were influenced and guided by their institutions; by their notions, that honour, or disgrace, communicated to a whole family or district; by their chivalry, their poetry, and traditionary tales; in latter periods the labours of the parish ministers have, by their religious and moral instructions, reared an admirable structure on this foundation. No religious order, in modern times, have been more useful and exemplary, by their instructions and practice, than the Scotch parochial clergy. Adding example to precept, they have taught the pure doctrines of Christianity in a manner clear and simple, and easily comprehended by their flock. Thus, the religious tenets of the Highlanders, guided by their clergy, were blended with an impressive, captivating, and, if I may be allowed to call it so, a salutary superstition, inculcating on the minds of all, that an honourable and wellspent life entailed a blessing on descendants, while a curse would descend on the successors of the wicked, the oppressor, and ungodly. * These, with a belief in ghosts, dreams,

* The belief that the punishment of the cruelty, oppression, or misconduct of an individual descended as a curse on his children, to the third and fourth generation, was not confined to the common people. All ranks were influenced by it, that if the curse did not fall upon the first or second generation, it would inevitably descend upon the succeeding. The late Colonel Campbell of Glenlyon retained this belief through a course of thirty years' intercourse with the world, as an officer of the 42d regiment, and of Marines. He was grandson of the Laird of Glenlyon, who commanded the military at the massacre of Glenco, and who lived in the Laird of Glenco's house, where he and his men were hospitably entertained during a fortnight prior to the execution of his orders. He was playing at cards with the family when the first shot was fired, and the murderous scene commenced. Colonel Campbell was an additional captain in the 42d regiment in 1748, and was put on half pay. He then entered the Marines, and in 1762 was Major, with the brevet rank of LieutenantColonel, and commanded 800 of his corps at the Havannah. In 1771, he was ordered to superintend the execution of the sentence of a court-martial on a soldier of marines, condemned to be shot. A reprieve was sent, but the whole ceremony of the execution was to proceed until the criminal was upon his knees, with a cap over his eyes, prepared to receive the volley. It was then he was to be informed of his pardon. No person was to be told previously, and Colonel Campbell was directed not to inand second-sighted visions, * served to tame the turbulent and soothe the afflicted, and differed widely from the gloomy inflexible puritanism of many parts of the south. The demure solemnity and fanaticism of the plains, unluckily offered a ceaseless subject of ridicule and satire to the poetical imaginations of the mountaineers. The truth is, that no two classes of people of the same country, and in such close neighbourhood, could possibly present a greater contrast than "the wild and brilliant picture of the devoted valour, incorruptible fidelity, patriarchal brotherhood, and savage habits of the Celtic clans, on the one hand; and the dark, untractable, domineering bigotry of the Covenanters, on the other." f

Differing so widely in their manners, they heartily despised and hated each other. "The Lowlander considered the Highlander as a fierce and savage depredator, speaking

form even the firing party, who were warned that the signal to fire would be the waving of a white handkerchief by the commanding officer. When oil was prepared, and the clergyman had left the prisoner on his knees, in momentary expectation of his fate, and the firing party were looking with intense attention for the signal, Colonel Campbell put his hand into his pocket for the reprieve, and in pulling out the packet, the white handkerchief accompanied it, and catching the eyes of the party, they fired, and the unfortunate prisoner was shot dead.

The paper dropped through Colonel Campbell's fingers, and, clapping his hand to his forehead, he exclaimed, " The curse of God and of Glenco is here { I am en unfortunate ruined man." He desired the soldiers to be sent to the barracks, instantly quitted the parade, and soon afterwards retired from the service. This retirement was not the result of any reflection or reprimand on account of this unfortunate affair, as it was known to be entirely accidental. The impression on his mind, however, was never effaced. Nor is the massacre, and the judgment which the people believe has fallen on the descendants of the principal actors in this tragedy, effaced from their recollection. They carefully note, that, while the family of the unfortunate gentleman who suffered is still entire, and his estate preserved in direct male succession to his posterity, this is not the case with the family, posterity, and estates of the laird of Glcnlyon, of and those who were the principals, promoters, and actors in this infamous affair.

* See Appendix, T. f Edinburgh Review.

a barbarous language, inhabiting a gloomy and barren region, which fear and prudence forbade all strangers to explore. The attractions of his social habits, strong attachment, and courteous manners, were confined to his glens and kindred. All the pathetic and sublime records were concealed in a language difficult to acquire, and utterly despised as the jargon of barbarians by their southern neighbours. If such was the light in which the cultivators of the soil regarded the hunters, graziers, and warriors of the mountains, their contempt was amply repaid by their highspirited neighbours. The Highlanders, again, regarded the Lowlanders as a very inferior mongrel race of intruders, sons of little men, without heroism, without ancestry, or genius; mechanical drudges, &c. &c.; who could neither sleep upon the snow, compose extempore songs, recite long tales of wonder or of woe, or live without bread and without shelter for weeks together, following the chace. Whatever was mean or effeminate, whatever was dull, slow, mechanical, or torpid, was in the Highlands imputed to the Lowlanders, and exemplified by allusions to them; while, in the low country, every thing ferocious or unprincipled, every species of awkwardness or ignorance, of pride, or of insolence, was imputed to the Highlanders." • These mutual animosities and jealousies, long sustained, operated as a check to a more free communication, and cherished the affections of the Highlanders to the exiled family. Their frequent contentions with the peasantry of the plains adjacent to the mountains, and the comparison of their own constancy, with what they regarded as the time-serving disposition of the Lowlanders, exalted them in their own estimation, by a feeling of personal pride, and confirmed them in their political predilections.

This attachment, too, will appear the less surprising if we bear in mind, that the Highlanders, far distant from the scat of government, and not immediately affected by the

Mrs Grant's Superstitious of the Ilighlaudcrs.

causes which produced the Revolution in England, were imperfectly acquainted with the circumstances which led to that event . Hence we may discover an apology for their subsequent conduct, as proceeding more from a mistaken loyalty, than from a turbulent restless spirit. Since this adherence to the House of Stewart produced most important consequences, as affecting the Highlanders, and led to measures on the part of government, which have conduced so materially to change the character and habits of the people; we may shortly examine the causes and motives in which it originated, and the manner in which it displayed itself.

With few exceptions, the Highlanders were of high monarchical notions. Opposed to these, indeed, was the family' of Argyle, which took the lead in the interest of the Covenanters and Puritans, and which, during two-thirds of the seventeenth century, was at feud with the families of Atholl, Huntly, Montrose, and Airly, This opposition of religious feeling and political principles, the warlike habits of the Highlanders, and the natural conformation of the country, suddenly rising from the plains into mountains difficult of access, combined to keep up that difference of character already noticed, which, though so distinctly marked, was divided by so slight a line, as the small stream or burn of Inch Ewan below the bridge of Dunkeld, the inhabitants on each side of which present perfect characteristics of the Saxons and Celts. * One of the most remarkable of the latter was the celebrated Neil Gow, whose genius has added fresh spirit to the cheerful and exhilarating music of Caledonia, and who, although he was born, and, during the period of a long life, lived within a mile of the Lowland

• The author of Waverley has, with great spirit and humour, given an admirable delineation of this difference of character, in the account of Waverley's journey from Glenquaich, and his encounter with Gilfillan, the evangelical landlord of the Seven-branched Golden Candlesticks at Crieff.

border, exhibited a perfect specimen of the genuine High* lander in person, garb, principles, and character.

While the south side of this line differed so widely, the language of the northern division, together with their chivalry, their garb, their arms, and their Jacobite principles, kept them too well prepared, and made them too ready to join in the troubles that ensued. The disarming acts of 1716 and 1725, with various irritating causes, contributed to keep alive these feelings, and to encourage the hopes of the exiled family. These hopes led to the Rebellion of 1745, when Charles Edward landed in the West Highlands without men or money, trusting to that attachment which many were supposed to cherish to his family; and committing to their charge his honour, his life, and his hopes of a crown, he threw himself among them, and called upon them to support his claims. This confidence touched the true string, and made a powerful appeal to that fidelity which had descended to them, as it were, in trust from their forefathers. • Seeing a descendant of their ancient kings among

• It wit not without reason, he relied on this loyal attachment to his person and family. The numerous anecdotes in proof of this attachment, are so remarkable, as to appear almost incredible to those unacquainted with the manners and feelings of the Highlanders.

When the late Mr Stewart of Balichelish returned home, after having completed a course of general and classical education at Glasgow and Edinburgh, he was a promising young man. A friend of the family happening to visit his father, who had " been out" in 1715 and 1745, congratulated the old gentleman on the appearance and accomplishments of his son. To this he answered, that the youth was all he could wish for as a son; and " nest to the happiness of seeing Charles restored to the throne of his forefathers, is the promise my son affords of being an honour to his family."

A song or ballad of that period, set to a melancholy and beautiful air, was exceedingly popular among the Highlanders, and sung by all classes. It is is Gaelic, and cannot be translated without injury to the spirit and effect. One verse, alluding to the conduct of the troops after the suppression of the rebellion, proceeds thus: "They ravaged and burnt my country; they murdered my father, and carried off my brothers; they ruined my kindred, and broke the heart of my mother I- but all, all could I bear without murmur, if I saw my king restored to his own."

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