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conceived that an exhalation thrown been felt in no other place, in any off from the fire that burns under the degree of severity. mountain with great force, would October the 30th, about four in make its way through the ground, the morning, we had a pretty seand might produce the death of this vere shock (indeed the most viounhappy person, with all its extra- lent I ever felt) which lasted someordinary appearances. Perhaps the what more than a minute, but did eruption of these exhalations are no damage in Aleppo. In about more frequent than is generally ten minutes after this first, there imagined, and we have been igno- was a second shock; but the tre- rant of them only because no sub- mulous motion was less violent, and ject has happened to be present, did not last above 15 seconds. It upon which their effects could ap- had rained a little in the precedpear.

ing evening; and when the earthThis most extraordinary relation quake happened, the west wind was communicated by M. Morand blew fresh, the sky was cloudy, and to the royal academy of sciences in it lightened. Paris, by whom it has been made This earthquake occasioned a public.

little alarm amongst the natives, and even with the Europeans was

the topic only for a day. But the An Account of the late Earthquakes subject was soon revived, by letters in Syria. In a letter from Dr. from Damascus, where the same Patrick Russel, dated the 7th of lock was felt by us at Aleppo, December 1759. From the Philo- and several other succeslive ones, fophical Transaktions.

had done considerable damage.

From this time, we had daily acHE spring of this year counts of earthquakes from Datemperate, and the autumn, though along the coast of Syria; but fo the rains came on towards the end of exaggerated in some circumstances, September, might be esteemed much and so inaccurate in all, that we drier than in other years. The only knew in general, that Damas. Aleppo river has been very low all cus, Acri, and Seidon, had suffered the summer ; and its bed, from the injury from the earthquake, though first to the second mill, is, I believe, less than was at first given out. even now, still without water. This

Such stories circulating among phænomenon I at first thought re. the people, rendered them more markable ; but have been informed susceptible of alarm; and an octhat the scarcity of water complain- casion soon offered, where they ed of during all the summer, was feared, that the worst of their appreoccasioned by driving the river in- hensions were to be realized. to some rice-grounds lately formed This happened the 25th of Notoward Antab.

vember. The morning had been On the morning of June 10, serene, some clouds arose after a flight fhock of an earthquake noon, and the evening was rewas felt here, and as usual, foon markably hazy, with little or po forgot; having, so far as we know, wind. About half an hour after

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feven at night, the earthquake it is certain, that excepting a vory came on : the motion, at first, was few old walls, the city bears no gently tremalous, increasing by de- fresh marks of ruin; none of the grees, till the vibrations became oldest minorets + have suffered. Its more distinct, and, at the same effects at Antioch were more fortime, fo strong as to shake the walls midable; many houses have been of the house with considerable vio- thrown down, and some few people lence; they again became more killed. gentle, and thus changed alternate December 7. The earthquake of ly several times during the shock, the evening of the 25th, has provwhich lasted in all about two mi- ed fatal to Damascus; one-third of nutes. In about eight minutes af- the city was thrown down, and of ter this was over, a slight shock, of the people numbers yet unknown a few seconds duration, succeeded. perished in the ruins. The greater The thermometer was at 50, and part of the furviving inhabitants the barometer food at 28-9, the fled to the fields, where they still mercury fuffering no alteration. continued, being hourly alarmed There was little or no wind in the by frighter shocks, which deterred night, the sky clear, excepting them from re-entering the city, or fome heavy clouds, that hung a- attempting the relief of such as bout the moon. At a quarter after might yet be saved, by clearing four 'next morning, we had another away the rubbish. Such was the shock, which lasted fomewhat less purport of a letter I read this day, than a minute, and was hardly so which was wrote from Damascus strong as that of the preceding three days after the earthquake. night. The night of the 26th was Other accounts we have at this rainy and cloudy. At nine o'clock place, make the loss of the inhahe had a slight Mock, of a few se- bitants amount to 30000; but, in conds. The motion here appear- circumstances of such general hored to be very deep, and was rather ror and confusion, little accuracy undulatory than tremulous. The can be expected, and the eastern 27th, cloudy and rainy. From disposition to exaggeration reigris, at midnight of the 25th, besides these present, universally. now mentioned, four or five slighter, Tripoly has suffered rather more shocks were felt; but I myself was than Aleppo; three minorets, and sensible of none, till the morning of two or three houses, were thrown the 28th, when we had a short down while the walls of numbers. pulsatory shock. The same day, of the houses were rent. The at two o'clock, we had a pretty Franks, and many of the natives, smart shock, lasting about forty fé- have deserted the city, and remain conds. From this time I was sen- in the fields. fible of no more, though others ci At Seidon, great part of the ther felt or imagined several night Frank kane was overthrown, and vibrations every day.

fome of the Europeans narrowly However violent this earthquake escaped with their lives. Acri and was, or rather by the frightened Latakea have suffered little, bepeople of Aleppo, imagined to be, fides rents in some of the walls; but

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VOL. IV.

+ The Spires of the Turkish mosques or churches.

H

Saphet

zores.

great distance.

Saphet (eight hours from Acri) was An Account of the dreadful carib. totally deitroyed, together with the quakes and eruptions, which bapgreater part of the inhabitants. pened last April 1761, in the

Such are the most authentic ac island of Terceira, one of the Acounts we have from abroad; how

In a letter from Mr. James much they contribute to calm the Fearns, bis majelly's conful there. minds of the people at Aleppo, you To which are added, Dr. Mitcbell's may easily imagine. Since the af conjectures concerning the cause of ternoon of the 28th, several flight earthquakes and volcanos in goshocks have been every day felt, neral. and many more formed by the pow Ince the last of November we er of imagination: for my own have felt several earthquakes, part, I have since that time per- and on the 31st of March the sea ceived none, excepting one the rose to a great height, and fell again evening of the 5th, which was fo low, that the quays were left pretty ilrong, but lated not above dry; all the lighters and fithingtwenty seconds. The weather, for boats that were hauled up into Porthese two days, has been gloomy to Rico, were carried down into the and rainy; a change which people bay, and broke to pieces upon the are willing to flatter themselves is rocks. ' On the 14th of April, we favourable. It often lightens in the had four small earthquakes; and on night, and thunder is heard at a the 15th, about one in the morn

ing, we were all raised out of our

beds by a violent shock; from Extract of another letter from Dr. which time, the earth was almost

Patrick Russel, to Dr. Alexander continually trembling, till the evenRulet

, dated at Aleppo, 29 March, ing of the 17th, when we had two .176).

other violent shocks, attended with

noises like the discharging of can1

N my last, of the 7th of Decem- non. These, though they increaf

ber, I gave you a full account ed our fear, yet they seemed to of the earthquakes, which have oc- have a good effect upon the earth; cafioned an universal panic all over for afterwards tremblings were not Syria. There were several other so frequent. The next morning locks in December, and a few news was brought that there was a very flight ones in January : fince great smoke feen about 3 leagues which time, all has been quiet. to the N. W. of this city, which

Excepting a few old houses, none was foon confirmed by noises like of the buildings in Aleppo were ac thunder at a dillance, which seemtually thrown down; but the wallsed to proceed from the same place. of a considerable number of houses Several people were sent to examine bave been rent.

it, but so great were the tremblings We have had the wettest winter of the earth, and the smoke and I ever saw in this country. The the noises, that they durit not apCoic has every where overflowed its proach near enough to give a regubanks, and is just now much higher lar account. This continued three than it has been known to risc for days, in which we were continually many years.

alarmed with earthquakes, or the faid dreadful noises. On the 20th

we

we had three shocks that exceeded hills. The clattering of the stones any we had yet felt, in which the in the air, the terrible thunderings noises were so loud, and the agita- from below the lake, rivers of litions of the earth so violent, that quid fire, and the earth continually every body thought it was opening shaking under our feet, produced a under their feet; and soon after ac scene too dreadful to be described. count was brought, that fire was When we had taken a view of this, burst out of the ground, about half we joined our company, and went a league to the eastward of the a to the N. W. fide to see the rivers foresaid smoke. This gave us new of fire : the three large ones were alarms, which were increased al near a mile in breadth, and all die most every hour, with accounts, rected their course towards the that rivers of fire had issued out town of Biscouto. As the country of the volcanos, and that some was almost even, the motion of the of them directed their course to. two last was very slow; but the first wards this city. On the 23d I went had run near two leagues from the to see it, and found, that the ac- volcano, and was got into a more decounts we had heard were not ex- clining ground, which made its mo. aggerated : the first sight of it was tion swifter. It is impoflible to exfo dreadful, that some of our com- press the consternation and distresses pany durst not proceed; but I was of the inhabitants of this part of determined to approach as near as the island, particularly those of Birpossible; and accordingly went for couto: the first river was almost enward, with a clergyman in that tering their town, which they had neighbourhood. When we were as already abandoned ; and the two near as we could go for the heat, others that came behind, threatenwe got upon an eminence, from ed to overwhelm the adjacent coun. whence we had a prospect of the try; for they run in a head of at whole. It is impossible for the least four yards high, and left no imagination to form so horrible a sign of either tree or house that fight as presented itself to our views stood in their way. This was the from thence. There were three state of things on the 23d. But large volcanos, at a considerable di on the 24th, it pleased the AlAtance from each other (the mouth mighty to abate the force of the of one of them was at least fifty fire, and soon after the rivers began yards long) from all parts of which to have a slower motion: they proceeded dreadful bellowings like moved along however, for several thunder, and vast quantities of red day's, and part of the first entered hot stones and flakes of fire: and the town of Biscouto, where it all round about was a large burn- burnt about one third of the houses, ing lake, out of which proceeded and then directed its course into a several rivers, the principal ones valley on one side, where it contidirecting their courses about N. W. nued its motion four or five days, the larger stones fell generally near and then stopped. I send you this the place from whence they issued, to satisfy you for the present ; when but the smaller ones were thrown the rivers, &c. are cooled, I shall up to an incredible height, and by go again and examine them thothe wind were forced on one side, roughly, and then I shall give you 2 which had already raised three large more regular account.

03 We cannot conclude these It is a mountain, fingularly eml. accounts of earthquakes and erup. nent, whether you regard its tions, without taking notice of height, or the immense base upon what the Rev. Mr. John Mitchell, which it stands. It is near twenty of Queen's College, Cambridge, miles, in circumference, and hath has lately publiihed concerning Clapham, a church town, to the them. His conjectures are, that fouth; Ingleton to the weit; Chapet the immediate cause of earthquakes in the Dale to the north; and Sel. is a subterraneous explosion, and fide, a small hamlet, to the east;

that the cause of the fubterraneous from each of which places the rise, .. explosion is a quantity of water fud- in some parts, is even and gradual ;

denly breaking in upon a subterra- in others, rugged and perpendi. necus fire, by which a vapour is cular. In this mountain rise confi. instantly produced, the quantity derable streams, which at length and elastic force of which are equal fall into the Irish fea. The land to all the phænomena of earth- round the bottom is fine fruitful paquakes : all his obfervations tend sture, intersperfed with many acres to confirm these conjectures, which of limestone rocks. As you ascend seem perfe&lly to coincide with all the mountain, the land is more the phenomena of earthquakes ; and barren, and under the surface is fuch phenomena are here faithfully peat moss, in many places two of and carefully collected, related and three yards deep, which the councompared. In thert, it is the best try people cut up, and dry for tract upon the subject that has yet burning, instead of coal. As the appeared.

mountain rises, it becomes more rugged and perpendicular, and is

at length fo steep that it cannot be A description of Ingleborough, a monn- afcended without great difficulty,

tain in Yorkshire, figned Pastor. and in some places not at all. In With an indication of some other many parts there are fine quarries places remarkable for natural co of nate, which the neighbouring inriofities in the north of England. habitants use to cover their houses;

there are also many loose ftones,

; west riding of the county of base, no stones but lime-stone are to York; the westerly and northerly be found. The loose ftones near part of it lies in the parilh of Ben- the summit the people call geret

tham ; the easterly in the parish of stone. The foot of the mountain • Horton in Pibbledale ; the souther- abounds with fine springs on every ly in the parish of Clapham. It is side, and on the west lide there is

of four manors. The remarkable {pring near the manor of ingleton, to the west, be fummit. The top is very level, Bonging to Parker, esq; the but so dry and barren that it affords manor of Newby, to the co-heirs little grass, the rock being but

the late duke of Montagu ; the barely covered with earth. It is Juanor of Clapham, to Josias Mor- faid to be about a mile in circumcy, efq; and the manor of Auit ference, and several persons now wick, to James Shuttleworth, efq; living fay, that they have seen races

upon

1 kewise a part

a very

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