pieces and howitzers on the entrenchments, under cover of which the regiment of Duroure (the 38th) and the Royal Highlanders pushed forward. The enemy beginning to waver as they advanced, the "Highlanders drew their swords, and, supported by a part of the other regiment, rushed forward with their characteristic impetuosity, and followed the enemy into the redoubt, of which they took possession." *

The enemy, in the meantime, taking advantage of the removal of the troops from the quarters of Basseterre, made several attempts on the small garrison left there under Colonel Debrisay. In these attacks they were uniformly repulsed. Colonel Debrisay was unfortunately killed by the explosion of a powder magazine, and was succeeded in the command of Basseterre by Major Melville, who afterwards rendered so much service to the West Indies, as governor-general of the ceded islands. On the other side of the island, Colonels Clavering and Crump did not relax their exertions. In a succession of skirmishes they forced the enemy from their strong holds, took upwards of fifty pieces of cannon, and obtained possession of all the batteries and towns on the sea-coast. At length the enemy were compelled to surrender, after a gallant defence, which was maintained from the 24th of January to the 1st of May, when the capitulation was signed.

On the evening of the same day, intelligence was received that the Governor of Martinique had landed on the opposite side of the island with a considerable force, for the relief of the colony; but on hearing of the surrender, he reembarked and returned to Martinique. The loss of the British on this expedition was severe; but, in consequence of their continued fatigues and exposure, they suffered more by the climate than by the enemy. Of the officers 10 were killed, 21 wounded, and 20 died by the fever. Of the Royal Highlanders, Ensign M'Lean was killed, and Lieutenants M'Lean, Leslie, St Clair, and Robertson, were

* Letters from Guadaloupc.

wounded; Major Anstruther and Captain Arbuthnot died of the fever; and 106 privates were killed, wounded, or died of disease. This expedition was a tolerably smart training for a young corps, who, nine months before, had been herding cattle and sheep on their native hills. *



Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 1759—Niagara, 1759—Battle of the Heights of Abraham, and death of Wolfe, 1759—Battle of Quebec, 1760.—Surrender of MontrealCompletion of the conquest ofCanada, 1760.

The Highlanders were embarked from Guadaloupe for North America, where they arrived early in July, and about

• "By private accounts, it appears that the French had formed the most frightful and absurd motions of the " Savages cTEcotte;" they believed that they would neither take nor give quarter, and that they were so nimble, that, as no man could catch them, so nobody could escape them; that no man had a chance against their broad-swords; and that, with a ferocity natural to savages, they made no prisoners, and spared neither man, woman, nor child: and as they were always in the front of every action in which they were engaged, it is probable that these notions had no small influence on the nerves of the militia, and perhaps regulars of Guadaloupe." It was always believed by the enemy, that the Highlanders amounted to several thousands. This erroneous enumeration of a corps only 800 strong, was said to proceed from the frequency of their attacks and annoyance of the outposts of the enemy, who " saw men in the same garb who attacked them yesterday from one direction, and again appear to-day to advance from another, and in this manner ever harassing their advanced position, so as to allow them no rest." •

* Letters from Guadaloupe.

the end of the same month, Major Gordon Graham was ordered by General Amherst, then at Crown Point, to take the command of the 2d battalion, and to march them up to Oswego, and afterwards to join either General Prideaux's expedition, or his own army, as circumstances might render necessary. After reaching head-quarters, the two battalions were combined, and served in conjunction during the latter period of this campaign, which comprehended three very important enterprises. Major-General Wolfe, who had given such promise of great military talents at Louisburg, was to attack Quebec from Lower Canada, while General Amherst, now Commander-in-chief, and successor of General Abercromby, should endeavour to form a communication, and co-operate with him through Upper Canada. General Prideaux was to proceed against Niagara, in order to prevent the enemy from giving any interruption to General Amherst's operations on that side, and endeavour to get possession of the strong and important post near the falls. This great and comprehensive combination, had it been successful, would, in that campaign, have driven the enemy out of all their territories in North America. The army under the Commander-in-chief was first put in motion, and consisted of the Royals, 17th, 27th, Royal Highlanders, 2 battalions 55th, Montgomery's Highlanders, nine battalions of Provincials, a battalion of light infantry, and a body of Rangers and Indians, with a detachment of artillery. When joined by the 2d battalion of the Royal Highlanders from the West Indies, this army amounted to 14,500 men. At Fort Edward, the point of rendezvous, the whole were assembled, on the 19th of June; and the 1st battalion of Royal Highlanders and light infantry of the army who, a few days before, had been detached in front under the command of Colonel Grant of the 42d regiment, were ordered to strike their tents and move forward next day. The main body followed on the 21st, and encamped on Lake George, on the spot where General Abercromby had encamped the preceding year, previously to the attack of Ticonderoga. ConVOL. i. x

siderable time was spent in making the necessary arrangements for attacking this formidable post, which the enemy seemed determined to defend, and which had already proved so disastrous to our troops. On seeing the English General ready to advance, however, the enemy, having set fire to the magazines and buildings, abandoned the fort, and retreated to Crown Point . The plan of the campaign, on the part of the enemy, seems to have been, to embarrass and retard the invading army, but not to hazard any considerable engagement, nor to allow themselves to be so completely invested as to make a retreat impracticable; and, in withdrawing from post to post, to make an appearance as if determined to defend each. By these means they hoped that the advance of the British would be so far retarded, that the season for action on the Lakes would pass away without any decisive advantage on the part of the invaders, whilst their own force would be gradually concentrating, so as to be enabled to arrest General Amherst in his progress down the St Lawrence to Montreal. With these views they abandoned Ticonderoga, which experience had shown to be so capable of making a good resistance.

But, although the General had reason to imagine that the enemy would relinquish Crown Point in the same manner as Ticonderoga, yet he took measures as if he expected an obstinate defence, or an attempt to surprise him in his march, recollecting, no doubt, how fatal precipitation and false security had recently proved in that part of the world. Whilst he superintended the repairs of Ticonderoga, he was also indefatigable in preparing batteaux and other vessels for conveying his troops, and obtaining the superiority on the Lakes. Intelligence having been received that the enemy had evacuated Crown Point, and had retired to the garrison of Isle aux Noix, on the northern extremity of Lake Champlain, General Amherst moved forward and took possession of the garrison which the French had abandoned; and, to augment his disposable force, the 2d battalion of the Royal Highlanders was ordered up; Captain James Stewart, with 150 men, being left at Oswego. The General having, by great exertion, obtained a naval superiority, determined to embark on Lake Champlain, but a succession of storms compelled him to abandon the further prosecution of active movements, for the remainder of the season, and returning to Crown Point, the troops were put into winter quarters.

The great object of the enterprise had been to form a junction, and co-operate with General Wolfe in the reduction of Quebec. Though this plan was frustrated, very important advantages were derived, and a co-operation so far effected, as to prevent the enemy from sending a larger force to oppose General Wolfe in his more arduous undertaking. Before advancing towards Ticonderoga, General Amherst had detached General Prideaux with the 44th and 46th regiments, the 1st battalion of Royal Americans, and some provincial corps and Indians, under the command of Sir William Johnson, to attack the fort of Niagara, a most important post, which secures a greater number of communications than any in America. The troops reached the place of their destination without opposition, and investing it in form, carried on the siege by regular approaches. In a few days after the commencement of the siege, Prideaux was killed by the accidental bursting of a mortar, and the conduct of the operations devolved on Sir William Johnson, who had, on several occasions, given satisfactory proofs of ability. To relieve a post of such consequence, great efforts were made by the French, and a considerable body of troops drawn from the neighbouring garrisons of Detroit, Verango, and Presque Isle. Apprized of their intention, Sir William Johnson made dispositions to intercept them on their march. In the evening he ordered the light infantry to post themselves on the left of the road leading to the fort, and reinforceing them the following morning with the grenadiers and 46th regiment, under Colonel Eyre Massey, and with the 44th regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Farquhar, as a reserve, he ordered them to wait the ap

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