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ing, partly from the MS. survey of this honor, in the time of queen Elizabeth :* «Tutbury, as appeareth by the records, is an auncient honor situate in the extreme east borders of the county of Stafford, upon the river or water of Dove, [15] miles from Stafford, S from Burton upon Trent, 6 from Uttoxeter, and 12 miles from Ashborne in the moorland market towns, and is planted in a country most plentiful of good pasture, corn soil, wood, water, and good meadow, whose lordships and manors, with their members and liberties, extend into the counties of Stafford, Derby, Nottingham, Leicester, Warwick, and Northampton. And the said honor was parcel of the inheritance of the lord Ferrars, sometime earl of Derby, who, as it should seem, accompanied William the Conqueror at his invasion of this realm, for I find in the auncient records of the castle, that in the XIII year of the reign of William the Conqueror, the priory of Tutbury was founded by one Henry

earl of Ferrars, and Berta his wife, and after one Robert earl Ferrars, granted unto the house of St. Pere upon Dyve, in* Normandy, that one of the monks of the said house should at every avoidance be elected, and chosen by him and his heirs to be prior of Tutbury, whereby I gather that he was a Norman, and had greater affection to the Normans his countrymen, than to the Englishmen, or else thought them to be more virtuous in religion than the other. And at the foundation of the said priory, he gave unto the same the best possessions within the honor, which since the suppressions of the house are sold to divers persons, and thereby the honor sore dismembered. And it doth appear, that the possessions continued in the name of Ferrars, from William the Conqueror to the time of Henry III. in the year of whose reign, one Robert, then earl of Ferrars, was attainted, after whose attainder, the said Hen. III. gave all the possessions of earl Ferrers, unto Edmund Crouch-Back, his second son, and to his heirs, and it continued in his succession till Edward III. and then B b b b Ꮞ

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one Har). MSS. in Brit. Mus. No. 71, already cited

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STAFFORDSHIRE.

STAFFORDSHIRE.

. one Henry, being first duke of Lancaster, had issue Blanch, an only daughter, who was married to John of Gaunt, son to Edward III. and father to king Henry IV. The castle, which was sometimes the lord's habitation and capital mansion, is builded very stately within a park on the north side of the town of Tutbury, upon the height of a round rock of alabaster, and is inclosed for the most part, with a wall of stone embattled, whereupon may be seen all the lordships and manors pertaining to the honor in the counties of Stafford, Derby, and Leicester. The castle was not builded in that place, without marvellous consideration, for in all the honor it could not have been so planted for wholesome'air, for the commodious view and prospect of the country, for the strength of the place, the plenty of all things, necessary for the provision

of hospitality, and also for hunting, hawking, fishing, fowling, p and all the commodities, pleasures, and pastimes to recreate - the body and delight the mind. For as the river or water of

Dore doth from Uttoreter to the river of Trent, divide the counties of Stafford and Derby, so did it also at the begining divide the champain and woodland; for the one side of the water, being the county of Derby, is all champain, and very good and bateful meadow, pasture, and corn soil, extending from Tutbury to the Peake in distance miles, and all the Peak Hills and Moorlands, being also parcel of the bonor, very good sheeps pasture and large wastes. And on the other side of the river, in the county of Stafford, for the more part all Woodland, as appears by divers auncient grants, made to the lords William, and Robert Ferrers, sometime earls of Der. by, and lords of the lionor, in the time of Richard I. king John, and the beginning of the reign of Henry III. and now by mens industry converted to tillage and pasture..

· And whether the castle were builded before the conquest or not, I find no mention in writing, but in the south-west corner of the scyte of the castle, within the compass of the utter wall standith an auncient round tower, called Julius's Tower,

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which, as it is reported, was builded by Julius Cæsar, but I suppose that to be but old men's fables.* The buildings within the wall, and also the wall have been augmented and renewed by divers of the queen's majesty's progenitors, since the possessions were united to the crown; and also before, as doth appear upon several auncient accounts, and are kept indifferently well repaired.

And albeit I find no particular grant in writing, how earl Ferrers came to the same possessions, yet I gather they were given him, by William the Conqueror ; and that the manors within the county of Stafford (viz.) Rolleston, Tatenhall, Barton, Tunstall, Handbury, Agardisley, and Uttoreter, had not so Jarge bounds as they have al present; for the hamlet of Culingwood, which is now within Barton, was granted out of the forest of Needwood, by several times, and by several grants to one of earl Ferrers' servants, by the name of Rado de Bosco Calumpniato; the hamlet of Horecross, which is now within Agardisley, Hugoni de Melburne' et Thome de Cruce, by the said earls, by seyeral grants, and to hold by several services; and the most part of Agurdisley was taken out of the said forest, by the said earls, and granted to the tenants by copy, by the name of Mattock-lands. The hamlets of Lande Morton, Drayton, Coton Hornehill, Slubbylone, Woodland, and Thorny-hills, which now are within Marchington, were granted to divers gentlemen, that served the said earls out of the same forest, to hold to them by several services, so that I gather, that at the first entry of earl Robert, founder of Tutbury priory, he took the towns and villages of Rolston, Barton, Tunstal, Marchington, and Uttoxeter, as bis demesnes of the castle, and part of them he granted (as it should seem) to his bond-men, for no freeman would be contented to take land with such vil. lane-customs, as I find in auncient record at Tutbury, called "The Cowcher," made in the 2nd year of Henry V, the tenants

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• We expressed our disbelief of this tradition on a former page. Vide ante, p. 763.

were bound to observe and perform by the tenure of their land. And yet he reserved in every of the manors, a certain

in demean of meadow and arable. And the said bond tenants were bound by the tenure of their lands, to now the grass in the meadow, make the hay, and carry it to the castle ; and the arable land, to plough it, sow it, reap it, mow it, and

also to carry it, either to the lord's manor house in the manor, · or else to the castle, at their own cośts and charges. They were bound also to divers customs, carriages, and services, which at the making of the old Cowcher, were reduced into annual rent, until the king's majesty, or the lords of the honour, should come, and lye at the castle again, and then to be at their liberty.

And albeit those bond-tenants, held their lands, and had their grants from the lords of the honor of Tutbury, yet did they not all pass in one nature, nor by one especial name or grant, for the manors of Rolston, Barton, and Tunstall, past by the name of yard lands, and Marchington, by the name of Oxgangs of land; and Uttoxeter, by the name of a tenement and certain acres of land. Yardland containeth 24 acres, and every oxgang 8 acres, and the rents were certain. But since that time they have alienated their lands, so that some yardlands hath but 10 acres, ani some other 12 or 14, and yet the rent continueth; for he that for his yardland or organg, hath but half the content of his land, payeth the whole rent, and he that hath double as much payeth the whole rent. And when the lords had made their provisions for hospitality, that the greatest burden of their ordinary of household should be without charge or trouble, and directed themselves to be served by their poor villains in time of peace, of all things nea cessary for their property and furniture, of themselves and families at home, then began they to devise to increase their possessions with people, to defend themselves and their county in time of war, and to make the honor more populous and stately, erected free-boroughs within 6 miles of the castle; one

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at Tutbury ; one other at Agardisley, called Newburgh; and one other at Uttoxeter ; and granted to the burgesses and inhabitants of any of them, such parcels of land to build upon, as in their several grants may appear; and to make men more desirous to plant their habitations in those places, procured for them markets and fairs within the same; and granted to the burgesses, divers liberties of common of pasture, puvnage, and estovers in their forest of Needwood, and also that they should be free of all tolls, tonnage, package, poundage, and other exactions within all their possessions; and granted to Tutbury CLXXX and two burgages; to Newburgh CI burgages; and to Uttoreler CXXVII burgages, which were all inhabited, as it should seem, with bandycraftmen : they could not otherwise live ; for we find by record, and by the accounts from time to time, that all the lands within the said manors, were granted to divers persons, either by --- or else to the customary tenants, for there was none reserved to the bur gesses, to maintain their living, but only by some bandycraft, or trade of merchandize. And then were they merchants, not husbandmen, nor graziers, but trusted only to the trades of merchandize and other handycrafts. Such was the wisdom and policy of our ancestors, to divorce the merchants and handyeraftmen from the husband and tylth-men, that none of them should intrude upon other's gain. And by this means the good towns were builded, inhabited, and maintained, which now are decayed and depopulated ; the markets plentiful with all kinds of provisions, which are now unfurnished ;'and the county replenished with gentlemen and husbandmen, which is now inhabited by merchants and men of occupation ; so that no man is contented with his own estate, which hath brought all things to such extremity, as they have not been of many years before.

The earls of Derby were noble gentlemen, stout and liberal, and had more affection (as it should seem) to the chi. valry of Englishmen, than to their religion, and had greater

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