by Polignac and Rzaczinski, Bauing like opposite armies; that they bax, is the same which Ray calls engage, and fighe desperately ; and the Mus Alpinus, and Marmota : that the victors, whether the black the Marmotte of the Alps, which or the red, take and carry away as has been often carried about here in many prisoners as they can ; and, a box, and shewn by the Saretaining them in captivity, employ voyards. them in domestic drudgery, and Mr. Collinson then determined other slavilh business; so ihat all the to write to his friend Mr. Klein, fered which are found among the cretary to the city of Dantzick, with black, and all the black that are a view either to get this account, so 'found among the red, are in a flate extraordinary, confirmed or refuted; of the most abject servitude. Headds, and Dr. Mead, knowing his intenthat when the matter has made his tion, requested that he would endeahay, and other provision, ready to vour to procure for him a second be carried home, he lays the slave part of Rzaczinski's history, which upon his back, and loads him with he heard had been published some the forage as we do a waggon, and time after the first. then drags him by the tail to his Mr. Klein, in his answer to Mr. fubterraneous habitation, and con- Collinson, observes, that the same tinue this practice till all the store accounts of the Baubax, or Mar

motte, had been given by Agricola This account caused great en- and Spon, but that he himself al. quiry to be made after the animal, ways considered them as fabulous ; and the history of it was at last found for which, however, he seems to in a book which the late Dr. Mead have no better reason than because had in his library, entitled, Historia they are wonderful, and relate that naturalis curi sa regni Polonia, mage of the Baubax which has not been ni ducatus Lithuaniæ annexarumque observed in any other brutes, and provinciarum: In tractus xx divis, which seems to imply reason and Sandonnier 1721. Written by one reflection. But instinct, in many Gabriel Rzaczinki, a jesuit. instances, directs brutes to do that

Doctor Parsons, at the request of which man does from reason ; and

is laid up.

it seems as absurd to deny what tail more than compensates for the these authors affirm of the Baubax, disadvantages of drawing against merely upon a supposition that it the hair. Beavers are said also to muft necessarily imply reason, as to fight and take prisoners, and to deny what is notorious of the spider condemn their prisoners to this and the nautilus, upon a fuppofi- drudgery, among othe s. But tion that it must necessarily imply Klein fariher observes, that if they the knowledge of geometry and na- had need of winter ftores, they vigation. The fact depends, as all might carry them in, more commofacts do, with respect to those who diously, in their mouths, assisted by can know them only by the testi- their fore feet, as they can, like mony of others, upon the credit of monkeys, walk upon two. This, the persons who relate it, and the however, is speculation opposed to manner of the relation, whether fact; and the question here is to be from the writer's own knowledge, determined, not by argoment but or from mere traditional opinion and testimony. It would be extremely report. Polignac's work was the acceptable to the public in general, labour of his life, assisted by the and particularly to the curious, if opinion of almost every man emi- some of our inquisitive readers would nent for parts and knowledge, of communicate what they know his time : it is absurd, therefore, to or have read upon the subject. imagine, that he would admit any Klein's account of the animal is as particulars of natural history, as follows: foundations of argument, that were It is called, by Pliny, Mus Alpinot well supported by the testimony nus; in Savoy, Marmotte : in Gerof sufficient and credible witnesses. many, Murmelthier ; in Poland, Klein, indeed, objects, that, among and other northern nations, Bothese animals, the labour of pri- back; and in France, Rat des soners cannot be wanted to amass Alpes. for the winter, because they con İt is somewhat thicker than acom. cinue eight months together in a mon rat, is reddish while young, dormant state, and have therefore but of a dark colour when older ; no need of provisions ; and because the hair is ftiff, the feet short, the it is ridiculous to imagine they head contracted, and the nose as if should drag their living cart by the divided, the mouth furnished with wrong end, against the grain and whiskers, like those of a cat, the direction of the skin and hair. As teeth are like a squirrel's, and the to the first of these objections, it voice is fhrill, like that of a young stands upon the single testimony of whelp. Klein, against that of Rzaczinski, When it is wild, it eats grass, Agricola, and Spon: as to the fe- roots, herbage, and insects of vacond, it is generally agreed, that rious kinds; when tame, it fubfifts these creatures are frequently found on bread and milk, meat and fruits ; with their backs bare; and it is al. it uses its fore paws to convey so related, by many authors of great its food to its mouth, like the credit, that beavers use each other squirrel, and growls while it eats or as waggons in this manner, and that drinks. the conveniency of drawing by the

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