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attest the ancient splendour of Ammon, can now be they caused their children to pass through fire in his made subservient, by means of a single act of reflection, honour. They were excluded from the congregation of to a far nobler purpose than the most magnificent edifices Israel to the tenth generation, because they did not on earth can be, when they are contemplated as the come to the relief of the Israelites when attacked in monuments on which the historic and prophetic truth of the Wilderness by the Amalekites; and because they Scripture is blended in one bright inscription.” Keith were involved in the transgression of Balaam. on the Evidence of Prophecy.

As their chief city bears awful marks of the fulfilment “ The dreariness of its present aspect is quite inde- of prophecy, so also does the fate of the people. Justin scribable ; it looks like the abode of Death : the valley Martyr, in the second century of the Christian era, says, stinks with dead camels; one of them was rotting in the that there were still many Ammonites remaining; but stream, and, though we saw none among the ruins, they Origen, in the fourth, assures us that, in his day, they were absolutely covered in every direction with their were known only under the general nanie of Arabians. dung. That morning's ride would have convinced a In this manner was the prediction of Ezekiel (25. 10) sceptic: how runs the prophecy?_'I will make Rab- accomplished, that the Ammonites may not be remembah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couching- bered among the nations, “ being given in possession” place for flocks; and ye shall know that I am the Lord ! to “the men of the east." It is generally supposed that

“ There are many ruins in the valley of Ammon, but this occurred about five years after the destruction of in such utter decay that it is difficult to say what they Jerusalem by the Chaldæans, B.C. 583, when Nebuhave been. Such is the state of ancient Ammon, or, chadnezzar ravaged the whole country round Judæa, rather, of Philadelphia, for no buildings there can boast and burnt Rabbah, carrying its inhabitants captive to of a prior date to that of the change of name. Let me Babylon. Cyrus probably released them; for we see again cite the prophecy; how runs it?—“Ammon shall them afterwards in the lands of their former settlement. be a desolation! Rabbah of the Ammonites shall be a The country was still populous when the Romans became desolate heap! I will make Rabbah a stable for camels, masters of Syria, and some of the ten allied cities, called and the Ammonites a couching-place for flocks; and ye Decapolis, stood within its boundaries. Robinson's Pashall know that I am the Lord !” Lord Lindsay's lestine ; Horne's Introd. Travels.

AMNON, the son of David and Ahinoam. Having AMMONITES, a people descended from Ammon, conceived a criminal passion for his father's daughter the son of Lot, who dwelt on the east side of Judæa, Tamar, he violated her; and, two years after, when he beyond Jordan, in a region which ran from south to was intoxicated at a feast made by Absalom, the brother north, not far from Lake Asphaltitis, forming a portion of Tamar, the servants of the latter assassinated him. of Arabia Petræa. The Ammonites destroyed its original (2Sam. 13.) inhabitants, a gigantic race, called Zamzummims, (Deut.

AMOK, a priest; one who returned from Babylon. 2. 19-21,) and seized upon their country. God forbade (Nehem. 12. 7,20.) Moses to attack the Ammonites, (Deut. 2. 19,) because their land was not to be possessed by the children of

I. AMON, king of Judah, son of Manasseh and Israel, it having been bestowed on the children of Lot Meshullemeth, daughter of Haruz of Jotbah. He began for a possession; but most of the country belonging both

to reign A.M. 3362, at the age of twenty-two, and to the Ammonites and the Moabites was conquered reigned but two years. (2Kings 21. 19,21.) Ile forsook by the Amorites during the journeyings of the Israelites Jehovah and worshipped idols

. His servants conspired in the Wilderness. The Ammonites and Moabites af. against him, and slew him in his own house, B.C. 640.

Calmet. terwards joined together against the Israelites, and held them in bondage for seven years, until delivered by

II. The governor of Samaria, who kept the proJephthah, who took twenty of their towns, and " sub- phet Micaiah in custody, by King Ahab's order. (1 Kings dued them before the children of Israel.” (Judges 11.33.)

22. 26.) In the reign of Saul, Nahash their king laid siege to

, A people descended from the city of Jabesh, or Jabesh Gilead; but Saul de Amor, the fourth son of Canaan, who gave his name feated them and relieved the place. (1Sam. 11. 11.) to the country. (Gen, 10. 16.) They first peopled the David punished Hanan, the son and successor of Nahash, mountains west of the Dead Sea, and had likewise for a gross and wanton affront put on some ambassadors establishments to the east of the same sea, between the whom he sent; took Rabbah, their capital, and sub- brooks of Jabbok and Arnon, from whence they forced jected them to his authority. They remained tributary the Ammonites and Moabites. (Josh. 5. 1; Judges 11. to Solomon, but afterwards occupied the towns of Reuben 19-22.) Moses conquered their kings, Sihon and Og, in and Gad, when abandoned by those tribes who were the year B.C. 1452. (Numb. 21.) taken captive by Tiglath Pileser, King of Assyria. The prophet Amos, in speaking of their gigantic Before this period, when the Syrians were oppressing stature and valour, compares them to cedars, and their the kingdom of Israel, the Ammonites committed the strength to that of the oak. The name Amorite, is most inhuman excesses in Gilead, putting to death preg- often taken in Scripture for Canaanites generally. The nant women and little children, (Amos 1. 13,) and lands which the Amorites possessed on this side Jordan, afterwards during the persecution by Antiochus Epi- were given to the tribe of Judah, and those which they phanes, they manifested their hatred to the Jews, and had enjoyed beyond this river, were divided between the exercised great cruelties against those who dwelt near tribes of Reuben and Gad. Calmet; Encyc. Brit. them. (1 Macc. 5. 6-45.)

We know little of their government and pursuits, I. AMOS, the fourth of the lesser prophets, who except that they were ruled by kings, and were chiefly in his youth, had been herdsman at Tekoa, a small town engaged in agriculture. Jeremiah styles them uncir about four leagues southward of Jerusalem. cuincised: and it seems that they had by degrees aban- The prophet was sent to the “kine of Bashan,” that is, doned the religion of their forefathers

, and fallen into to the people of Samaria, or the kingdom of Israel, to idolatry. Moloch was worshipped by them-an idol call them to repentance; having returned to Tekoa, he whose rites were particularly cruel and bloody—and continued to prophesy, and he complains of the violent

אטרי AMORITES

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endeavours made to force him to silence. He boldly Amphipolis is one of the most important in Greece. remonstrates against the prevailing sins of the Israelites It stands in a pass which traverses the mountaios -idolatry, oppression, wantonness, and obstinacy, and bordering the Strymonic Gulf, and it commands the only warns them that their sins will at last end in the ruin easy communication from the coast of that gulf, into of Judah and Israel, which he illustrates by the visions the great Macedonian plains, which exterd for sixty of a plumb-line, and a basket of summer fruit.

miles from beyond Meleniko to Philippi." There is a Amos was called to the prophetic office in the time miserable place near it called Emboli by the Turks. of Uzziah, king of Judah, and Jeroboam, the son of Winer, Biblisches Realnorterbuch; Horne's Introd. Joash, king of Israel, “two years before the earthquake," (Amos). 1,) which, according to the Rabbins, and most of the modern commentators, happened in the twentyfourth or twenty-fifth year of Uzziah, or in the year of the world, 3219, when this prince usurped the priest's office, and attempted to offer incense to the Lord. The first of the prophecies of Amos, in the order of time, are those of the 7th chapter. He there foretels the mis.

AITON fortunes which should befall the kingdom of Israel after the death of Rehoboam II. who was then living: he likewise predicts the death of Zechariah ; the invasion of

Coin oi Arapbirolis, with the Head of Apolio. Israel by Pul and Tiglath Pileser, kings of Assyria; and the captivity of the ten tribes. The time and manner

AMPHORA, a liquid measure among the Greeks of the prophet's death are unknown.

and Romans, is often taken in the Vulgate in an appellaSt. Jerome calls Amos, “ rude in speech, but not in tive sense, for a pitcher, or vessel, to hold wine or water. knowledge;" (Pref. Com. in Amos,) applying to him what St. Paul modestly professes of himself. (2Cor. shall a man meet you bearing a pitcher of water," —

Thus the passage in Luke 22. 10, is rendered, “There 11.6.) The matter, however, as Bishop Lowth remarks, (kepaplov) amphoram aquæ portans. At other times it is far otherwise :-“ Let any person who has candour is taken for a certain measure. The Roman amphora and perspicuity enough to judge, not from the man, but contained forty-eight sextaries, equal to about seven from his writings, open the volume of his predictions, gallons one pint, English wine measure; and the Greand he will, I think, agree that our shepherd is not a

cian or Attic amphora contained one-third more. Anwhit behind the very chief of the prophets

. (2Cor. 11.5.) phora was also a dry measure used by the Romans, and He will agree, that as, in sublimity and magnificence, contained about three bushels. he is almost equal to the greatest, so in splendour of diction, and elegance of expression, he is scarcely inferior AMPLIAS, mentioned by St. Paul, as one whom to any. The same celestial Spirit, indeed, actuated Isaiah he particularly loved. (Rom. 16. 8.) It is not known, and David in the court, and Amos in the sheep-folds; with certainty, who Amplias was; but the Greeks say constantly selecting such interpreters of the Divine will, that he was ordained Bishop of Odypopolis, in Mæsia, as were best adapted to the occasion, and sometimes by St. Andrew; and was an apostolical person, at least 'from the mouth of babes and sucklings perfecting one of the seventy-two disciples, and a martyr. His praise,' constantly employing the natural eloquence of festival, in the Greek Kalendar, is observed Oct. 31. some, and occasionally making others eloquent.” Bishop Calmet. Lowth's Lectures. II. AMOS or AMOZ, the father of the prophet

I. AMRAM, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, Isaiah, was said to be the son of King Joash, and brother married Jochebed, “his father's sister,” by whom he to Amaziah, The Rabbins assert, that the father of had Aaron, Miriam, and Moses. Ile died in Egypt. Isaiah was also a prophet, according to a rule among (Exod. 6. 20.) Before the giving of the Law, it was them, that when the father of a prophet is called in permitted to marry a father's sister, but this was afterScripture by his name, it is an indication that he also

wards forbidden. (Levit. 18. 12.) had the gift of prophecy. (Clem. Alex. lib. 1. Stromat.)

II. A descendant. of Bani, one who, after the St. Augustin conjectured, (De Civit. Dei, lib. 18.c. 27,) return from Babylon, separated from his wife, as he that the prophet Amos was the father of Isaiah; but the had married contrary to the law. (Ezra 10. 34.) names of these two persons, are written differently. Besides, the father of Isaiah, as well as Isaiah himself, Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and two other kings, to

AMRAPHEL, king of Shinar, confederated with was of Jerusalem.

make war against the kings of Pentapolis, (viz.) Sodom, III. AMOS, son of Naum, and father of Matta- Gomorrah, and the three neighbouring cities, which they thias, in the genealogy of our Saviour. (Luke 3. 25.)

plundered; among the captives whom they carried off,

was Lot, Abraham's nephew; but Abraham pursued AMPHIPOLIS, a city of Thrace, called in the time of the Byzantine empire, Chrysopoli. It was nearly them, retook Lot, and recovered the spoil

. (Gen. 14.) surrounded by the river Strymon, whence its name. AMULET, an appended remedy; a thing put (Thucyd. iv. 102.) It was built by Cimon, the Athenian, about the neck for preventing or curing. about 470 years before the Christian era, and peopled

That amulets were known, even in patriarchal times, with a colony of Athenians, to the number of 10,000. is manifest from the instance of the ear-rings, which (Plin. iv. 17.) This city was a source of great annoy- being instruments of superstition, Jacob obliged his ance to Philip, king of Macedonia, who drove the Athe people to deliver up to him, and which he buried under nians from it, and allowed the citizens to form a the oak near Shechem. (Gen. 35. 2-4.) Moses also, it republiç. Paul and Silas passed through this city after it is now well understood, alluded to the previous use of their deliverance from the prison at Philippi, on their talismans and amulets, when he commanded the Israelway to Thessalonica. (Acts 17. 1.) The spot on which ites to bind his words for a sign upon their hands, and the ruins of Amphipolis are still to be traced, is called that they should be as frontlets between their eyes. Jenikevi. Colonel Leakc observes, “The position of (Exod. 13. 9.)

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,sons of Anak בני ענק ,ANAKIM ענק ,ANAK

The amulets of the Jews were sometimes certain small over the service of song in the house of the Lord. (1

roots hung about the Chron. 6. 46.)
neck; but more generally II. The ancestor of Adaiah, one of those chiefs
certain words in writing, who dwelt at Jerusalem. (Nehem. 11. 12.)
-being, in the simpler

ANAB, a city in a chain of mountains of the tribe form, extracts from the

of Judah, near which Joshua put to death some Amorites law supposed to be appli- of gigantic stature. (Josh. 11. 21; 15. 50.). It lay cable to the case; but

south of Jerusalem; four miles east of Diospolis. often mysterious names and characters disposed ANAH, son of Zibeon the Hivite, and father of according to the rules of Aholibamah, the wife of Esau. (Gen. 36. 2,20,24.) cabalistic art, frequent. While feeding asses in the desert he discovered springs ly within the well- of warm water, not mules, as the English translators, known hexagonal figure and several others, understand the Hebrew word. Pro

called the shield of David fessor Robinson remarks, “ that five or six miles southor the seal of Solomon. This, with some other Jewish east of the Dead Sea, and consequently in the neighpractices, appears to have arisen from the misapprehen- bourhood of Mount Seir, is a place celebrated among sion, or gross perversion, of the passage in the law, the Greeks and Romans for its warm baths.There Deut. 6. 7,8.

is some difficulty in the representation in Gen. 36, v. 2, Amulets were considered efficacious in the prevention of Anah being the daughter of Zibeon, for afterwards or cure of diseases, and, indeed, the medical practice of in v. 24, Anah is spoken of as a son. Rosenmüller thinks the Jews consisted of little else. Lightfoot says, “ There that a son and daughter of the same name are given. were hardly any people in the whole world, that more used or were more fond of amulets, charms, mutterings, Issachar. (Josh. 19. 19.)

ANAHARATH, a city belonging to the tribe of exorcisms, and all kinds of enchantments." Their only difficulties respected the use of them on the Sabbath ANAIAH, one of the scribes who stood beside day; and the decision was, according to the Mishna, that Ezra when he expounded the law. (Nehem. 8. 4.) a man should not go abroad with his amulet on the He was also one of those that sealed the covenant. Sabbath, unless it had been prescribed by an approved (Nehem. 10. 22.) “physician,"—that is, by one who was known to have cured at least three persons previously by the same

, , ,

(Numb 13. 33; Deut. 9. 2.) The Anakim were an means. The forms of amulets were as much diversified as

ancient gigantic people, who inhabited before the in

vasion of the Israelites the neighbourhood of Hebron their objects, among the Orientals.

Almost every

different kind of gem had its virtue as an amulet, and

and some of the adjacent regions (Josh. 11. 21), but besides these, amulets among the Egyptians, Greeks, and

were destroyed, with the exception of a few traces in Romans, often bore the form of an ornament, such as

the Philistine towns of Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. The crowns of pearls, necklaces of shells, gems, coral, &c.;

word appears to be originally an appellative ; üs with the heads and figures of gods, heroes, lions, horses,

homines principes. Gesenius. dogs, rats, birds, fish, and various grotesque and obscure

According to Bochart, the Beneanak, or Anakim, re

tired to the territories of Tyre and Zidon, and gave objects. Among the early Christians, amulets, against disease,

them the general name of Phænicia. were formed of materials having an imaginary connexion ANAMIM DOY (Gen. 10. 13,) a people of with the distemper; thus red against all morbid affections | Egyptian origin. Bochart was of opinion that these

of a fiery or febrile charac- Anamim dwelt in the countries around the temple of
ter, crystal or glass against Jupiter Ammon, and in the Nasamonitis.
those that were watery or The Septuagint in Genesis has Eveuettelu, or Alve-
dropsical, and so of others. LETLEIf, but in the Chronicles Avajielpl. From these
The images and figures of it is conjectured were descended the Amians and Gara-
different materials are men- mantes, or foreign and wandering Anams.
tioned by Irenæus, and
some of the mysterious

ANAMMELECH, 750gy an idol of the Sepharwords engraven on them,

vites. (2Kings 17. 31.) It appears to be compounded

pis image, statue, and tho king. The by contemporary historians. first part occurs also in Eveuecoap. (Tobit 1. 2,13, (Irenæus Hæres, c. 24; 15,16.) i. e. 10NOJY It is supposed to have signified Hieron. c. 3. 1.) They the moon. Gesenius; Winer, Bibl. Worterbuch. See were called amulets from ADRAMMELECH. their supposed efficacy in

ANAN, one of those who sealed the covenant. allaying evil, quod malum

(Nehem. 10. 26.) amolitur. Some derive the word from amula, a small ANANI, one of the sons of Elioenai. (1 Chron.

vessel of lustral water car- 3. 24.) mummy, stained red. ried about by the Romans.

I. ANANIAH, the ancestor of Azariah, one of It is a term also used by Pliny.

those who rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem. (Nehem. See DIVINATION; TALISMAN; TERAPHIM. Also Selden

3. 23.) de Diis Syriis ; Carpzov de Teraphimis; Jahn, Bibl.

II. A city of Palestine, where the Benjamites Archæol., Winer, Bibl. Worterbuch.

dwelt after the captivity. (Nehem. 11. 32.)

I. ANANIAS, the son of Nebedæus, who was high I. AMZI, an ancestor of Ethan, one of those set priest, A.D. 47. He was sent as a prisoner to Rome by

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Quadratus, governor of Syria, and Jonathan was ap- What the Apostle demands of the Corinthians respectpointed in his place; but being discharged by Claudius, ing the offender“ who loves not the Lord Jesus Christ,” in consequence of the protection of Agrippa, he returned is, that they should exclude him from their society, that to Jerusalem, where, as Jonathan had been murdered he should cease to be regarded as a member of the through the treachery of Felix, the successor of Quad-Church; he does not pretend to pronounce any further ratus, Ananias appears to have performed the func- judgment upon him, but expressly refers to the judgment tions of the high priest, as Sagan or substitute, until of God. (1Cor. 16. 22.) Riddle's Christ. Antiq.; Jahn, Ismael, the son of Phabæus, was appointed to that Bibl. Archæol. office by Agrippa. Before this Ananias St. Paul was brought; and the Apostle's prediction that God " would ANATHOTH, a city in the tribe of Benjamin, smite him," (Acts 23. 3,) was subsequently accom- supposed to have been so named from Anathoth, the son plished, when he was murdered in the palace by a body of Becher, and grandson of Benjamin. (1Chron. 6. 69.) of mutineers, at the head of whom was his own son. According to Eusebius and Jerome, it was situated about

II. A Jew of Jerusalem, the husband of Sapphira, three miles north of Jerusalem ; Josephus says it was who, on being convicted of falsehood by St. Peter, fell twenty furlongs distant. It is memorable as being the dead at the feet of the apostle. (Acts 5. 1-5.)

birth-place of the prophet Jeremiah. It was one of III. A Christian of Damascus, who restored the sight those towns allotted to the priests, (1Chron. 6. 60,) and of St. Paul, after his vision. (Acts 9. 10-18; 22. 12, 13.) was also a city of refuge; Abiathar, the deposed highANANUS. See AnnAS.

priest, was confined at Anathoth by the order of Solo

mon. It was severely harassed by the Assyrians under ANATH, the father of Shamgar, judge of Israel. Sennacherib, and only one hundred and twenty-eight of (Judges 3. 31.)

the men of Anathoth returned from Babylon. (Nehem.

7. 27; Ezra 2. 23.) It was a mean village in the time ANATHEMA, a Greek word which denotes an ex- of Jerome, and is now a mass of ruins. Horne's communication attended with curses, and is of two kinds, Introd. judiciary and abjuratory. By the judiciary anathema, the offender is not merely excommunicated, but is totally ANDREW, the apostle, the son of Jonas, and separated from all intercourse with the faithful, and is brother of the apostle Peter, was an inhabitant of Bethdelivered over soul and body to Satan. The abjuratory saida, a town situated on the shore of the lake of anathema is prescribed to converts who are obliged to Gennesareth; and was by occupation a fisherman. Ile anathematize their former heresy. In the New Testa- was first a disciple of John the Baptist by whom he was ment, and in the censures of the primitive Church, we directed to our Saviour, and carried the joyful tidings to meet with an extraordinary form of censure, “anathema his brother Simon, and conducted him to the Messiah. maranatha," which signifies the Lord is come," and the The two brothers, however, did not remain long with denunciation "Let him be, anathema maranatha,” may Jesus at this time, but returned to their own home, and be interpreted, “Let him be accursed at the coming of continued their former occupation, till, about a year afterour Lord.” This was the most dreadful imprecation wards, our Lord passing through Galilee, found them among the Jews; and has been thus paraphrased, “May fishing upon the sea of Tiberias, where he gave them a he be devoted to the greatest of evils, and to the utmost miraculous draught of fishes, and thus made them fully severity of the Divine judgment: may the Lord come sensible of his Divine power. Availing himself of the quickly to take vengeance upon him."

conviction, which that event had produced in their 1. Excommunication in the slightest degree was sepa- minds, our Lord told them that he was to make them ration from the Synagogue, and the suspension of inter- “fishers of men," by employing them in preaching and course with all Jews whatever. This separation con- propagating the Gospel; and they immediately left their tinued for thirty days. Buxtorf, Lex Chald.; Talm. nets and followed him. Rabb.

When the miraculous powers of the Holy Ghost had 2. The second degree was denominated on the descended upon the apostles to qualify them for the curse. It was pronounced with imprecations in the duties of their sacred mission, Scythia and the neighpresence of ten men, and so thoroughly excluded the bouring countries were assigned to the apostle Andrew. guilty person from all communion whatever with his In his way he travelled through Cappadocia, Galatia, countrymen, that they were not allowed to sell him any Bithynia, and along the banks of the Euxine sea, inthing, not even the necessaries of life. Buxtorf, Lex. structing the inhabitants in the Christian faith. (Euseb. Chald.; Talm. Rabb.; comp. John 16. 1,2; 1Cor. 5. 2-9. lib. iii. c. 1.) He afterwards travelled over Thrace,

3. The third degree of excommunication, which was Macedonia, Thessaly, and Achaia, preaching and propamore severe in its consequences than either of the pre- gating the Gospel, and confirming, by various miracles, ceding, was denominated xnx DW Shem-atha, or the truth of the doctrines which he taught. It is sup

It was a solemn and absolute posed that he founded a Christian church in Constanexclusion from all intercourse and communion with any tinople; and that he ordained the person named by other individuals of the nation; the criminal was left in St. Paul, (Rom. 16. 9,) the beloved Stachys, the first the hands and to the justice of God.

bishop of that place.

At length he came to Patræ, a city of Achaia, where the Name (i.e. God) comes, and with XX y our Lord he gave his last and greatest testimony to the truth of cometh, is a question on which there is a difference of the Gospel. Ægeas, the proconsul, enraged at his boldly opinion. The latter is a Syro-Chaldaic phrase, and persisting to preach the doctrine of a crucified Saviour, occurs nowhere else in the Bible, nor in any of the commanded him to join in offering sacrifices to the Rabbinical writers. It is very probable that in the time heathen gods; and upon the apostle's refusal, he ordered of Christ, the second degree of excommunication was not that he should be severely scourged, and then sentenced distinguished from the third, and that both were ex- to death on the cross. That death he cheerfully enpressed by the phraseology which is used in 1Cor. 5. 5, dured; his cross was shaped like the letter X, which and I Tim. 1. 20, viz.: "unto deliver to Satan for the from that circumstante commonly bears the name of St. destruction of the flesh.”

Andrew's cross. To make his death the more painful

.Maran atha מרן אתא

שם אתא be the same with שמהא IVhether the word

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16.7.)

and lingering, he was fastened to the cross, not with angel; the first order being that of Michael; the second, nails but with cords. Having hung two days, praising of Gabriel; the third, of Uriel; and the fourth, of God for his martyrdorn and exhorting the spectators to Raphael. a faith in those doctrines for which he suffered, he is 3. Though the Jews in general believed the existence said to have expired on the 30th of November, but in of angels, there was a sect among them who denied the what year is uncertain. The Emperor Constantine existence of all spirits whatever, God only excepted. caused his body to be removed to Constantinople, and to (Acts 23. 8.) Before the Babylonish captivity, the be interred with much solemnity in a church which he Hebrews seem not to have known the names of any had built in honour of the Apostles. Epiphanius men- angel; the Talmudists say they brought the names of tions the Acts of St. Andrew, a spurious book, which angels from Babylon. Tobit, who is thought to have was used by the Encratites and Origenians. Lipsius de resided in Nineveh some time before the captivity, menCruce; Cave's Lives of the Apostles; Horne's Introd. tions the angel Raphael, (Tobit 3. 17; 11. 2,7,) and

Daniel, who lived at Babylon some time after Tobit, has ANDRONICUS, a Jewish Christian, a kinsman taught us the names of Michael and Gabriel. (Dan. 8. and fellow-prisoner of St. Paul, who says that he was of 16; 9. 21; 10. 21.) In 2Esd. 4. 1, the angel Uriel is note or in reputation among the apostles; by which ex

mentioned. In the New Testament we find only Gabriel pression we are not to understand that he was one of the

and Michael. (Luke 1. 19; Rev. 12.7.) number of the apostles, but that he was one of those

4. The notion which we ordinarily attach to the word early converts who were highly esteemed before the dis- Angel is that of a created spirit, of greater purity, unpersion occasioned by the death of Stephen. (Rom. derstanding and power, than belong to human nature,

subjected to the Supreme Governor of the Universe, and

ministering to his Providence, by his appointment in the I. ANEM. See ExGANNIM. II. A Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar. (Josh. ible to our senses, unless assuming a corporeal form, for

government of the world; yet invisible and impercept19. 21 ; 21. 29.)

the manifestation of some particular act of power. That I. ANER. Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, were three beings of such a nature exist, has been an article of Canaanite chieftains, who joined their forces with those faith in almost every religion of the world, and it is a of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer, Amraphel, and belief extremely consistent with the natural dictates of their allies, who had pillaged Sodom, and carried off Lot, reason. In the works of creation with which we are Abraham's nephew. (Gen. 14. 24.) Calmet.

acquainted, we find a regular gradation pervading the II. Aner, a Levitical city of the tribe of Manasseh. whole, from the rudest specimen of brute matter up to (1Chron. 6. 70.) It is said by Eusebius to be the same man, the lord and ruler of the lower world. Minerals, place as Taanach.

vegetables, and animals, rise regularly in dignity one

above the other; the lowest species of these kingdoms of ANGEL, a spiritual intelligent substance, the first nature, ascends but little above the highest in that imin rank and dignity among created beings. The word mediately beneath it; and nowhere do we find wide Angel is Greek, and signifies a messenger. The Hebrew transitions or gaps in the scale of existence. It can 7852 (from 785 in Arabic and Ethiopic, to send,) signi- scarcely therefore be believed that the interval between fies the same thing. The angels are in Daniel (4. 13, &c.) man and the Supreme Being, which presents so wide a called “watchers," from their vigilance; for the same chasm, is totally unpeopled. It is more natural to supreason they are in the remains of the Prophecy of Enoch pose that the interval is filled up by numerous orders of named Egregori, which word imports the same in the intelligent creatures, to whom the blessing of existence Greek.

has been imparted by the Creator, and who are in a The term angel, therefore, in the proper signification variety of ways subservient to the accomplishment of the of the word, does not import the nature of any being, purposes of his Providence. 'but only an office; in which sense Angels are called the 5. The doctrine of an evil as well as a good genius, ministers of God and ministering spirits. That there influencing the fate of every member of the human race, are such beings invisible and imperceptible to our senses, seems to have been borrowed from the Persian school, endued with understanding and power superior to those and did not prevail among the earlier Greeks and Roof human nature, created by God and subject to Him,

We hear only of the evil genius of Brutus, ministering to his Divine providence in the government which appeared to him before the battle of Philippi. of the world, are truths fully attested by Scripture. The words of Our Saviour (Matt. 18. 10,) are supposed Nay, the existence of such invisible beings was generally to give countenance to the belief in guardian angels. acknowledged by the heathen, though under different “ Take heed," says he to his disciples, “ that ye despise appellations; the Greeks called them demons, and the not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in Romans genii or lares. Epicurus seems to have been heaven their angels do always behold the face of my the only one among the ancient philosophers, who abso. Father which is in heaven.". This seems to imply, that lutely rejected them.

children at least are under the protection of these divine 2. The Fathers who believed angels had bodies, beings; and, with this limitation, the doctrine may be were Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, Cæsarius, Tertul- considered as by no means inconsistent with the dictates lian, and several others. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. of reason. Gregory Nyssen, St. Cyril, and St. Chrysostom, held 6. On the question of guardian angels, Bishop Horsley them to be spirits only. Ecclesiastical writers make an observes, " That the holy angels are often employed by hicrarchy of nine orders of angels; others have distri- God in his government of this sublunary world is indeed buted angels into nine orders, according to the names to be clearly proved by Holy Writ. That they have by which they are called in Scripture, and reduced these power over the matter of the universe analogous to the orders into three hierarchies; to the first of which belong power over it which men possess, greater in extent but Seraphim, Cherubim, and thrones; to the second, do. still limited, is a thing which might be reasonably supminions, virtues, and powers; and to the third, princi- posed, if it were not declared. But it seems to be palities, archangels, and angels. The Jews reckon four confirmed by many passages of Holy Writ. That the orders or companies of angels, each headed by an arch-evil angels possessed before their fall the like powers,

mans.

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