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law, gave a kind of chivalrous tone to the feelings of the people, and combined cordial affection and obedience to superiors, with that spirit of independence which disdained to vield submission to the unworthy. I have already noticed instances of the deposition of worthless chiefs:—the following is a remarkable one of the desertion of a chief by his people. Powerful in point of influence and property, neither the one nor the other was able to act on his followers in opposition to what they considered their loyalty and duty to an unfortunate monarch. In the reign of King William, immediately after the Revolution, Lord Tullibardine, eldest son of the Marquis of Atholl, collected a numerous body of Athole Highlanders, together with three hundred Frasers, under the command of Hugh Lord Lovat, who had married a daughter of the Marquis. These men believed that they were destined to support the abdicated king, but were, in reality, assembled to serve the government of William. When in front of Blair Castle, their real destination was disclosed to them by Lord Tullibardine. Instantly they rushed from their ranks, ran to the adjoining stream of Banovy, and, filling their bonnets with water, drank to the health of King James; and then, with colours flying, and pipes playing, "fifteen hundred of the men of Athole, as reputable for arms as any in the kingdom," • put themselves under the command of the Laird of Ballechin, and marched off to join Lord Dundee, f whose chivalrous bravery, and heroic and daring exploits, had excited their admiration more than those of any other warrior since the days of Montrose. They knew him not as the " Bloody Clavers" of the southern and western districts; on the contrary, to the Highlanders, he was always kind and condescending. Soon after this defection, the battle of Killicrankie, or of Renrorie, (as the Highlanders call it), was fought, when one of those incidents occurred which were too frequent in turbu

* General Mackay't Memoirs.

f In this instance, the paramount principle of loyalty triumphed over feudal influence. Vol. I. K

lent times. Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel, with his clan, had joined Lord Dundee in the service of the abdicated king, while his second son, a captain in the Scotch Fusileers, was under General Mackay on the side of government . As the General was observing the Highland army drawn up on the face of a hill, a little above the house of Urrard, and to the westward of the great pass, he turned round to young Cameron, who stood next to him, and pointing to the Camerons, "Here," said he, "is your father with his wild savages; how would you like to be with him?" "It signifies little," replied the other, "what I would like; but I recommend it to you to be prepared, or perhaps my father and his wild savages may be nearer to you before night than you would like." And so it happened. Dundee delayed his attack "till," according to an eye-witness, "the sun's going down, when the Highlandmen advanced on us like madmen, without shoes or stockings, covering themselves from our fire with their targets. At last they cast away their muskets, drew their broadswords, and advanced furiously upon us, broke us, and obliged us to retreat; some fled to the water, some another way." • In short, the charge was like a torrent, and the rout complete; but Dundee fell early in the attack, f The consternation occasioned by the death of the General prevented an immediate pursuit through the great

• The author of the Memoirs of Lord Dundee, speaking of this battle, says, " Then the Highlanders fired, threw down their fusils, rushed in with sword, target, and pistol, upon the enemy, who did not maintain their ground two minutes after the Highlanders were amongst them; and I dare be bold to say, there were scarce ever such strokes given in Europe, as were given that day by the Highlanders. Many of General Mackay's officers and soldiers were cut down through the skull and neck to the very breast; others had skulls cut off above their ears, like night-caps; some soldiers had both their bodies and cross-belts cut through at one blow; pikes and small swords were cut like willows; and whoever doubts of this, may consult the witnesses of the tragedy."

f It has generally been believed that Lord Dundee was killed at the close of the action; but the following extract of a letter from James VII. to Stewart of Ballechin, who commanded the Atholemcn after their desertion from Lord Tullibardine, shows that he fell early.

pass. Had they been closely followed, and had a few men been placed at the southern entrance, not a man of the king's troops would have escaped. This uninterrupted retreat caused General Mackay to conclude, that some misfortune had befallen Lord Dundee. "Certainly," said he, "Dundee has been killed, or I should not thus be permitted to retreat."

The 21st, or Scotch Fusileers, was on the left of General Mackay's front line, Hastings' and Leslie's (now the 1 3th and 15th) regiments in the centre, and Lord Leven's (now the 25th) on the right; the whole consisting of two regiments of cavalry, and nine battalions of infantry. After the right of the line had given way, the regiments on the centre and left (the left being covered by the river Garry, and the right by a woody precipice below the House of Urrard) stood their ground, and for a short time withstood the shock of the Highlanders' charge with the broadsword i but at length they gave way on all sides. Hastings' fled through the pass on the north side. The Fusileers, dashing across the river, were followed by the Highlanders, one party of whom pressed on their rear, while the others climbed up the hills

"From our Court at Dublin Castle, the last day of "James R. November 1689, and the fifth year of our reign.

"The news we have received of the brave Viscount Dundee's death has most sincerely affected us. But we are resolved, by extraordinary marks of favour, to make his family conspicuous, when the world may see lasting honours and happiness are to be acquired by the brave and loyal. What he has so happily begun, and you so successfully maintained, by a thorough defeat of your enemies, we shall not doubt a generous prosecution of, when we consider that the Highland loyalty is inseparably annexed to the persons of their kings: Nor no ways fear the event, whilst the justice of our cause shall be seconded by so many bold and daring assertors of our royal right . If their courage and yours, and the rest of the commanders under you, were not steady, the loss you had in a General you loved and confided in, at your entrance into action, with so great inequality of numbers, were enough to baffle you; but you have showed yourselves above surprise, and given us proof that we are, in a great measure, like to owe the re-establishment of our monarchy to your valour."

Addressed " To Our Trusty Cousin the Laird of Ballecbin."

on the south side of the pass, and, having no ammunition, rolled down stones, and killed several of the soldiers before they recrossed the river at Invergarry. This was the only attempt to pursue. *

• In this battle Lochiel was attended by the son of his foster-brother. This faithful adherent followed him like his shadow, ready to assist him with his sword, or cover him from the shot of the enemy. Soon after the battle began, the chief missed his friend from his side, and turning round to look what had become of him, saw him lying on his back, with his breast pierced by an arrow. He had hardly breath before he expired to tell Lochiel, that, seeing an enemy, a Highlander in General Mackay's army, aiming at him with a bow and arrow from the rear, he sprung behind him, and thus sheltered him from instant death. This is a species of duty not often practised by our aid-de-camps of the present day.

SECTION IV.

Arms of the Clans.

In attempting to explain how a people living within their mountains, in an uncultivated and sequestered corner of a country, should, as warriors, prove a ready and efficient support to their friends, and terrible to their enemies, it may be proper, first of all, to describe their arms. These consisted of a broadsword girded on the left side, and a dirk, or short thick dagger, on the right, used only when the combat was so close that the sword could be of no service. • In ancient times they also carried a small short-handled hatchet or axe, to be used when they closed upon the enemy. A gun, a pair of pistols, and a target, completed their armour, f In absence of the musket, or when short of ammunition, they used the Lochaber axe, a species of long lance, or pike, with a formidable weapon at the end of it, adapted either for cutting or stabbing. This lance had been almost laid aside since the introduction of the musket; but it ready substitute was found, by fixing a scythe at the end of a pole, with which the Highlanders resisted the charge of cavalry, to them the most formidable kind of attack. In 1745 many of the rebels were armed in this manner, till they supplied themselves with muskets after the battles of Prestonpans and Falkirk. Thus, the Highlanders united the offensive arms of the modems with

* See Appendix, I.

t Rea, in the History of the Rebellion of 1715, describing the march of a party along the side of Lochlomond, says, "That night they arrived at Luss, where they were joined by Sir Humphrey Colquhoun of Lass, and James Grant of Pluscarden, his son-in-law, followed by forty or fifty stately fellows in their hose and belted plaids, armed each of them with a well-fixed gun on their shoulders, a strong handsome target, with a sharp pointed steel, of about half an ell in length screwed into the navel of it. on his arm, a sturdy claymore by his side, and a pistol or two, with a dirk and knife, in his belt."

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