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ftil objects, it has been most liberal; as is seen at the annual exhibition in Edinburgh of the ancient war and field music of the mountains, and of the Highland garb which was in stituted, and the expence supported by the London Society. But the great and most important benefit which it has conferred was the institution of the Caledonian Asylum in London for educating, supporting, and clothing the children of soldiers and sailors of Scotland killed or disabled, or of other destitute Scotchmen resident in London. This institution originated with the Highland Society of London ; and having concluded the notice of the Society of Scotland by the act for the protection of the unfortunate emigrants, I finish now this notice of the sister society by stating its connexion with the Caledonian Asylum.
Two such dissertations as the foregoing, on the past and present state of the Highlands, may be considered as outof the line of my profession, and not a very suitable preliminary to a military memoir. But as the same people form the subject of both, and as their personal hardihood and moral qualities were such as peculiarly fitted them for the toils and privations of a military life, as will more fully appear in the military narrative; it may not perhaps be foreign to the principal subject, to show of what materials the Highland regiments were originally composed, and what were the habits of thinking and acting which, formed and matured within their native mountains, accompanied them in their military progress. And, as much of the happiness of the Highlanders, and no small share of the prosperity of the country, depends on the manner in which they are treated by their natural protectors, in whose hands Providence and the laws have placed so much power to raise or depress their condition; it is surely of importance to remember that this race of people, although poor in circumstances, has been both moral and independent; and as the recent symptoms of a retrograde tendency begin to show themselves, I trust I shall not be thought presumptuous in making this feeble attempt, founded on a long intimacy with this people, both as inhabitants of their native glens, and as soldiers in barracks and in the field, and on some knowledge of the state of the country—to show what they were, what they now are, and what, under a proper management they may yet become. The revolution to which I have so often Talluded, considering the short space of time in which it has been in operation, has been great. Had it been accomplished in a more gentle manner, its influence on the general disposition and character of the people would have been less evident and more beneficial, and they might have been taught to become more industrious, without any loss of attachment or of moral principle.
In the central Highlands, industry can be employed only in the cultivation of the land. Fuel is too scarce, and all materials, except wool and flax, too distant, for manufactories; nor is this to be regretted. There is sufficient space for manufactories in the low country, and the towns are abundantly populous. Let the Highlanders, therefore, remain a pastoral and agricultural people, the superabundant population filling our military ranks with good recruits, sending out an annual supply of labourers to the low country when required, and colonizing our distant possessions with a loyal and well-principled race. Although there may be some waste of labour, and some parts of that produce consumed on the spot, which might otherwise be sent to distant markets, still it may be admitted, that the general value of produce does not depend on the difference between a distant and home consumption. It matters little to thegeneral welfare of the State whether the consumption be on the spot, or at the distance of forty or one hundred miles; and although, on a first view, it may appear a waste of labour to employ more persons in agriculture than are absolutely necessary to cultivate the soil, yet the morality and the independence of the agricultural population is surely of some, if not of the highest consideration. And it ought not, moreover, to be forgotten, that, if small farmers raise the same quantity of produce as the large farmers, tho greater consumption on the spot, in the former case, cannot possibly affect the question, or form any solid objection that can be brought into comparison with the advantage the bulk of the people derive from having a share in the cultivation of the soil; seeing that, while these people remain in the country, they are to be fed from its produce, it matters not in what particular place they consume it. It may farther be remarked, that the present depressed state of labour, and the consequent misery of the working classes, is mainly to be ascribed to the agricultural system now generally adopted, which forces people from the country to the towns, increases in an inordinate degree the number of competitors for employment, and entails misery on themselves and all who are in similar circumstances. These observations will receive additional force, when it is considered, that this agricultural independency is the best security against poorVrates. It is evident that these rates originated in England when the people were driven from the cultivation of the land, and left without any share in the profits of the soil, except as labourers hired by others. It is equally well known, that, in Scotland, people occupying land never apply for charity, except in extreme cases. Numerous examples show, likewise, that the consumption of a few additional mouths will not diminish the rent: therefore, as the population in the Lowlands is already fully adequate for the present state of manufactures in that part of the country, is it prudent or patriotic to overstock them by depopulating the glens of the Highlands? There, experience has proved, that a man may be poor, yet independent,—and innocent, although idle: but how idleness and poverty generate vice in populous towns, the records of the criminal courts sufficiently evince. These show, likewise, how numerous the crimes committed by Highlanders, or, at least, persons with Highland names, and of Highland descent, have become in cities. In their native country, on the contrary, the convicted criminals in seventy years, during periods the most turbulent and lawless, and taken from a population of 394,000 souls, did not exceed 91 *; while the number of criminals convicted in one year (1817,) at the spring and summer assizes at Lancaster, was 86; and yet the agricultural parts of the neighbouring county of Westmorland, and some counties in Wales, equal any part of the kingdom in morality and exemption from crime. It may be said, that, to compare the habits, temptations, debauchery, and crimes of cities, with the innocence of an agricultural or pastoral life, cannot be fair and just. Certainly it is not; but is it then consistent with our duty to God, to humanity, love of country, or patriotism, to drive the people away from the innocent walks of life, and force them into the resorts of immorality and crime?
MILITARY ANNALS OF THE HIGHLAND REGIMENTS.
Military character—National corps advantageous, especially in the case of Highlanders—Character of the officers Jilted to command a Highland corps.
In the preceding pages, I have attempted to delineate a sketch of the general character of the Scottish Highlanders, and to assign some of the causes which may have contributed to its formation.
It was a saying of Marshal Turenne, that " Providence for the most part declares in favour of the most numerous battalions." The success of the British arms has often refuted this observation, and proved that moral force, unyielding fortitude, and regular discipline, frequently make up for inferiority of numbers.
Military character depends both on moral and on physical causes, arising from the various circumstances and situations in which men are placed. Every change in these circumstances tends either to improve or deteriorate that character ; and hence we find, that nations which were once distinguished as the bravest in Europe, have sunk into weak\ ness and insignificance, while others have been advancing