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Sict. II. Causes and consequences of these changes — State when

placed on small lots of land—Poverty followed by demora-

lization .... 139

III. Beneficial results of judicious arrangements, and of allowing

time to acquire a knowledge of agricultural improvements

-Emigration- Agricultural pursuits promote indepen-

dence, and prevent pauperism ... 172

—— IV. Illicit distillation—Consequences of reducing the Highlanders

from the condition of small tenantry—Policy of retaining

an agricultural population - - - 193

PART III MILITARY ANNALS.

- I. Black Watch—Independent companies—Embodied into a

regiment at Taybridge in 1740—March to England—Re-

view—Mutiny - 240

II. Embarked for Flanders, 1743—Battle of Fontenoy—Return

to Britain in 1745—Three additional companies—Battle

of Prestonpans—Descent on the coast of France, 1746—

Return to Ireland—Embark for Flanders, 1747—Thence

for Ireland in 1749—The number changed from the 43d

to the 42d regiment—Character of the regiment - 262

III. Embark for North America in 1756—Expedition against

Louisbourg in 1757—Attack on Ticonderago and Louis,

bourg in 1758—on Fort du Quesne—on Martinique and

Guadaloupe in 1759 .... 294

IV. Operations under General Amherst in North America in 1760

Expedition under General Wolfe—Battle of the Heights

of Abraham—Death of General Wolfe—Battle of Quebec

—Fraser's Highlanders ... 320

V. Montgomery's Highlanders—Dominique taken in 1761—

Martinique in 1762—Savannah taken in 1762 - 338

VI. Fraser's, Montgomery's, and Royal Highlanders, St John's,

Newfoundland, 1762— Bushy Run, 1763—Fort Pitt, 1764

—Ireland, 1767—Scotland, 1775 - - 351

VII. Highlanders embark for America in 1775—Battle of Brook-

lyn 1776—Battle of White Plains—Capture of Fort Wash-
ington 1777—Hessians surprised at Trenton—Pisquatua—
Battle of Brandy-wine—General Wayne surprised—Attack
of German-town—White Marsh—Battle of Monmouth
1778—Rhode Island—Verplanks—Stony Point—Detach-
ment of recruits from London—Consequences—Charles-
town taken 1780—Some Highlanders deserted in 1783—

Page

Stationed in Halifai 1786—Embark for England in 1789

—Return to Scotland in 1790 ... 368

8cct. VIII. Duties of the regiment in Scotland—Disturbances in Ross-
shire in 1792—Embark for Flanders in 1793—Join the
allied army at Menin—Relief of Nieuport—Return to Eng-
land—Embark for the Coast of France—Embark for Flan

den in June 1794 — Nimeguen—Distressing march to

Bremen?— Return to England—Regiments augmented by

drafts from the newly raised corps - - 403

IX. Embark for the West Indies in 1795—Fleet scattered in the

succession of gales—One division of the Highlanders dri-

ven back, the other reaches Barbadoes—Attack on St Lu-

cia and St Vincent in 1796—Porto Rico 1797 — Re-

turn to England, and thence sail for Gibraltar-—Expedition

against Minorca in 1798.—Expedition against Cadiz in

1800—Malta ..... 416

X. Expedition to Egypt in 1801—Landing at Aboukir—Battle

of the 13th of March—90th and 92d regiments lead the at-
tack—Battle of Alexandria—Surrender of Cairo—Surren-

der of Alexandria—Indian Army - - 446

XI. England—Highland Society—Reviewed by the King—

March to Scotland— Reception—Recruits—2d Battalion

added in 1803—March to England ..Embark for Gibral-

tar in 1805—Spain, 1808—Battle of Corunna, 1809— Re-

turn to England - - - '. 490

- XII. England—Expedition to Walcheren in 1809—Return to

Scotland in 1810— March to England in 1811—Embark

for Spain in 1812—Battle of Salamancha—Siege of Bur-

got—Winter quarters .... 529

XIII. Campaign of 1813—Battle of Vittoria—Siege of St Sebastian

Pyrenees Succession of battles Fmnrr Bidaatpa .

Bayonne—-Series of desperate actions Battle of Orthes—

Bourdeaux—Bayonne—Ayrc—Tarbes— Toulouse— Peace

1814—War 1815—Quatre Bias—Waterloo—Peace - 549

NOTES

EXPLANATORY OF

THE MAP OF THE CLANS.

It is proper to state, that the divisions into which the clans are arranged on the Map, are not intended to indicate that the chiefs, or heads of the principal branches of all the clans, were the sole proprietors of the lands classed under their respective names. In several instances, they were only occupiers and tenants at will of the lands on which they and their forefathers had lived for ages. But, while the clansmen obeyed and followed the chiefs of their family and kindred, the superiors and proprietors of their lands seldom held any authority or feudal control, except in cases where the superior and his people entertained similar political views and sentiments. • The lands thus occupied by different clans and tribes, either as proprietors or tenants, are generally called their "Country" or territory; Brae Lochaber, for example, which was occupied for nearly five hundred years by the Macdonells of Keppoch, and their numerous descendants, is called " Keppoch's Country," although the fee-simple of the property had been rested for the greater part of the period in the families of Gordon and Mackintosh. The Dukes of Gordon and Argyle were feudal superiors of the whole of the Camerons' Country, the former nobleman being also proprietor of part of the lands, as also of a considerable portion of Badenoch, the " Country of the Macpersons," many of whom are his Grace's tenants. Indeed, this clan is so numerous in that extensive district, that, except in the case of an accidental emigration from the Duke's Lowland estates, there is not a tenant of the name of Gordon throughout its whole extent.

* Nothing can be more erroneous than an opinion, often repeated, and therefore sometimes believed, that whatever side the feudal superior took in any great political question or contest, he was invariably followed by bis subservient adherents. Many instances to the contrary have been stated, and I could produce many more, all highly cr-dit.ibV to the spirit of independence which long distinguished the clansmen.

Vol. i. A

The Duke of Atholl possesses a very extensive property in Athole; but the district has, for centuries, been called the Country of the Stewarts, Robertsons, Fergusons, &c. With the ex ception of the Duke, there is not in the whole district a proprietor or occupier of land of the name of Murray; but many descendants, whose forefathers sprung from the Atholl family prior to the change of their name from Stewart to Murray, are still resident in the glens of Athole.

Part of two large parishes on the estate of Sutherland, including Strathnaver, from which the earldom of Sutherland derives its secondary title, is situated in Lord Reay's Country, or, as it is called in Gaelic, the Territory of the Mackays. The ranks of the Sutherland regiment of 1793 bore evidence to the propriety of this appellation, as one hundred and Jour William Mackays, almost all of them from Strathnaver, were in the corps, and seventeen in one company, Captain Sackville Sutherland's.

The small clans or tribes of Maclarens of Balquhidder in Perthshire, Macintyres of Argyle, Macreas of Ross, Gunns of Sutherland, and several others, were not proprietors, but, from the earliest history of the clans, till a very recent period, occupied their lands in undisturbed succession.

In defining the divisions and different territories on the Map, it was impossible to attain the correctness of a measured plan; consequently, there are some large estates, belonging to other proprietors, included in districts designated as the territory of a particular clan ; but I hope this outline will afford a general, and tolerably correct, idea of the locality of the Highland clans, and will tend to illustrate the Lord President Forbes's Memorial on their Territories, Military Force, and Patronymics. As this document, which will be seen in the Appendix, was drawn up in 1746 and 17*7, the divisions are in general made to suit that period. Thus the estates attached to the Castles of Comrie and Shian, and the lands of Aberfeldy, are included in the Country of Menzies, as they were in 1746, although they are now the property of the Earl of Breadalbane. There have been many other changes of property since that period, which it is unnecessary to mention.

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