« 前へ次へ »
wounded; Major Anstruther and Captain Arbuthnot died of the fever; and 106 privates were killed, wounded, or died of disease. This expedition was a tolerably smart training for a young corps, who, nine months before, had been herding cattle and sheep on their native hills. *
SECOND CAMPAIGN IN NORTH AMERICA.
Ticonderoga and Croicn Point, 1759—Niagara, 1759—Battle of the Heights of Abraham, and death of Wolfe, 1759—Battle of Quebec, 1760.—Surrender of Montreal—Completion of the conquest of Canada, 1760.
The Highlanders were embarked from Guadaloupe for North America, where they arrived early in July, and about
• "By private accounts, it appears that the French had formed the most frightful and absurd motions of the " Savages cTEcotte;" they believed that they would neither take nor give quarter, and that they were so nimble, that, as no man could catch them, so nobody could escape them; that no man had a chance against their broad-sword3; and that, with a ferocity natural to savages, they made no prisoners, and spared neither man, woman, nor child: and as they were always in the front of every action in which they were engaged, it is probable that these notions had no small influence on the nerves of the militia, and perhaps regulars of Guadaloupe." It was always believed by the enemy, that the Highlanders amounted to several thousands. This erroneous enumeration of a corps only 800 strong, was said to proceed from the frequency of their attacks and annoyance of the outposts of the enemy, who " saw men in the same garb who attacked them yesterday from one direction, and again appear to-day to advance from another, and in this manner ever harassing their advanced position, so as to allow them no rest." •
* Letters from Guadaloupe.
the end of the same month, Major Gordon Graham was ordered by General Amherst, then at Crown Point, to take the command of the 2d battalion, and to march them up to Oswego, and afterwards to join either General Prideaux's expedition, or his own army, as circumstances might render necessary. After reaching head-quarters, the two battalions were combined, and served in conjunction during the latter period of this campaign, which comprehended three very important enterprises. Major-General Wolfe, who had given such promise of great military talents at Louisburg, was to attack Quebec from Lower Canada, while General Amherst, now Commander-in-chief, and successor of General Abercromby, should endeavour to form a communication, and co-operate with him through Upper Canada. General Prideaux was to proceed against Niagara, in order to prevent the enemy from giving any interruption to General Amherst's operations on that side, and endeavour to get possession of the strong and important post near the falls. This great and comprehensive combination, had it been successful, would, in that campaign, have driven the enemy out of all their territories in North America. The army under the Commander-in-chief was first put in motion, and consisted of the Royals, 17th, 27th, Royal Highlanders, ft battalions 55th, Montgomery's Highlanders, nine battalions of Provincials, a battalion of light infantry, and a body of Rangers and Indians, with a detachment of artillery. When joined by the 2d battalion of the Royal Highlanders from the West Indies, this army amounted to 14,500 men. At Fort Edward, the point of rendezvous, the whole were assembled, on the 19th of June; and the 1st battalion of Royal Highlanders and light infantry of the army who, a few days before, had been detached in front under the command of Colonel Grant of the 42d regiment, were ordered to strike their tents and move forward next day. The main body followed on the 21st, and encamped on Lake George, on the spot where General Abercromby had encamped the preceding year, previously to the attack of Ticonderoga. ConVOL. i. x
siderable time was spent in making the necessary arrangements for attacking this formidable post, which the enemy seemed determined to defend, and which had already proved so disastrous to our troops. On seeing the English General ready to advance, however, the enemy, having set fire to the magazines and buildings, abandoned the fort, and retreated to Crown Point . The plan of the campaign, on the part of the enemy, seems to have been, to embarrass and retard the invading army, but not to hazard any considerable engagement, nor to allow themselves to be so completely invested as to make a retreat impracticable; and, in withdrawing from post to post, to make an appearance as if determined to defend each. By these means they hoped that the advance of the British would be so far retarded, that the season for action on the Lakes would pass away without any decisive advantage on the part of the invaders, whilst their own force would be gradually concentrating, so as to be enabled to arrest General Amherst in his progress down the St Lawrence to Montreal. With these views they abandoned Ticonderoga, which experience had shown to be so capable of making a good resistance.
But, although the General had reason to imagine that the enemy would relinquish Crown Point in the same manner as Ticonderoga, yet he took measures as if he expected an obstinate defence, or an attempt to surprise him in his march, recollecting, no doubt, how fatal precipitation and false security had recently proved in that part of the world. Whilst he superintended the repairs of Ticonderoga, he was also indefatigable in preparing batteaux and other vessels for conveying his troops, and obtaining the superiority on the Lakes. Intelligence having been received that the enemy had evacuated Crown Point, and had retired to the garrison of Isle aux Noix, on the northern extremity of Lake Champlain, General Amherst moved forward and took possession of the garrison which the French had abandoned; and, to augment his disposable force, the 2d battalion of the Royal Highlanders was ordered up; Captain James Stewart, with 150 men, being left at Oswego. The General having, by great exertion, obtained a naval superiority, determined to embark on Lake Champlain, but a succession of storms compelled him to abandon the further prosecution of active movements, for the remainder of the season, and returning to Crown Point, the troops were put into winter quarters.
The great object of the enterprise had been to form a junction, and co-operate with General Wolfe in the reduction of Quebec. Though this plan was frustrated, very important advantages were derived, and a co-operation so far effected, as to prevent the enemy from sending a larger force to oppose General Wolfe in his more arduous undertaking. Before advancing towards Ticonderoga, General Amherst had detached General Prideaux with the 44th and 46th regiments, the 1st battalion of Royal Americans, and some provincial corps and Indians, under the command of Sir William Johnson, to attack the fort of Niagara, a most important post, which secures a greater number of communications than any in America. The troops reached the place of their destination without opposition, and investing it in form, carried on the siege by regular approaches. In a few days after the commencement of the siege, Prideaux was killed by the accidental bursting of a mortar, and the conduct of the operations devolved on Sir William Johnson, who had, on several occasions, given satisfactory proofs of ability. To relieve a post of such consequence, great efforts were made by the French, and a considerable body of troops drawn from the neighbouring garrisons of Detroit, Verango, and Presque Isle. Apprized of their intention, Sir William Johnson made dispositions to intercept them on their march. In the evening he ordered the light infantry to post themselves on the left of the road leading to the fort, and reinforceing them the following morning with the grenadiers and 46th regiment, under Colonel Eyre Mas sey, and with the 44th regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Farquhar, as a reserve, he ordered them to wait the ap
proach of the enemy, who soon appeared in sight, and immediately attacked with great impetuosity. The Indians commenced with the war whoop, which had now lost its effect upon the British soldiers, and met with such a reception in front, while the light infantry and Indians in the British service attacked them in flank, that, in little more than half an hour, their whole army was put to the rout, and M. D'Aubray the commander, with a number of officers, taken prisoners. This battle having been fought in sight of the French garrison, Johnson sent Major Harvey to the commanding officer with a flag of truce, and a list of seventeen officers taken. He immediately surrendered, and the garrison, consisting of 607 men, marched out with their baggage on the 24th of July, and were perfectly protected from insult, plunder, or outrage, from our Indian allies; the conduct of the British thus exhibiting a remarkable contrast to the treatment which our garrisons had, in similar circumstances, experienced, and refuting the vague pretence, that the excesses and cruelties of the Indians could not be restrained. This was the second victory Sir William Johnson had gained over the enemy, and on both occasions their commanders had fallen into his hands. During this war, Lord Give and Sir William Johnson, both self-taught generals, evinced, in a series of successful actions, that genius, although uninstructed, will, by its native power, compensate the want of military experience and discipline. The services of the latter were particularly valuable, from the influence which his justice, honour, and conciliating manners, had acquired over the Indians. *
• The services of Sir William Johnson were equally useful and important. On two occasions he had taken the commanders of the enemy whom he fought, and had materially crippled their power. As a reward for these services, he was raised to the rank of Major-General, and received a Parliamentary grant of L.500O, to which his Majesty added the title of Baronet. Throughout the war he proved himself an active and useful partisan, and displayed peculiar talents for that species of warfare which is best calculated for the woods and swamps of America. His strict integrity and conciliating manners gave him great influence over the In