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lity of procuring ardent spirits,'' led to an evident relaxation of discipline. This evil, however, was only transient, and of no considerable extent.
Edinburgh Castle, 1791 — Ross-shire, 1792— War, 1793—Embark —Join the army under the Duke of York at Menin, 1793-^Oslend—Nicuport—England, 1794—Ostend—Join the Duke of York—Nimrguen—Inclement season—Bremen—England.
In consequence of preparations for an expected rupture with Spain in the year 1790, the establishment was augmented; but, as recent circumstances in the Highlands had excited a strong sensation among the people, the regiment was not successful in recruiting.
Several independent companies were this summer raised. One of these, a fine band of young Highlanders, recruited by the Marquis of Huntly, joined the 42d, along with his Lordship, who had exchanged with Captain Alexander Grant.
In November, the regiment marched to Edinburgh Castle, and was a year stationed in that garrison. In this interval, it was remarked, that more fires occurred in the town than during any known period of the same extent; and an opportunity was thus afforded for the display of that alacrity with which the men turned out on any alarm. After being reviewed, in June 1791, by Lord Adam Gordon, the Commander-in-Chief, they marched to the North in October. Their head quarters were at Fort George: one company was stationed at Dundee, one at Montrose, two at Aberdeen, and one in Banff.
* Such was the hospitality of the inhabitants, that it was' difficult to prevent them from going about with bottles of whisky, forcing drams on the sentinels on duty.
In the spring of 1792, they assembled at Fort George, from thence marched to Stirling in July, and were reviewed there by the Honourable Lieut.-General Leslie. They afterwards marched northward, and were cantoned along the coast towns in the same manner as in the preceding year.
In autumn, the whole were ordered into Ross-shire on account of some disturbances among the inhabitants, great numbersof whom had been dispossessed of their farms in consequence of the new system of converting large tracts of country into pasture. The manner in which the people gave vent to their grief and rage, when driven from their ancient homes, showed that they did not merit this treatment, and that an improper estimate had been formed of their character. A few months after these cold-hearted wholesale ejectments, those who were permitted to remain as cottagers rose in a body, and, collecting all the sheep which had been placed by the great stock farmers on the possessions which they themselves had formerly held, they drove the whole before them, with an intention of sending them beyond the boundaries of the country; thinking, in their simplicity and despair, that, if they got quit of the sheep, they would be again reinstated in their farms. In this state of insurrection they continued for some time, but no act of violence or outrage occurred; nor did the sheep suffer in the smallest degree beyond what resulted from the fatigues of the journey and the temporary loss of their pasture. Though pressed with hunger, these conscientious peasants did not take a single animal for their own use, contenting themselves with the occasional supplies of meal or victuals which they obtained in the course of their journey. To quell these tumults, which occasioned little less alarm among some of the gentlemen of Ross than the Rebellion of 1 745, the 42d regiment were ordered to proceed, by forced marches and by the shortest routes, to Ross-shire,
When they reached the expected scene of action, there was, fortunately, no enemy; for the people had separated and disappeared of their own accord. Happy, indeed, it was that the affair was concluded in this manner, as the necessity of turning their arms against their fathers, their brothers, and their friends, must have been in the last degree painful to the feelings of the soldiers, and dangerous to their discipline,—setting their duty to their King and country in opposition to filial affection and brotherly love and friendship. *
After passing the summer and autumn in marching and countermarching, in consequence of the riots and insurrections of their countrymen against their landlords, a circumstance somewhat novel in these regions, and one of the first symptoms of Highland civilization, the Royal Highlanders were, in the course of the following winter, as actively employed against the Lowlanders, who were rioting, and hanging, drowning, and burning the effigies of those whom they called their political oppressors;—a species of refinement in the expression of their sentiments towards their superiors, to which the ignorant Highlanders have not yet attained; but they are in full progress to this state of civilized and enlightened improvement, which must afford high gratification to those philanthropists and patriots, who have so materially contributed to forward, and bring into practice, "those blessed results of our labours in the vineyard" as is reported by some societies established for the religious and moral improvement of the Highlanders. The inhabitants of, Perth, Dundee, and some other towns amused themselves with planting the tree of liberty, dancing round it, and threatening vengeance on all who should oppose them. The regiment was hurried South as rapidly as it went North; and, during the winter and spring, garrisoned the town of Dundee, and all the coast as far as Fort George.
* I was a very young soldier at the time, but on no subsequent occasion were my feelings so powerfully excited as on this. To a military man it could not but be gratifying to see the men, in so delicate and trying a situation, manifesting a full determination to do their duty against whomsoever their efforts should be directed ; while, to their feelings of humanity, the necessity of turning their arms against their friends and relations presented a severe alternative. Eighteen of the rioters were sent to Inverness for trial. They were eloquently defended by Mr Charles Ross, advocate, one of their own countrymen; but, as their conduct was illegal, and the offence clearly proved, they were found guilty, and condemned to be transported to Botany Bay. It would appear, however, that, though the legality of the verdict and sentence could not be questioned, these did not carry along with them the public opinion, which was probably the cause that the escape of the prisoners was in a manner connived at; for they disappeared out of prison, no one knew how, and were never inquired after or molested.
Hostilities having been declared against France, the whole regiment was assembled at Montrose in April 1793, preparatory to a march southward. The establishment was ordered to be augmented to 750 men, but the regimental recruiting parties were not successful. The late transactions in Ross-shire began to show their baneful influence. It was not now, as in 1756 and 1776, when the regiment was completed to more than 1100 men in a few weeks;—as quickly, indeed, as they could be collected from their distant districts. Nor was it, as in 1755, when the Laird of Mackintosh completed a company in one day. * The same corps, in 1793, must have gone on service with little more than 400 men, had not orders been issued for raising independent companies. Two of these, raised by Captains David Hunter of Burnside and Alexander Campbell of Ardchattan, were ordered to join the 42d regiment. On the whole, these were good men, but not of the same description with those who, in former times, were so ready to join the standard of the Black Watch.
• In the year 1755, when the establishment of the regiment was augmented, preparatory to the war, the Laird of Mackintosh, then a captain in the regiment, had the charge of all the recruiting parties sent from Ireland to the Highlands, and quickly collected 500 men, the number he was desired to recruit: of these he enlisted 87 men in one forenoon.
One morning, as he was sitting at breakfast in Inverness, 38 young men of the name of Macpherson, from Badenocb, appeared in front of the window, with an offer of their service to Mackintosh, their own immediate chief, the Laird of Cluny, being then in exile, in consequence of his attainder after the Rebellion. The late General Skinner of the engineers was at breakfast with Mackintosh that morning; and being newly arrived in that part of the country, the whole scene, with all its circumstances, made an impression on his mind which he never forgot.
In May, the regiment marched from Montrose to Musselburgh, and embarked there on the 8th for Hull. In that town the appearance of the Highlanders occasioned much interest and surprise, as no plaids or bonnets had as yet been seen in that part of Yorkshire. The people showed them great hospitality, and were so well satisfied with their conduct, that, after they embarked for Flanders, the town of Hull sent each man a present of a pair of shoes, a flannel shirt, and worsted socks; a very seasonable supply in a November encampment.
In August they reached Gosport, and remained there till the middle of September, when they sailed for Ostend, where they landed on the 1st of October, and, two days after, joined the army under his Royal Highness the Duke of York, then encamped in the neighbourhood of Menin. This camp was soon broken up; and his Royal Highness marched, with the combined armies, to join the Prince of SaxeCobourg, then before Maubeuge.
The 19th, 27th, 42d, and 57th regiments were ordered back to England, to join an expedition then preparing under their old commander in America, Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Grey, against the French Colonies in the West Indies. While those regiments lay on board in the harbour of Ostend, the enemy, who were then before Nieuport, pressed that town so vigorously, that it was necessary to send immediate relief. For this purpose, Sir Charles Grey and Major-General Thomas Dundas had come from England; and the 42d regiment, with the light companies of the 19th, 27th, and 57th regiments, were disembarked and marched to Nieuport. The place was then garrisoned by the 53d regiment, and a small battalion of Hessians under Colonel de Wurmb, who defended the place, with great courage and firmness, against a very superior force. The reinforcement now sent was very seasonable; for the works were so extensive, that the men were obliged to be on duty without intermission. The enemy kept up so constant and well-directed a fire, that upwards of *0O houses were destroyed or damaged. However, on the ap