They play nimbly together like mice, running, leaping, and climb- A particular description of an eld ing the trunks of trees, and some Elephant brought from Perfia ! times walking upright.

Naples. By the fanicus Abbé Nollar, At the beginning of autumn they retire to under ground,

HIS monstrous creature was which they form in the shape of the sent from Perfia, as a present lester Y, where they lie together in to the grand fignior, and by him families upon little beds of straw, presented to the king of the Two having closely ftopped the avenues Sicilies, now king of Spain. It ar. of their dormitory, and con:inue rived at Naples in O&tober 1740, torpid in a frofound sleep till the and died the beginning of the year approach of spring, when, being re- 1755. After describing its shape vived by the warmth of the sun, they and size, Mr. Noller fays, we may again come forth to the business and judge of the hugeness of its bulk, the pleasures of life.

from its skin, which, after being In this animal, the circulation of taken of, weighed 2384 pounds the bloed, which has fcare any se- weight or 74 tone, averdupois rum, and all the secretions are ex- weight. It usually went to seep upceeding flow; the omentum and in- on its fide at sun set, and after sleep. testines are flat, and they have only ing three or four hours, it waked to a fingle membranous flomach; so feed: after having fed enough, it that, though they feed upon herbs, went directly to sleep again, and gethey do not chew the cud. To- nerally continued asleep till fun. wards the gut cæcum there are many rise t. It eat up every day 220 annular valves, stretched as it were pounds of the dry Araw of millet, into branches; so as the entrance of 23 pounds of new bread, and 28 the ileon between the two coats, ounces of sugar mixed with as many which retards the passage of the fæ- ounces of butter, which was inclosed ces, and causes chein to be collected in two loaves, of two pounds each, towards the cæcum, there to remain and which they put whole into its during winter. Whether they fleep mouth: but during the first 21 days at all between the time of their of April, instead of the dry straw, quitting their fubterraneous retire- they gave it daily 800 or loco hient in the spring, and that of their pounds of green barley. For some return to it in autumn, we are not time after its arrival at Naples, they told.

made it drink every day about two Mr. Klein, in the conclusion of quarts of brandy, for afrifting its dihis letter, assures Mr. Collinson that gestion, and probabiy to atone for this account is genuine'; says, he may the difference between the climate communicate it to Dr. Mead, and of Naples, and that of its native promises to procure for hin the ad country; bat, inftead of the brandy, volume of Rzaczinski'swork; which, they afterwards fubdituted two boI think, was afterwards done, and lus's, of the bigress of a nutmeg believe it is now in the British cach, composed of 33 different forts Museum

of drugs, of such a hot nature, that The pouud meant by M. Nollet, is what ihe French call poids de mari, of eight 7 The days and nights at Naples not so une

as here.



one of thefe bolus's would have kill- coloured, coarse sort of matter, as ed a man of the strongest conftitu- thick as hog's-grease: I have been tion ; yet this creature could not assured, says Mr. Nollet, that a matbear to be deprived of them, with- ter of the same fort trickled down out becoming very uneasy, and lof- from another part. After his ruting its reft.

ting was over, all these symptoms As to this creature's usual drink, it ceased : perhaps they had never exwas otherwise nothing but common isted, had the animal an opportuniwater, of which it drank 400 quarts ty to satisfy himself in the natural per day in winter, and in summer it way. He was subject to cholicks, went as far as goo, which it drank and distempers in his legs, which his at three different hours, and each keeper understood, and they cured time at five, fix, ten, or a dozen dif them in the same way as they do ferent draughts, by pumping or in other animals, but with a good fucking up the water with its trunk, deal of difficulty, for he was far from carrying it to its mouth, and swal- being a fubmifíve patient, as they lowing it at two or three gulps I. could not make him take any thing

This elephant appeared to be fuf- he did not incline to. But what ceptible of every passion: it shewed was very singular in an animal of gratitude and affection to those who such a prodigious fize and strength, had the care of it, seemed as if it whatever state or condition he was hugged them with its trunk, and in, he was never heard to utter any was so docile as to obey them with sort of sound or bellowing, only a readiness. They observed, that it sort of blowing, yet this he moduhad a fondness for a sheep, fell lated in such a manner, that his pretty often into a fit of melancholy, keepers could from thence judge and had an extreme dread of pain, what he thereby meant to exwhich made it take every imagin- press. able precaution against being hurt. This, we must observe, is the It was of the male kind; but the more remarkable, as several travel. part which characterised its gender, lers speak of the bellowing of elewas usually concealed; only when it phants, when they are taken, and was about to make water, that part also


other occasions. came out to the length of two feet, then turned backwards, and directed the course of his urine between the Cautions against suffering Lead smelttwo hind legs. In the spring of ing-houses any where but in remote every year he began to rut, or be

and defart places. By Dr. Linden. come proud, when it was more difficult than usual to govern him, and OT long ago, I had the hohe even neglected his food, but nour to accompany a young what was moft extraordinary, there lady of distinction, my patient, to issued, during that time, a warm li Bristol hot-wells. There, in walkquor from his trunk, and an orifice ing with some company, I discoveropened at each temple, by the fide ed a large cloud of smoke driven by of his ear, from whence issued a dust a south-weft wind over our heads.

1 As the keeping of an elephant is so expensive, we may conclude, that no old, of fullo grown one, will ever be brought here for a thew.

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It arose from a cupola built on the opposite bank of the river Avon, The nature of the fofil Afoeftos alwhich, upon enquiry, I found be certained by the discovery of an longed to a lead (melting-house; a artificial subfiance perfealy like it, nuit.nce universally condemned, and lately made in France by Mr. Tur. universally neglected. That a ma beville Needham. From the Phinufacture so poisonous should be al losophical Transactions. lowed to subfift in the vicinity of the fecond medicinal spring in the king, HE Asbestos, or Amianthus, dom, is so unaccountable, that, had I not seen it, I could scarce have be- divisible into fibres, of which a kind lieved it.

of linen has been made that fuffers In countries regulated by a po- no damage by fire. The proprietor lice, smelting-houses are built on of a forge in some part of France, barren grounds, near the sea-shore; not named, upon taking down his and the owners are obliged to rent furnaces to repair them, found a a considerable track of land ; and great quantity of this substance at if their neighbours suffer in their the bottom, which, like the native cattle, planting, or herbage, they Amianthus, was capable of being are compelled to pay the damage. manufactured either into incomEven in Wales, I have known in- bustible linen or paper. Upon a far. stances of such nuisances indicted, ther enquiry, he discovered that both and removed; and perhaps some this and the native Asbestos, is nneffectual notice may be taken of thing more than calcined iron, dethis, when the public is fully ap- prived of the Phlogistic, and that prized of its effects.

uniting the Phlogistic with this, or The smoke that exhales, night the foffil Amianthus, he can restore and day, from furnaces in which it any time to its primitive state of lead is imelted, is richly impregnat- iron. ed with a whitish substance, visible Does not 'this, says Mr. Needto the eye. This substance precipi- ham, with the discovery of Lava, tates itself on the roofs of houses, pummice stones, iron in a perfect and on vegetables, for almost a mile itate, and many other traces of fire round, and is none other than a observed in most of the mountains, corrosive fublimate of lead, highly particularly in all the great chains, deleterious to animal life. It is in. and remarkably in all those under deed the worst poison in the mine. the equator, which are the highef ral kingdom; I say, the worst, be on the globe, seem to indicate, that cause we are hitherto unacquainted the dry land, with all its eminenwith its antidote. These Flores cies, was originally raised out of the Saturnini destroy plants. Cattle waters by the force of fubierraneous fed on grass thus impregnated, are fire ? seized with the bellon, a disease like the dry belly ach which destroys the labourers employed in such manufactures.

DelcritAugust 20, 1761.

Description of a White Earth of which eafily perceived, why sulphur iş

bread is made. From the German burnt in hogsheads in order to preEphemerides.

serve wine, since it is not the in

flammable part of sulphur that IN N the lordship of Moscaw, in causes this effect, but its acid fpirit,

the Upper Lusatia, a sort of that enters and permeates the wood White Earth is found, of which the of the vessel. poor, arged thereto, no doubt, by the calamities of the wars in those parts, now make bread. It is taken An account of a very extraordinary, out of a hill where they formerly

degree of Artificial Cold produced worked at saltpetre ; when the sun

at Petersbourgh, by Dr. Himlel. has somewhat warmed this earth, it

Extracted from an article in the cracks, and small white globules

Philosophical Transactions. proceed from it as meal; it does not ferment alone, but only when N the 14th of mixed with meal. M. Sarlitz, a

1759, the weather so cold Saxon gentleman, was pleased to in

at Petersbourgh, that the quickform us, that he has seen persons filver in De Lille's thermometer, who, in a great measure, lived upon fell to 250 degrees. On this day it for some time; he assures us, that an artificial cold was produced he procured bread to be made of by the mixture of spirit of nitre with this earth alone, and of different snow, as in Farenheit's experiment, mixtures of earth and meal, and that and the thermometer being plunged he even kept some of this bread by in it, the quicksilver sunk to 470 him upwards of fix years : he further degrees. At this point it remained fays, a Spaniard told him, that this fixed in the open air near a quarter earth is also found near Gironne in of an hour, and might have remainCatalonia.

ed so longer, but after that time it was carried into a warm room,

where it soon began to rise. Upon The practice of burning Sulphur in

a repetition of this experiment in bogbeads for preserving wine, ac- the presence

the presence of several professors, counted for by a new and curious the glass was broken as soon as the experiment.

mercury, which fell to 500 degrees, IL Ftwo or three drops of the oil appeared to be fixed, and it was

of tartar are poured into half a found frozen into a solid malleable glass of very fine red wine, the wine body, which being hammered, exwill lose its red colour, and become tended its furface like other metals, opaque and yellowish as turned and but recovered its Auidity soon after, pricked wine ; but if two or three being exposed to the open air, tho' drops of the spirit of fulphur, which the degree of natural cold was is a very strong acid, are afterwards 199. poured into the glass, the same wine This frozen quicksilver took up will intirely resume its beautiful less space then when it was Huid, red colour ; whence the reason is and sunk to the bottom of quick

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Forty degrees below the freezing point in Farenheit's thermometer, is equal to 270 degrees of De Lille's,

Älver unfrozen ; but all other fuids greatest possible degree of cold, than take up more space when they are speedy evaporation often repeated frozen, than before, and their ice upon the same substance. The fpi{wims on the surface of the fluid rit called Æther, is the most volamatter of which it is the congea- tile now known, and if the bulk of a lation.

thermometer be dipped in this fpiUpon other repetitions of the ex- rit, and as foon as taken ont be periment, when the quicksilver felt blowed upon with a pair of bellows to 495 degrees, some spirit of the till it is dry, then dipped again, and sea salt was poured into the mixture blowed upon as before, in a quick of spirit of nitre and snow, upon and uninterrupted fucceffion, the which the quicksilver fell to 554 quicksilver will be foon frozen. By degrees. Some more snow being the Russian experiments, the reports still added, and some oil of vitriol of travellers of hitherto unsuspected poured upon it, the quicksilver fud- veracity, are proved to be false ; for denly funk to 1260 degrees. The they have affirmed, that they found ball was then broken, and the mer. the mercury frozen in their thermocury found frozen to a solid body, meters when the cold was equal to and there is no wonder in that, since 200 degrees, but these experiments it was frozen to a solid body when concur to prove that it does not bethe mercury had fallen to 500. But come folid till it falls near 300 dein this experiment, the quickhlver, grees lower. They affirm also, that which still remained in the tube, the thermometer becomes useless, was become solid, and appeared as soon as the quicksilver is frozen; like a thread of filver wire, flexible but these experiments fhew, that, every way, and fastened to the ball; though solid, it will yet descend the ball they forged into a flat circu- with a greater degree of cold, for lar form like a half crown, but at after it had fallen to 554 degrees, length it began to crack, and foon which is 54 beyond the point at after became again fluid. During which it freezes, it fell to 1260, this experiment, the natural cold which was 708 degrees lower upon was 208. It is remarkable, that in producing a more intense degree of an experiment made when the na- cold, by adding more fnow to the tural cold was 183. degrees, the mixture, and pouring oil of vitriol quicksilver being taken out of a upon it. It must, however, be obmixture in which it had fallen to served, that distilled mercury was -300, ftill continued to fall 100 de- used in these experiment, and that grees more, though after a certain if the quicksilver be adulterated with time it liquified. This phænome- lead, it may, perhaps, fooner benon the Russian philosophers have come solid by cold, than if it is not accounted for; but it will not pure*. appear ftrange to those who know This article has probably unthat intense cold is produced merely dergone two translations, one from by evaporation, and that whatever is the Rus into French, and one once wet, becomes colder as it is from the French into English, and growing dry. Nothing more there- accordingly it contains some obscufore is necessary to produce the rities and inconsistencies, which we

* May we not therefore thus account for what the travellers juft spoken of have advanced, concerning the mercury freezing fo readily in their thermometers ?


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