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who also erected the two churches of Trinity and St. Mary for their tenants; and that, on the demolition of the fortification and outworks of the castle, (whenever that happened) the present High Street arose out of the materials furnished from their ruins. This opinion is farther countenanced by names still in use here; the road on the east side of the river being at this day called the Bury, i. e. Burgh Lane, as having probably been the Borough, or main street; and the adjoining fields formerly occupied by other houses, gardens, &c. of the inhabitants the Bury, or Burgh Fields.
The rest of the royal demesne that lay on the west side of the river was reserved for the king's private use; and being imparked by Henry II. soon after his accession, was occupied by his successors for many generations under the name of the King's Manor. Of that wbich lay on the east side some was swallowed up in the tract of ground afterwards occupied by the castle: some was alienated, and as it seems by the Conqueror himself to the family of Testard, by whose successors it was afterwards called the manor of Poyle; and the remainder disposed of to make room for the Friary.
So much of the royal demesne of this place as remained unalienated by the Conqueror and his successors was afterwards known by the name of the King's Manor. From its neighbourhood to the capital this could not but be considered as a convenient place of retirement, and as such was occupied by onr priuices in very early times
The first step taken with this intention was by Henry II, who, soon after his coronation in 1154, inclosed a considerable tract of land on the north side of Guildford Down, and converted it into a park. In his time also there was a mansion house in the park, probably first erected by him; and here he freqnently kept bis court.
From the time that this place became the occasional residence of our princes, certain wants of the household, on its removal hither, were supplied by the tenants of Crown lands in the neighbourhood. Some of these tenures afford a curious illustra
tion of the manners of the age. Thus, Robert the son of William Testard, in the time of Henry III. is called Custos meretricum in curiâ domini Regis. Robert de Mankesey, alias Gatton, is termed Mareschallus custodiendo meretrices de curi& domini Regis; and Mareschallus 12 puellarum quc sequuntur curiam domini Regis. Hamo, his son and heir, is styled Mareschallus meretricum, cum dominus Rer venerit in illis partibus ; and Hamo, the younger, Mareschallus de communibus fæminis sequentibus hospitium domini Regis *.
Guildford was, therefore, the occasional residence of many of our kings, till, in the reign of Charles I, the Earl of Annandale obtained a grant of the manor and park in fee simple, by which he was impowered to dispark the lands, which were declared to be out of the bounds of any forest or chace. The Friary included in this grant was declared to be the principal house, or lodge of the park. On the decease of the Earl of Annandale in 1640, this estate passed through various hands; and, under a decree of the Court of Chancery, the manor and park were sold, in 1709, to the Honourable Thomas Onslow, afterwards Lord Onslow. Soon after this the lands were disparked, and are now occupied as four distinct farms t, which are the property of Earl Onslow.
Maoning has laboured to invalidate the ludicrous reflections on the court of that time to which these terms have given occasion, and to prove, that the word Meretrit was here used in an indifferent sense, and as the description of such people in general who served for hire: but Lysons, in the Appendix to the fifteenth volume of the Archæologia (p. 399,) has quoted a record wbich proves beyond a doubt, that the word Meretrices is to be taken in its literal
In Liber Ruber Scaccurii, cited by Spelman, in his Glossary, at the word Marescullus, is this passage :-"Et si soloit estre que le Maresscall devoit avoir donze Damoisellez à la Court le Roy, qui devivient faire seirement à son Bacheler, qu'elles ne saveroient aultres putains à la Court qu'elles mesmas, ne Ribaudes sans avowerie de assre, ne larron ne mesel quelles ne le mons. treront au Maresscal, et il doit pourvoir la Court de tout."
+ In a field near Henley Grove, belonging to one of these farms, an earthen pot was found in 1781, deposited in the chalky rock, about two feet beneath
The Castle, the most prominent object in this town, is situated about 300 yards southward of the High Street. The Keep, standing on an artificial mount, is now the principal relic of this edifice. It is a quadrangle forty-seven feet by forty-five and a half, and seventy feet high. The foundation, to the height of eight or nine feet, is of chalk, above which the walls are constructed of flints, rag-stone, and Roman brick, disposed in the herring-bone fashion. It continues very strong, the walls being ten feet thick; but is uncovered, the roof having, on account of decay, been taken off near 200 years ago. In the walls are cavities which shew the remains of several apartments : in one of them on the second story are several rude figures deeply scratched in the chalk, supposed to be the work of some prisoner confined here.
King, in his Observations on Ancient Castles, makes the fol. lowing remarks on that of Guildford : “ On the ground-floor," says he ", " there were no windows, nor even so much as loopholes ; but in the upper stories there was one great window, near the middle on each side, the form of which was circular at the top. As to the rest of the present windows they are all modern breaches ; and even some of the old ones have plainly been al. tered and repaired, and have even had frames and pillars of brickwork inserted. The present entrance also is manifestly a breach made in these later ages. And the original entrance may be still
the surface. This pot, of very coarse carth, is narrower at the bottom than in the middle, where it is considerably protuberant; and whence it rises in the form of a truncated cone to the top, being about seventeen inches in height, and four feet foar inches in circumference in the widest part. It was nearly ball full of small pieces of burnt bones; but, though search was made, nothing inore was discovered to point out the character of the person whose remains they were. This pot is engraven in the plates of Urns in Giugh's Camden. Introd. p. CXLIX. fg. 15.
In the same farm, at the foot of an aged yew tree, was dug up, a few years since, a leaden urn, containing a heart preserved in spirits.
* Archæologia, Vol. IV. 409.
perceived to have been undoubtedly through a stone arch, in the midst of the west front, at a considerable height; and must have been approached by a staircase on the outside of the wall. This arch, in which is a great peculiarity, (it being a pointed one, although of a date long before pointed arches were introduced into common use) still reinains very perfect. And although it now passes for a window, yet that it was the ancient portal is manifest both from the stone arch within, which exactly corresponds with it, and differs from the arches of all the windows; and also from hence, that whereas the windows on the other three sides are at the same height from the ground, this arch and portal is some feet lower, and its bottom level with the marks of the floor withiu.
“ There was a circular staircase in one corner of the building; and there are also galleries in the thickness of the wall, as at Rochester. There is likewise one very odd piece of fortification, which is the mock appearance of a false entrance, or sally-port (on the south side, and near the south-east angle) on the ground, seeming to be filled up with large square stones, of a different kind from the rest of the castle; and having, in order to increase the deception, machicolations over it at a great height as if to defend it from attacks."
On the west side of the keep, leading towards the south, or Quarry Street, still remains the outer gate of the castle, where was a portcullis, with the date 1669, and the initials J. C., as having been rebu:lt by John, grandson of Francis Carter, to whom this ancient edifice was granted by James I. The site at present occupied by these ruins is about five acres; but, if we may judge from the remains of walls and other works, it must formerly have been very extensive. The cellars of the Angel Inn, on the north side of the High street, and those of a private dwelling directly opposite to it on the south side, are supposed to have been part of the vaults belonging to the castle. Both are nearly of the same dimensions, and exhibit the same style of architecture, being about eight feet high, and twenty feet square, supported by short massive pillars, the one of stone, and the other of squared chalk, from which spring arches crossing in different directions.
In the chalky cliff on which the castle stands, about 200 yards to the south-west of it, is a cavern, or rather a series of caverns, the entrance to which is near Quarry-street, facing the west. Here is a gentle lescent into a cave forty-five feet long, twenty wide, and nine high : near the entrance, on either haud, were two lower passages, now closed up, leading to the other caverns. For what purpose these excavations were formed it is impossible to ascertain ; if, as Grose observes, only for the chalk, the workmen were bad economists of their labour : but many have, without the slightest foundation, looked upon this place as a subterraneous passage to the castle.
The founder of the castle, and the date of its construction, are alike unknown. Mr. King, in the Sequel to his Observations on Ancient Castles, seems inclined to consider the keep at least as & Saxon fortress, constructed during the time of the heptarchy. It is somewhat extraordinary that the Domesday Survey should have omitted to make mention of it. The first time that it occurs in history is in the year 1036, when it was the theatre of a sanguinary transaction. Harold, surnamed Harefoot, having been seated on the throne by the intrigues of Goodwin, Earl of Kent, in opposition to the sense of the people, which favored Hardicanute, son of the late king, then absent in Denmark; his mother, Emma, an ambitious woman, fearful of losing her influence, conceived the design of procuring the crown for her son, Alfred, or his brother, Edward, the issue of her first marriage with King Ethelred. For this purpose she obtained Harold's permission to send for them from Normandy; and on their arrival in England, the king, through the persuasion of Goodwin, who suspected Emma's intentions, yave them an invitation to spend a few days at his court. The mother, fearful of some design, suffered but one of her sons to go, and Alfred set out, attended by a numerous retinue of Normans. Near GuildVOL. XIV.