for the independence of America, their swords would have dropped from their hands, and the heroic fire have gone out within their

hearts. 35 It was nine o'clock, and the adverse armies stood motionless,

each gazing on the other. The clouds hung low, and, at intervals, warm light showers descended, besprinkling both alike. The coppice and cornfields in front of the British troops were filled

with French sharp-shooters, who kept up a distant, spattering 40 fire. Here and there a soldier fell in the ranks, and the gap was filled in silence.

At a little before ten, the British could see that Montcalm was preparing to advance, and, in a few moments, all his troops

appeared in rapid motion. They came on in three divisions, 45 shouting after the manner of their nation, and firing heavily as soon as they came within range.

In the British ranks, not a trigger was pulled, not a soldier stirred; and their ominous composure seemed to damp the spirits

of the assailants. It was not till the French were within forty 50 yards that the fatal word was given, and the British muskets

blazed forth at once in one crashing explosion. Like a ship at full career, arrested with sudden ruin on a sunken rock, the ranks of Montcalm staggered, shivered, and broke before that wasting storm

of lead. 55 The smoke, rolling along the field, for a moment shut out the

view; but when the white wreaths were scattered on the wind, a wretched spectacle was disclosed; men and officers tumbled in heaps, battalions resolved into a mob, order and obedience gone;

and when the British muskets were leveled for a second volley, 60 the masses of the militia were seen to cower and shrink with uncontrollable panic.

For a few minutes, the French regulars stood their ground, returning a sharp and not ineffectual fire. But now, echoing cheer

on cheer, redoubling volley on volley, trampling the dying and 65 the dead, and driving the fugitives in crowds, the British troops

advanced and swept the field before them. The ardor of the men burst all restraint. They broke into a run, and with unsparing slaughter chased the flying multitude to the gates of Quebec.

Foremost of all, the light-footed Highlanders dashed along in 70 furious pursuit, hewing down the Frenchmen with their broad

swords, and slaying many in the very ditch of the fortifications. Never was victory more quick or more decisive.

Biographical and Historical: Francis Parkman is one of America's greatest historians. He took for his theme the great conflict between the English, the French, and the Indians on the frontiers of the northern new world. He was not only a historian of genius, but was gifted with a delightful style. His books are full of the fragrance of woods and streams and the fresh, free air of the plains and the mountains.



England's hold of the colonies is in the close affection which grows from common names, from kindred blood, from similar privileges, and equal protection. These are ties, which, though

light as air, are as strong as links of iron. Let the colonies always 5 keep the idea of their civil rights associated with your govern

ment; they will cling and grapple to you, and no force under heaven will be of power to tear them from their allegiance. But let it once be understood that your government may be one thing,

and their privileges another; that these two things may exist 10 without any mutual relation—the cement is gone; the cohesion

is loosened; and everything hastens to decay and dissolution. As long as you have the wisdom to keep the sovereign authority of this country as the sanctuary of liberty, the sacred temple conse

crated to our common faith; wherever the chosen race and sons 15 of England worship freedom, they will turn their faces toward

you. The more they multiply, the more friends you will have;

the more ardently they love liberty, the more perfect will be their obedience. Slavery they can have anywhere. It is a weed that

grows in every soil. They may have it from Spain; they may 20 have it from Prussia; but, until you become lost to all feelings

of your true interest and your natural dignity, freedom they can have from none but you. This is the commodity of price of which you have the monopoly. This is the true Act of Navigation, which

binds to you the commerce of the colonies, and through them 25 secures to you the wealth of the world. Deny them this partici

pation of freedom, and you break that sole bond which originally made, and must still preserve, the unity of the empire. Do not entertain so weak an imagination as that your registers and your

bonds, your affidavits and your sufferances, are what form the 30 great securities of your commerce. Do not dream that your letters

of office, and your instructions, and your suspending clauses, are the things that hold together the great contexture of this mysterious whole. These things do not znake your government. Dead instru

ments, passive tools as they are, it is the spirit of the English 35 communion that gives all their life and efficacy to them. It is

the spirit of the English constitution, which, infused through the mighty mass, pervades, feeds, unites, invigorates, vivifies every part of the empire, even down to the minutest member. Is it not

the same virtue which does everything for. us here in England ? 40 Do you imagine, then, that it is the land tax which raises

your revenue? That it is the annual vote in the committee of supply which gives you your army? Or that it is the mutiny bill which inspires it with bravery and discipline ? No! surely no!

It is the love of the people; it is their attachment to their govern45 ment, from the sense of the deep stake they have in such a glorious

institution, which gives you your army and your navy, and infuses into both that liberal obedience without which your army would be a base rabble and your navy nothing but rotten timber.

Biographical and Historical: Edmund Burke was a British statesman of Irish birth, who lived at the time of the American Revolution. While William Pitt opposed, in the House of Lords, the policy of the British

government, Edmund Burke delivered, in the House of Commons, bis famous speech on the Conciliation of the Colonies, March 22, 1775. This extract is taken from the closing paragraphs of this celebrated speech.




COURTEOUS READER: I have heard that nothing gives an author so great pleasure as to find his works respectfully quoted by others. Judge, then, how much I must have been gratified

by an incident I am going to relate to you. 5 I stopped my horse, lately, where a great number of people

were collected at an auction of merchants goods. The hour of the sale not being come, they were conversing on the badness of the times; and one of the company called to a plain, clean old

man, with white locks: “Pray, Father Abraham, what think you 10 of the times? Will not these heavy taxes quite ruin the country?

How shall we ever be able to pay them? What would you advise us to do?

Father Abraham stood up and replied: "If you would have my advice, I will give it to you in short; for 'a word to the wise 15 is enough, as Poor Richard says.” They joined in desiring him

to speak his mind, and, gathering around him, he proceeded as follows: “Friends," said he, “the taxes are indeed very heavy; and, if those laid on by the Government were the only ones we had

to pay, we might more easily discharge them; but we have many 20 others, and much more grievous to some of us.

“We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and of these taxes the commissioners can not ease or deliver us by

allowing an abatement. However, let us hearken to good advice, 25 and something may be done for us. 'Heaven helps them that help

theniselves,' as Poor Richard says.

"It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one tenth part of their time to be employed in its service;

but idleness taxes many of us much more; sloth, by bringing 30 on diseases, absolutely shortens life. "Sloth, like rust, consumes

faster than labor wears; while the used key is always bright, as Poor Richard says. How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting that “the sleeping fox catches no poultry,'

and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave. 35 “'Lost time is never found again; and what we call time

enough, always proves little enough. Let us, then, be up and doing, and doing to the purpose; so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. 'Drive thy business, and let not that drive

thee'; and 'early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, 40 wealthy, and wise, as Poor Richard says.

“So, what signifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better if we bestir ourselves. 'Industry need not wish, and he that lives upon hopes will die fasting.'

“There are no gains without pains; then help hands, for I have 45 no lands. 'He that hath a trade, hath an estate; and he that

hath a calling, hath an office of profit and honor'; but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed, or neither the estate nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes. Work

while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may 50 be hindered to-morrow. One to-day is worth two to-morrows,'

as Poor Richard says; and further, 'Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day.

"If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle? Are you, then, your own master? 55 Be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be

done for yourself, your family, and your country. It is true, there is much to be done, and perhaps you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you will see great effects; for constant dropping

wears away stones,' and 'little strokes fell great oaks.' 60 "But with our industry we must likewise be steady, settled,

and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and

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