not trust too much to others; for, as Poor Richard says, “Three removes are as bad as a fire'; and again, 'Keep thy shop, and thy

shop will keep thee'; and again, 'If you would have your business 65 done, go; if not, send’; and again, "The eye of the master will

do more work than both his hands'; and again, ‘Want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge.

“So much for industry, my friends, and attention to one's own business; but to these we must add frugality, if we would 70 make our industry more certainly successful. A man may, if he

knows not how to save as he gets, keep his nose to the grindstone all his life, and die not worth a groat at last. 'If you would be wealthy, think of saving as well as of getting.'

“Away with your expensive follies, and you will not then have 75 so much cause to complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and charge

able families; for 'what maintains one vice would bring up two children. Beware of little expenses. “Many a little makes a mickle”; “A small leak will sink a great ship. Here you are all

got together at this sale of fineries and knickknacks. You call 80 them goods, but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you.

“You expect they will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may be, for less than cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they

must be dear to you. Remember what Poor Richard says: “Buy 85 what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy neces

saries. “Silks, satins, scarlet, and velvets put out the kitchen fire.' These are not the necessaries of life; they can scarcely be called the conveniences; and yet, only because they look pretty,

how many want to have them ! 90 "By these and other extravagances, the greatest are reduced

to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing. “If you would know the value of money, go and

try to borrow some; for he that goes a-borrowing goes a-sorrowing'; 95 and, indeed, so does he that lends to such people, when he goes

to get it again.

"It is as truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, as for the frog to swell in order to equal the ox. After all, this pride of

appearance can not promote health, nor ease pain; it makes no 100 increase of merit in the person; it creates envy; it hastens misfortunes.

“But what madness it must be to run in debt for superfluities! Think what you do when you run in debt: you give to another

power over your liberty. If you can not pay at the time, you will 105 be ashamed to see your creditor; you will be in fear when you

speak to him; you will make poor, pitiful, sneaking excuses, and by degrees come to lose your veracity, and sink into base, down. right lying; for the second vice is lying, the first is running in

debt,' as Poor Richard says; and again, 'Lying rides upon debt's 110 back.

“This doctrine, my friends, is reason and wisdom; but industry, and frugality, and prudence may all be blasted without the blessing of Heaven. Therefore ask that blessing humbly, and be not

uncharitable to those that at present seem to want it, but comfort 115 and help them.”

The old gentleman ended his harangue. The people heard it, and approved the doctrine, and immediately practiced the contrary, just as if it had been a common sermon; for the auction

opened, and they began to buy extravagantly. I found the good 120 man had thoroughly studied my almanac, and digested all I had

dropped on these topics during the course of twenty-five years. The frequent mention he made of me must have tired any one else; but my vanity was wonderfully delighted with it, though

I was conscious that not a tenth part of the wisdom was my own 125 which he ascribed to me, but rather the gleanings that I had made of the sense of all ages and nations.

However, I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and, although I had at first determined to buy stuff for a new coat,

I went away resolved to wear my old one a little longer. Reader, 130 if thou wilt do the same, thy profit will be as great as mine.

I am, as ever, thine to serve thee.

Biographical and Historical: These are paragraphs selected from Benjamin Franklin's “Way to Wealth,” about which he has the following to say in his Autobiography: In 1732, I first published my Almanac, under the name of 'Richard Saunders'; it was continued by me about twenty-five years, and commonly called 'Poor Richard's Almanac.' I filled all the little spaces that occurred between the remarkable days in the calendar with proverbial sentences, chiefly such as inculcated industry and frugality as the means of procuring wealth, and thereby securing virtue. These proverbs, which contained the wisdom of many ages and nations, I assembled and formed into a connected discourse, prefixed to the Almanac of 1757 as the harangue of a wise old man to the people attending an auction. The bringing all these scattered coun. sels thus into a focus enabled them to make greater impression.”




MR. PRESIDENT,—No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. But different men often see the

same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope it will not 5 be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen, if, entertaining, as

I do, opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve. This is no time for ceremony. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfil the great responsibility which we hold to God and our country.

Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear 15 of giving offence, I should consider myself as guilty of treason

towards my country, and of an act of disloyalty towards the Majesty of Heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.


Mr. President, it is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and 20 listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts.

Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty ? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the

things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation ? For my 25 part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for it.

I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the

future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know 30 what there has been in the conduct of the British Ministry for the

last ten years to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House? Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received ?

Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not 35 yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this

gracious reception of our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation ?

Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force 40 must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive our

selves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugationthe last arguments to which kings resort. I ask, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission ?

Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has 45 Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for

all this accumulation of navies and armies ? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British

Ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose 50 to them ? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that

for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer upon the subject ? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we

resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we 55 find, which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech

you, sir, deceive ourselves longer. Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated;

we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored 60 its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the Ministry

and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with

contempt, from the foot of the throne! In vain, after these things, 65 may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There

is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free—if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending—if we mean not basely to abandon

the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and 70 which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon, until the

glorious object of our contest shall be obtained—we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us !

They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so 75 formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will

it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inac

tion? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying 80 supinely on our backs and hugging the delusive phantom of hope until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot?

Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Three millions

of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country 85 as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our .enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies

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