Íhall beg leave to mention, in hopes periments agree in this, that the of seeing them cleared up in the quicksilver becomes solid, when it next volume of that curious and falls in the thermometer 500 deg. useful work from which this ac more or less ;" (i. e.) they agree count is taken. We are told, that that there is a certain degree of the quicksilver having fallen in the cold which they do not at all ascerthermometer to 554 degrees, " in tain, that will freeze quickfilver; taking the thermometer from the for the words more or loss leave this mixture the quicksilver continued degree in absolute uncertainty ; and to fall in the open air, to the 552d indeed we are told immediately afdegree:" but if 552 is not more terwards, that these experiments than 554, the quicksilver in this “ do not so sufficiently agree as to case did not fall, but rise. We are deduce any thing certain about it :" also told that the professor, who, It is, however, deduced from the by adding snow and oil of vitriol to sudden freezing of the quicksilver the mixture, caused the mercury to in a glass tube with artificial cold, fall from 554 to 1260 deg. is not " that the cold then produced fure “ whether the ball might not ought to exceed 300 degrees :" But have received some crack, and the we are told in the relation of anaquicksilver thereby might have had ther experiment, " that the result liberty to fall the lower;" but as of a mixture was an augmentation the quicksilver is supposed to have of cold to 300 degrees, and that it been frozen to a solid body, not must then happen that the surprionly in the bulb, but the tube, fing degree obtained was neceffary when it was down at 554, it is not to congeal mercury;" from all easy to conceive how a crack in the which it follows, that the degree glass could cause it to descend 706 of cold neceffary to congeal merdegrees more. The directions cury is 500 degrees more or less; that which are given to enable other it must exceed 300 degrees, yet that philosophers to repeat these expe- at 300 degrees the surprising degree riments

not expressed fo is obtained fufficient to congeal clearly as could be wished; we are mercury. told it is necessary to use fuming spirit of nitre, or of such as is evaporated till the fumes become red, An Aceount of a curious phænomenon for common aqua fortis will not observed by Abbé Nollet, in the year do." We are then directed to take

1755. "this fuming fpirit of nitre, cooled as much as possible in liquifying N the roth of September, snow, and with it half fill a wine 1755; about five o'clock in glass, throwing in as much fnow at the evening, M. l'Abbé Nollet bethe same time, and stirring it till ing on the road to Fontainbleau, it becomes of the consistence of observed, when he was near the abpap; then you have almoft in an bey de la Saussaye that the fun apinstant, the necessary degree for the peared very pale through some light congealation of quicksilver.' clouds, and that a fog rose from

We are told alfo in one place, the west side of the horizon to the that “the greateft part of the ex- zenith and beyond it. The wind



blew very cold from the north, and great violence, but it has been loft soon after he perceived a kind of many years. The poor man in rainbow of about 120 degrees ex- whole land it was, milling the protent, the convex part of which was fit he used to have by sewing it, towards the sun, and which seemed applied his utmost endeavours to to be about the third part of a cir. recover it ; but all in vain till May cle, of which the zenith would have last, when attending to a rumbling been the center. This bow had all noise under the ground, like what the colours of the iris, the convex the former well made, though in a part being red, and the concave lower situation, and about thirty blue; it faded by degrees, and in yards nearer to the river, he hapabout a quarter of an hour wholly pened to hit upon it again. disappeared. Soon after M. Nollet That you may have some notion observed in some white clouds, at what it is, I will lay before you equal distances to the right and left such an account of it as the cursory of the sun, two streaks, which view I had will permit. seemed to be small portions of a

The well for four or five feet circle, of which the sun was the deep is fix or seven feet wide; withcenter, and of which the diameter in that is another less hole of like seemed to be about forty degrees. depth dug in the clay, in the botThese streaks consisted only of two tom whereof is placed a cylindric colours, red and yellow; the part earthen vessel, of about four or five next the sun was red, and the op- inches diameter at the mouth, havposite part yellow : the segmenting the bottom taken off, and the that was to the right of the sun dif- fides well fixed in the clay rammed appeared first, as that part of the close about it. Within the pot is íky first became clear ; that on the a brown water thick as puddle, left continued more than half an continually forced up with a viohour, that part of the ky continu- lent motion, beyond that of boiling ing to be covered with white clouds. water, and a rumbling hollow These phænomena seem to confirm noise, rising or falling by fits five the opinion of M. Mairan, printed or fix inches; but there was no apin a memoir of the French academy pearance of any vapour rising ; of sciences -in the year 1721, that which perhaps might have been viall parhelia, though very different fible, had not the sun shone so in appearance, are the same phæ- bright. nomena as the rainbow, and vary Upon putting down a candle at the only by local circumstances, which end of a stick, at about a quarter of cause them to fade in different por- a yard distance, it took fire, darting tions at different times.

and flashing in a violent manner,

for about half a yard high, much An Account of a burning well at in the manner of spirits in a lamp,

Brofely in Shropshire ; being part but with greater agitation. The of a letter from the reverend Mr. man said that a tea ketile had been Mason, Woodwardian professor at made to boil in about nine minutes Cambridge, and F. R. S. dated time, and that he had left it burnJune 18, 1746.

ing forty-eight hours together withA T Brofely in 1711 was a well out any sensible diminution.

found, which burned with

It was extinguished by putting a hole of clay. Other waters had wet mop upon it, which must be been suffered to mix with those of kept there a small time ; otherwise the burning spring, which, though it would not go out. Upon the they considerably diminished the semoval of the mop there succeed- effect, did not however wholly deed a fulphurous smoak. lasting a- ftroy it; for upon the application bout a minute, and yet the water of a piece of lighted paper, a was very cold to the touch. stream of clear flame shot up from

The well lies about thirty yards the well, which very much resemfrom the Severn, which, in that bled that of a tea-kettle lamp fed place, and for some miles both a- by spirits ; but, as we could not bove and below, runs in a vale full keep out the other water, the flame 100 yards perpendicular below the presently went out of itself. I forlevel of the country on either side, get now to what cause they told us which inclines down to the vale this shameful neglect was owing ; at an angle of twenty or thirty deg. whether to a conteft between two from the horizon, but somewhat rival claimants to the property, or more or less in different places, ac whether the curiosity of the circumcording as the place is more or less jacent inhabitants, &c. being fully rocky.

gratified, it no longer attracted a The country consists of rock, concourse of visitants sufficient to ftone, earth, and clay; and, as reward the attention of the Pro the river, which is very rapid, prietor. It were to be wished - washes away the soft and loose that some of the gentlemen in parts, the next successively flip in- that neighbourhood (which I have to the channel, fo as by degrees now left many years) would give and in time to affect the whole us the present itate of this wonder. flope of the land ; and as the infe- ful phænomenon. rior strata yield coal and iron ore, their fermentation may produce this vapour, and force it to ascend with An Account of a dreadful typhon, violence through the chinks of the which traversed South-Carolina in earth, and give the water the great : the month of May of this year, in motion it has. This might be ob a letter from Boston in New-Engstructed in one place by the fore land, dated June 1, 1761.. mentioned fubsiding of the floping bank, and might afterwards find E have advice from Charlesvent in another, in like manner as

town, in South-Carolina, happened at. Scarborough a few that on the 4th of last month, at half

after two P. M. a moft violent

whirlwind, of that kind commonly A gentleman writes, June 16, 1761, known by the name of typhones,

passed down Ashley river, and fell HEN I was there eight upon the shipping in Rebellion been taken up, or otherwise de. as to threaten the destruction of ftroyed; the well no longer ap- the whole fleet. This terrible pha peared any thing else but a miry nomenon was firft seen from the



years since,

town, coming down Wappo creek, time to those that were below to resembling a column of smoak and get upon deck; and it is remarkvapour, whose motion was very ir- able; that but four lives were loft regular and tumultuous, and came in them. The ftrong guft which with great swiftness. The quan- came down Cooper's siver, check. tity of vapour which composed this ed the progress of that pillar of de impetuous column, and its prodi• ftruction from Wappo creek, which, gious velocity, gave such a surpri. had it kept its then direction, mutt fing momentum, as to plough Ash. have driven the town of Charlesley river to the bottom, and laid town before it like chaff. This the channel bare : this occasioned tremendous column was firft seen such a sudden flux and reflux, as to about noon, upwards of fifty miles float many boats, pettiaugers, and w. by S, from Charles-town, and even soops and schooners, which has destroyed, in its course, several were before lying dry, at some di- houses, negro huts, &c. on the ftance from the tide. When it was plantations, and many, both white coming down Afnley river, it made people and negroes, were killed a noise like constant thunder; its and hurt; besides many cattle have diameter, at that time, was judged also been found dead in the fields. to be about 300 fathoms, and its In several parts of its course it left height about 35 degrees. It was an avenue of a great width, from met at White Point by another which every tree and Shrub was guft, which came down Cooper's torn up: great quantities of branriver, but was not i equal to the ches and limbs of trees were furi. other; but upon their meeting to- ously driven about, and agitated in gether, the tumultuous agitation of the body of the column as it passed the air was much greater, insomuch along. The fleet lying in the road that the froth and vapour seemed ready to fail for Europe, was the to be thrown up to the height of largest and richest that ever cleared 40 degrees, while the clouds that out from Charles-town. About were driving in all directions to four o'clock the wind was quite this place, seemed to be precipitat- fallen, the sky clear and ferene, so ed, and whirled round at the same that it was scarce credible that such time, with incredible velocity. Just a dreadful scene had been so re. after this it fell upon the hipping cently exhibited, were not the finko in the road, and was scarce three ing and dismafted vessels so many minutes in its passage, though the shocking and melancholy proofs of distance was near two leagues; it. The finking of the five ships in there were forty-five fail in the the road was lo sudden, that ic road, five of which were sunk out- was a doubt whether it was done by right, and his majesty's fhip Dol- the immense weight of this columą phin, with eleven others, lost their pressing them instantaneously into masts, &c. The damage done to the deep, or whether it was done the Shipping, which is valued at by the water being forced suddenly 20,000 1. sterling, was done almost from under them, and thereby leto instantaneously, and some of those ting them fink so low, as to be im. that were sunk, were buried in the mediately covered and ingulphed water fo fuddenly, as (carce to give by the lateral mass of water. Most


of the disabled ships were towed up nium bare, and there were alfo to the town the next day, and cap- many superficial scratches upon the tain Scot, of the Scarborough, is face in frait lines. The region of appointed to convoy those that are the loin's was livid, and a wound able to put to sea, in the room of was discovered there which had the Dolphin.

broken the os sacrum ; at fome die stance there was another wound,

and both these wounds were in An Account of the death of a woman right lines, and very deep.

On killed by a sudden and imperceptible the left groin there was a wound eruption from the earth.

which had divided all the tegu..

ments, and penetrated into the pe. Woman of the village of Bon- ritonæum; the epigastric and hy

ne-Vallie, near Ventimillia t, pogastric regions were livid ; the aged about 37 years, was-return- teguments and muscles of the right ing with four of her companions, fide of the abdomen were destroy. from the forest of Montenere, each ed, and had given way to the inbeing loaded wiith a bundle of testines; the os pubis was laid bare, small sticks and leaves, which they and fractured, and the flesh was had been gathering. As soon as stripped off quite to the hip, from they arrived at a place called Gar- whence the head of the os femoris gan, this woman, two of her com- had been broken off, and forced panions being before, and two be- out of the focket, in which it is hind her, suddenly cried out with articulated; the muscles of the but. great vehemence, and immediately tock and thigh were almost carried fell down with her face towards the away, and what is yet more aftoground. The person that was near- nishing, notwithstanding this loss eft to her observed nothing more of flesh, which could not be less than usual, except a little dust that than fix pounds, there was not the rose round her, and a slight motiou least drop of blood to be feen upon in some little stones that lay upon the spot where the accident happenthe spot; they all ran immediately ed, nor the least fragment of the to her affiftance, but they found her felh that had been torn away. quite dead'; her cloaths, and even It was supposed that this poor her shoes were cut, or rather torn woman was killed by the eruption into flips, and scattered at the di. of a subterraneous vapour, which stance of five or fix feet round the iflued from the ground directly urbody, so that they wre obliged to der her; a conjecture which feems wrap


up in a cloth, in order to the more probable, as, in the fun. carry her to the village.

mit of the mountain Monténere, Upon inspecting the body, the there are two chinks, from which eyes appeared fixed and livid ; therefmoke frequently issues, and at the was a wound on the left side of the foot of the mountain there is a ful. os frontis, which left the pericra, phureous spring. It may easily be

* Ventimillia or Ventimiglia, is a town of Liguria in Italy, now subject to the Genoese; it is in the neighbourhood of the Alps, called originally Alb, from their whire appearance.


« 前へ次へ »