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another Latin or Greek word ; at the end of it, if derived from any other source. Further still, the primary or etymological meaning is always given, within inverted commas, in Roman type, and so much also of each word's history as is needful to bring down its chain of meanings to the especial force, or forces, attaching to it in the particular “ Text.” In the Vocabularies, however, to Eutropius and Æsop—which are essentially books for beginners—the origin is given of those words alone which are formed from other Latin or Greek words respectively.

Moreover, as an acquaintance with the principles of GRAMMAR, as well as with ETYMOLOGY, is necessary to the understanding of a language, such points of construction as seem to require elucidation are concisely explained under the proper articles, or a reference is simply made to that rule in the Public Schools Latin Primer, or in Parry's Elementary Greek Grammar, which meets the particular difficulty. It occasionally happens, however, that more information is needed than can be gathered from the above-named works. When such is the case, whatever is requisite is supplied, in substance, from Felf's Greek Grammar, Winer's Grammar of New Testament Greek, or the Latin Grammars of Zumpt and Madvig.

LONDON : October 1884.

ARGUMENT.

Death of Caiēta. Æneas, after performing her funeral obsequies,

proceeds on his voyage. Sails close to the shores of the island where Circe has her abode. The groans and roars of those whom Circe has transformed into beasts. Neptune sends a favourable breeze, whereby the Trojans are prevented from landing, and are thus saved from a like fate. The Trojan fleet enters the Tiber. Invocation of the Muse Erăto, Ancestry of King Latīnus. The only daughter of Latīnus sought in mar, riage by many Italian princes. Suit of Turnus supported by the queen Amāta, whose wishes are thwarted through various portents. Latinus, who is priest as well as king, consults the oracle of the god Faunus, from whom he is descended. Expressly prohibited from giving his daughter in marriage to any of the Latins. Informed that a son-in-law, from a foreign land, is coming. Æneas, Iulus, and the principal Trojan leaders reduced to eating wheaten cakes and wild fruits. When the fruits have been eaten, they are compelled, through lack of other food, to eat the cakes on which the fruits had been placed. Iulus exclaims that they are eating the tables. Ænēas recalls to mind the prophetic intimation of his father Anchises, that when such a thing took place, the foreign land at which they would then have arrived was destined to be their home. Libation to Jove. Invocation of Anchises. Prayers to various deities. Jove gives a favourable omen. Neighbouring country explored, and its inhabitants ascertained. A hundred Trojans sent as delegates to King Latīnus. Æneas fortifies his position on the shore. Palace of Latinus described. Latīnus admits the Trojan deleg. ates to his presence. Their favourable reception. Address of Ilioneus. Latīnus revolves in his mind his daughter's marriage, as foretold by Faunus. Dismisses the Trojans with presents for themselves and Ænēas, and forwards through them an invitation to Ænēas to come to his court. Juno, returning from Argos, espies the Trojan fleet. Her bitter reflections. Summons the Fury Alecto to her aid, with the view of breaking the league between Latīnus and Ænēas. Alecto, proceeding to the palace of Latinus, casts one of the snakes that formed her hair at Amāta. Description of the various forms assumed by the snake, and the effects produced by it on Amāta. Amāta, failing to move Latīnus from his purpose, conceals her daughter among the moun. tains. Fires the Latin women with frenzy, and rouses them to undertake the rites of Bacchus. Alecto, next assuming the form of Calğbë, the aged priestess of Juno, appears to Turnus in his sleep. Her address to him, and his reply. In her exasperation she hurls at him one of her snakes. Turnus starts from his sleep in terror. His rage. Şummons the Rutuli to arms. After this Alecto proceeds to the place where the main body of the Trojans is stationed, and finds lūlus engaged in hunting. Instigates his hounds to chase a favourite stag of Silvia, the daughter of Tyrrheus, the king's chief herdsman. Iūlus wounds the stag, which flees to its home. Lamentation of Silvia. The neighbouring rustics arm themselves. Conflict between them and the Trojans who come to the rescue of lūlus. Almo, the eldest son of Tyrrheus, and Galæsus, a wealthy Italian, are slain. Alecto proceeds to heaven, and reports to Juno that she has worked the will of the goddess. Bidden to return to her own abode, and told that, as war was now kindled, Juno would herself undertake the management of what remained to be done. Valley of Amsanctus. Turnus and others demand war. Latīnus remains firm in his resolve for peace. Unable to still the general clamour, or to direct the course of events. Foretells a sad end for Turnus. Shuts himself up in his palace, and relinquishes the affairs of the state. Temple of Bellum, the war-god. Ancient custom of the throwing open, by the chief of the state, the doors of the temple, when war had been resolved upon. Latinus refusing to open the doors, Juno bursts them open. Preparations for war throughout Italy. Invocation of the Muses. The various Italian princes, who join their forces against the Trojans : viz. Mezentius, and his son Lausus, from Tuscany ; Aventīnus ; Catillus and Coras from Tibur ; Cæcŭlus from Præneste ; Messāpus, with the Fescennini and the Æqui Falisci ; Clausus, with troops from Amiternum and various other places; Halēsus, with troops from the region around Mons Massicus and from other places ; Ufens, from the city of Nursa, with the Æqui ; Umbro, with his followers, from the Marrucini; Virbius, from Aricia ; Turnus, with Rutulian and other troops; the heroine Camilla, with a body of cavalry.

P. VIRGILII MARONIS ÆNEIDOS

LIBER SEPTIMUS.

10

Tu quoque litoribus nostris, Æneïa nutrix,
Æternam moriens famam, Caieta, dedisti ;
Et nunc servat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen
Hesperiā in magnā, si qua est ea gloria, signat.
At pius exsequiis Æneas ritè solutis,
Aggere composito tumuli, postquàm alta quiêrunt
Æquora, tendit iter velis, portumque relinquit.
Aspirant auræ in noctem, nec candida cursūs
Luna negat; splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus.
Proxima Circææ raduntur litora terræ,
Dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos
Assiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis
Urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum,
Arguto tenues percurrens pectine telas.
Hinc exaudiri gemitūs iræque leonum,
Vincla recusantum, et serā sub nocte rudentum ;
Setigerique sues atque in præsepibus ursi
Sævire, ac formæ magnorum ululare.luporum ;
Quos hominum ex facie dea sæva potentibus herbis
Induerat Circe in vultūs ac terga ferarum. 20

B

Quæ ne monstra pii paterentur talia Troës,
Delati in portūs, neu litora dira subirent :
Neptunus ventis implevit vela secundis,
Atque fugam dedit, et præter vada fervida vexit.

Jamque rubescebat radiis mare, et æthere ab alto
Aurora in roseis fulgebat lutea bigis;
Quum venti posuere, omnisque repentè resedit
Flatus et in lento luctantur marmore tonsæ.
Atque hìc Æneas ingentem ex æquore lucum
Prospicit. Hunc inter fluvio Tiberinus ameno, 30
Verticibus rapidis, et multā flavus arenā,
In mare prorumpit. Variæ circùmque supràque
Assuetæ ripis volucres et fluminis alveo
Æthera mulcebant cantu, lucoque volabant.
Flectere iter sociis terræque advertere proras
Imperat, et lætus fluvio succedit opaco.

Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quæ tempora rerum, Quis Latio antiquo fuerit status, advena classem Quum primùm Ausoniis exercitus appulit oris, Expediam, et primæ revocabo exordia pugnæ. 40 Tu vatem, tu diva, mone. Dicam horrida bella ; Dicam acies, actosque animis in funera reges, Tyrrhenamque manum, totamque sub arma coactam Hesperiam. Major rerum mihi nascitur ordo; Majus opus moveo. Rex arva Latinus et urbes Jam senior longā placidas in pace regebat. : Hunc Fauno et nymphā genitum Laurente Marica Accipimus : Fauno Picus pater : isque parentem Te, Saturne, refert ; tu sanguinis ultimus auctor. Filius huic, fato divûm, prolesque virilis 50

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