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good effects of closing upon an enemy with energy and ala- rity, instead of waiting to be attacked. Had Colonel Lockhart, with his inferior numbers, stood to receive the attack of the enemy, thinned as he must have been while thus exposed to the heavy fire from the batteries, the result would have been doubtful; but he trusted to the bayonet, which, in a steady hand, will never fail to be decisive. *
Equally problematical would have been the safety and success of the Highlanders on the 21st of March, had they trusted to their fire alone, and stood still to receive the charge of the enemy on the left of the redoubt. But, converting a defence into an attack, they rushed forward in the face of the enemy, who were advancing in full charge; and although the Highlanders suffered when the cavalry charged through the intervals occasioned by the attacks of the infantry, there is little doubt that, if they had stood still, and had not rushed upon the enemy, the loss would have been much more considerable.
The proceedings against Alexandria shewed to what a pitch of perfection the British artillery had arrived. The battery which had been so bravely protected by the 30th regiment was finished on the evening of the 25th of August; and although an irregular fire was kept up on the working parties from the surrounding batteries of the enemy, the works were little interrupted, the fire being so ill directed that only one man (a soldier of the 90th) was killed. Very different was the effect of the fire from the battery on the
• General Hutchinson, noticing this circumstance in his dispatches, forgot to mention, that, although Colonel Spencer was present, and ordered the charge, he was under the command of Brigadier-General Doyle, who was close in the rear at the time, and who had left his sick-room at Rosetta to command his brigade the moment he heard of the msnrasnent in advance; and, on his representing these circumstances, General Hutchinson most readily corrected his omission in the subsequent dispatches. The truth was, the thing of itself was of no importance. Any real merit belonged to Colonel Lockhart, who proposed and executed the exploit, and who was so gallantly supported by his officers and men.
•' Green Hill," which opened at six o'clock in the morning of the 26th. Before mid-day, the enemy were completely silenced, their batteries destroyed, and the guns withdrawn. On the west of Alexandria, the tower of Marabou was bombarded from a battery commanded by Captain Curry of the Royal Artillery. The first shot struck the tower four feet from the ground; every succeeding shot struck the same spot, and in this manner he continued, never missing his mark, till a large hole was in a manner bored completely through, when the building fell, and filling up the surrounding ditch, the place was instantly surrendered.
The expedition being brought to this fortunate conclusion, immediate preparations were made for embarkation. The French were first embarked, and sailed for France.
State of the Numbers of both Armies.
Garrison of Cairo, including 1000 auxiliary troops, 13,674 Garrison of Alexandria, including marines doing
duty, ... . 10,308
Prisoners taken on different occasions, - 3,500
Killed and died of wounds in the different actions, 3,000 Soldiers dead by sickness since the 8th of March, 1,500
Total in arms, deducting 2000 in hospital when
the British landed, - - 31,982
Civil establishment, - - . - .
The number of troops landed with Sir Ralph Abercromby was,
Artillery, - - 6S0
Cavalry, (without horses,) - - 1,063
Infantry, ... 12,171
Reinforcements joined afterwards, - 3,250
Army from India, - - 5,226
Grand total in Egypt, 22,340
The killed and wounded of the British in the different actions are stated in the following return. The three principal actions happening previously to the arrival of the reinforcements, the weight fell on those who first landed, and who, as formerly stated, did not, from sickness and various causes, exceed 12,934 in the field.
Return of Killed and Wounded of the British Army during the Campaign in Egypt.
Thus, after a campaign of more than five months, from the landing on the 8th of March till the surrender of Alexandria, the service was completed in a manner honourable to the talents of the commanders, and the bravery, discipline, and steady conduct of the troops.* No time was to be lost in making the necessary arrangements for settling, in quarters, the troops who were destined to remain in the country, and to embark those who were ordered to other stations.
Dispatch in embarking the troops was the more necessary, as ophthalmia and dysentery had increased to an alarming degree. Fortunately the plague, which had got into the British camp in April, now disappeared, or became of so mild a nature, as to be in nowise dangerous, and indeed to give little inconvenience. This frightful disease was introduced among the troops by accident. A vessel from Smyrna, with the plague on board, had lost eleven out of tliir
* The good conduct of the troops was conspicuous on other occasions than when opposed to the enemy. From the difficulty of procuring specie to subsist the army, no pay was issued to the soldiers for eight months; and, except when officers made advances from their private resources, (which was done at great loss, as upwards of twenty per cent, was lost by the exchange,) the soldiers had not wherewithal to purchase the most common necessaries oflife. Living entirely on their rations, in a country abounding in every luxury and fruit, particularly the musk and water-melon, so grateful in hot climates, they could not command a melon or a pound of grapes for the want of money, and yet there was not a murmur.
It has often been remarked with surprise, how submissive French troops have been when irregularly paid; but it ought to be recollected, that, in an enemy's country, and sometimes in that of their friends, they were allowed much freedom in obtaining what they required; and, if the supplies were not given voluntarily, they showed no hesitation in helping themselves. In Egypt, every thing was paid for by the British as if purchased at Leadenhall or Covent Garden market; and, with the thoughtless generosity of their character, they always raised every market by offering more than demanded. Such extravagant folly, however, was checked in this instance; and, when the soldiers got subsistence money, any one who offered to forestall, or give a higher price than that established by the general orders, was checked and reprehended.
teen of her crew on the passage, and the two survivors, steering for the first land, unluckily reached the spot, on the western shore of Aboukir Bay, where a camp had been formed as an hospital for the sick and wounded, and running the vessel aground, stuck close to the tents. Some men went on board, and, on seeing the state of the crew, the alarm was given, but too late ;—the contagion was caught, and it soon spread. Every precaution was now adopted to prevent any communication with the rest of the army. A line of sentinels was immediately placed round the hospital ground; no intercourse whatever was allowed; and if any individuals went within the line, they were not permitted to return. Provisions and all necessaries were left on the line of demarcation by those on the outside, and when they had removed to some distance, those within came and took them away. * By these strict precautions, and the unremitting
• Dr Budian, Physician to the Forces, had at this time arrived from Edinburgh, where he had been in private practice; and, with a fearless and honourable zeal, volunteered the duty of the Pest Hospital, though Dr Finlay, and other medical officers, had already died of the plague. To cross this line, and enter the den of death, as it was called, and undergo all the consequent privations, exposed, under a canvas tent, to the chilling dews of night and the fiery heat of an Egyptian mid-day sun, formed no common contrast to the comforts of Edinburgh practice. Such zeal met with well-merited good fortune, so far, that he was very successful in the treatment of the disease. More than one-half of those who were attacked, that is, 400 out of 700 men, recovered under his judicious arrangements. How few recovered under the practice of Turkish surgeons (if surgeons they may be called) is well known. Dr Buchan farther proved his successful practice. He himself recovered from two attacks of the plague j Assistant-Surgeon Webster of the 90th also overcame two attacks; and it at last became of so mild a nature, that, in the month of July, when the cook of the hospital was seized, it was with so little fever, that he never gave up his work, nor complained, till he found it necessary to apply for some dressings when the sores occasioned by the disease had suppurated. The plague is always most violent in cold weather; but it first abates, and then disappears altogether, as the hot season approaches to its height. On the other hand, the yellow fever of New York, generated by heat, is destroyed by cold. As to the fever of the West Indies, it appears and disappears without any visible cause.-?