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neither gratified by our kindness, nor softened a hundred geese to each ship, by pelting them by our humility. Sir Benjamin Keene, who with stones. Not content with physic and with then resided at Madrid, was interrogated by food, he searched yet deeper for the value of the Carvajal concerning the visit intended to Pepys's new dominion. He dug in quest of ore, found and Falkland's Islands in terms of great jealousy iron in abundance, and did not despair of nobleť and discontent; and the intended expedition was metals. represented, if not as a direct violation of the A country thus fertile and delightful, fortulate peace, yet as an act inconsistent with ami- nately found where none would have expected it, cable intentions, and contrary to the professions about the fiftieth degree southern latitude, could of mutual kindness which then passed between not without great supineness be neglected. EarSpain and England. Keene was directed to Iy in the next year (January 8, 1766) Captain protest that nothing more than mere discovery Macbride arrived at Port Egmont, where he was intended, and that no settlement was to be erected a small blockhouse and stationed a garestablished. The Spániard readily replied, that rison. His description was less flattering. He if this was å voyage of wanton curiosity, it might found what he calls a mass of islands and broken be gratified with less trouble, for he was willing lands, of which the soil was nothing but a bog, to communicate whatever was known; that to with no better prospect than that of barren go so far only to come back, was no reasonable mountains, beaten by storms almost perpetual. act: and it would be a slender sacrifice to Yet this, says he, is summer, and if the winds of peace and friendship to omit a voyage in which winter hold their natural proportion, those who nothing was to be gained : that if we left the lie but two cables' length from the shore, must places as we found them, the voyage was useless; pass weeks without any communication with it. and if we took possession, it was á hostile arma- The plenty which regaled Mr. Byron, and meót, nor could we expect that the Spaniards which might have supported not only armies but would suppose us to visit the southern parts of armies of Patagons, was no longer to be found. America only from curiosity, after the scheme The geese were too wise to stay when men violatproposed by the author of Anson's voyage. ed their haunts, and Mr. Macbride's crew could

When once we had disowned all purpose of only now and then kill a goose when the settling, it is apparent that we could not defend weather would permit. All the quadrupeds the propriety of our expedition by arguments which he met there were foxes, supposed by him equivalent to Carvajal’s objections. This minis- to have been brought upon the ice; but of usetry, therefore, dismissed the whole design, but less animals, such as sea-lions and penguins, no declaration was required by which our right which he cans vermin, the number was incredito pursue it hereafter might be annulled. ble. He allows, however, that those who touch

From this time Falkland's Island was forgot at these islands may find geese and snipes, and ten or neglected, till the conduct of naval affairs in the summer months, wild celery and sorrel. was intrusted to the Earl of Egmont, a man No token was seen by either of any settlement whose mind was vigorous and ardent, whose ever made upon this island, and Mr. Macbride knowledge was extensive, and whose designs thought himself só secure from hostile disturwere magnificent; but who had somewhat vi- bance, that when he erected his wooden blocktiated his judgment by too much indulgence of house he omitted to open the ports and loopromantic projects and airy speculations.

holes. Lord Egmont's eagerness after something new When a garrison was stationed at Port Egdetermined him to make inquiry after Falk-mont, it was necessary to try what sustenance land's Island, and he sent out Captain Byron, the ground could be, by culture, excited to prowho, in the beginning of the year 1765, took, he duce. A garden was prepared, but the plants says, a formal possession in the name of bis Bri- that sprung up withered away in immaturity. tannic Majesty.

Some fir-seeds were sown; but though this be The possession of this place is, according to the native tree of rugged climates, the young firs Mr. Byron's representation, no despicable acqui- that rose above the ground died like weaker sition. He conceived the island to be six or herbage. The cold continued long, and the seven handred miles round, and represented it ocean seldom was at rest. a region naked indeed of wood, but which, f Cattle succeeded better than vegetables. that defect were supplied, would have all that Goats, sheep, and hogs, that were carried thither, nature, almost all that luxury, could want. The were found to thrive and increase as in other barbour he found capacious and secure, and places. therefore thought it worthy of the name of Eg- Nil mortalibus arduum est. There is nothing

Of water there was no want, and the which human courage will not undertake, and ground he described as having all the excellences little that human patience will not endure. The of soil, and as covered with antiscorbutic herbs, garrison lived upon Falkland's Island, shrinking the restoratives of the sailor. Provision was from the blast, and shuddering at the billows. easily to be had, for they killed almost every day This was a colony which could never become

mont.

same.

independent, for it never could be able to main more replies, of which the tenor was nearly the tain itself. The necessary supplies were annu

The operations of such harmless enmity ally sent from England, at an expense which the having produced no effect, were then reciproAdmiralty began to think would not quickly be cally discontinued, and the English were left for repaid. But shame of deserting a project, and a time to enjoy the pleasures of Falkland's Isunwillingness to contend with a projector that land without molestation. meant well, continued the garrison, and sup- This tranquillity, however, did not last long. plied it with regular remittances of stores and A few months afterwards (June 4th, 1770) the provision.

Industry, a Spanish frigate, commanded by an That of which we were almost weary our officer whose name was Madariaga, anchored in selves, we did not expect any one to envy; and Port Egmont, bound, as was said, for Port Sotherefore supposed that we should be permitted lidad, and reduced, by a passage from Buenos to reside in Falkland's Island, the undisputed Ayres of fifty-three days, to want of water. lords of tempest-beaten barrenness,

Three days afterwards four other frigates enBut on the 28th of November, 1769, Captain tered the port, and a broad pendant, such as is Hunt, observing a Spanish schooner hovering borne by the commander of a naval armament, about the Island and surveying it, sent the com- was displayed from the Industry. Captain mander a message, by which he required him to Farmer, of the Swift frigate, who commanded depart. The Spaniard made an appearance of the garrison, ordered the crew of the Swift to obeying, but in two days came back with letters come on shore, and assist in its defence; and written by the Governor of Port Solidad, and directed Captain Maltby to bring the Favourite brought by the chief officer of a settlement on frigate, which he commanded, nearer to the the east part of Falkland's Island.

land. The Spaniards easily discovering the In this letter, dated Malouina, November 30th, purpose of his motion, let him know, that if he the governor complains, that Captain Hunt, weighed his anchor, they would fire upon his when he ordered the schooner to depart, as- ship; but paying no regard to these menaces, he sumed a power to which he could have no pre- advanced toward the shore. The Spanish fleet tensions, by sending an imperious message to followed, and two shots were fired, which fell the Spaniards in the king of Spain's own do- at a distance from him. He then sent to inminions.

quire the reason of such hostility, and was told In another letter, sent at the same time, he that the shots were intended only as signals. supposes the English to be in that part only by Both the English captains wrote the next day accident, and to be ready to depart at the first to Madariaga, the Spanish commodore, warning warning. This letter was accompanied by a him from the island, as from a place which the present, of which, says he, “ If it be neither English held by right of discovery. equal to my desire nor to your merit, you must Madariaga, who seems to have had no desire impute the deficiency to the situation of us of unnecessary mischief, invited them (June both."

9th) to send an officer who should take a view In return to this hostile civility, Captain Hunt of his forces, that they might be convinced of warned them from the island, which he claimed the vanity of resistance, and do that without in the name of the king, as belonging to the compulsion, which he was, upon refusal, preEnglish by right of the first discovery, and the pared to enforce. first settlement.

An officer was sent, who found sixteen hun This was an assertion of more confidence than dred men, with a train of twenty-seven cannon, certainty. The right of discovery, indeed, has four mortars, and two hundred bombs. The already appeared to be probable, but the right fleet consisted of five frigates, from twenty to which priority of settlement confers I know thirty guns, which were now stationed opposite not whether we yet can establish.

to the blockhouse. On December 10th, the officer sent by the He then sent them a formal memorial, in Governor of Port Solidad made three protests which he maintained his master's right to the against Captain Hunt: for threatening to fire up- whole Magellanic region, and exhorted the Engon him; for opposing his entrance into Port Eg-lish to retire quietly from the settlement, which mont; and for entering himself into Port Solidad. they could neither justify by right, nor mainOn the 12th the Governor of Port Solidad for- tain by power. mally warned Captain Hunt to leave Port Eg- He offered them the liberty of carrying away mont, and to forbear the navigation of these whatever they were desirous to remove, and seas, without permission from the king of Spain. promised his receipt for what should be left,

To this Captain Hunt replied by repeating that no loss might be suffered by them. his former claim; by declaring that his orders His propositions were expressed in terms of were to keep possession : and by once more great civility; but he concludes with demandwarning the Spaniards to depart.

ing an answer in fifteen minutes. The next month produced more protests and Having, while he was writing, received the

en answer.

letters of warning written the day before by the sea; that in January they had warned away English captains, he told them that he thought two Spanish ships; and that an armament was himself able to prove the king of Spain's title to sent out in May from Buenos Ayres to dislodge all those countries, but that this was no time for them. verbal altercations. He persisted in his deter- It was, perhaps, not yet certain that this acmination, and allowed only fifteen minutes for count was true; but the information, however

faithful, was too late for prevention. It was To this it was replied by Captain Farmer, easily known, that a fleet despatched in May that though there had been prescribed yet a had before August succeeded or miscarried. shorter time, he would still resolutely defend In October, Captain Maltby came to Enghis charge; that this, whether menace or force, land, and gave the account which I have now would be considered as an insult on the British epitomised, of his expulsion from Falkland's flag, and that satisfaction would certainly be Islands. required.

From this moment the whole nation can witOn the next day (June 10th) Madariaga land- ness that no time was lost. The navy was sured his forces, and it may be easily imagined that veyed, the ships refitted, and commanders aphe had no bloody conquest. The English had pointed; and a powerful fleet was assembled, only a wooden blockhouse, built at Woolwich, well manned and well stored, with expedition, and carried in pieces to the island, with a small after so long a peace, perhaps never known bebattery of cannon. To contend with obstinacy fore, and with vigour, which, after the waste of had been only to lavish life without use or hope. so long a war, scarcely any other nation had After the exchange of a very few shots, a capi- been capable of exerting. tulation was proposed.

This preparation, so illustrious in the eyes of The Spanish commander acted with modera- Europe, and so efficacious in its event, was obtion; he exerted little of the conqueror; what structed by the utmost power of that noisy fache had offered before the attack, he granted tion which has too long filled the kingdom, someafter the victory; the English were allowed to times with the roar of empty menace, and someleave the place with every honour, only their times with the yell of hypocritical lamentation. departure was delayed, by the terms of the capi- Every man saw, and every honest man saw tulation, twenty days; and to secure their stay, with detestation, that they who desired to force the rudder of the Favourite was taken off. What their sovereign into war, endeavoured at the they desired to carry away, they removed with- same time to disable him from action. out molestation; and of what they left, an in- The vigour and spirit of the ministry easily ventory was drawn, for which the Spanish offi- broke through all the machinations of these cer, by his receipt, promised to be accountable. pigmy rebels, and our armament was quickly

Of this petty revolution, so sudden and so such as was likely to make our negotiations efdistant, the English ministry could not possibly | fectual. have such notice as might enable them to pre- The Prince of Masseran, in his first confervent it. The conquest, if such it may be called, ence with the English ministers on this occasion, cost but three days; for the Spaniards, either owned that he had from Madrid received intelsupposing the garrison stronger than it was, orligence that the English had been forcibly exresolving to trust nothing to chance, or consider- pelled from Falkland's Island by Buccarelli, ing that, as their force was greater, there was the Governor of Buenos Ayres, without any less danger of bloodshed, came with a power particular orders from the king of Spain. But that made resistance ridiculous, and at once de being asked, whether in his master's name he manded and obtained possession.

disavowed Buccarelli's violence, he refused to The first account of any discontent expressed answer without direction. by the Spaniards, was brought by Captain Hunt, The scene of negotiation was now removed who arriving at Plymouth, June 30, 1770, in- to Madrid, and in September, Mr. Harris was formed the Admiralty that the Island bad been directed to demand from Grimaldi, the Spanish claimed in December by the Governor of Port minister, the restitution of Falkland's Island, Solidad.

and a disavowal of Buccarelli's hostilities. This claim, made by an officer of so little dig- It was to be expected that Grimaldi would nity, without any known direction from his su- object to us our own behaviour, who had orperiors, could be considered only as the zeal dered the Spaniards to depart from the same or officiousness of an individual, unworthy of island. To this it was replied, That the English public notice, or the formality of remonstrance. forces were indeed directed to warn other nations

In August, Mr. Harris, the resident at Ma- away; but if compliance were refused, to prodrid, gave notice to lord Weymouth of an ac- ceed quietly in making their settlement, and count newly brought to Cadiz, that the English suffer the subjects of whatever power to remain were in possession of Port Cuizada, the same there without molestation. By possession thus, which we call Port Egmont, in the Magellanic taken, there was only a disputable claim ad. vanced, which might be peaceably and regularly The obstinacy of the Spanish court still condecided, without insult, and without force; and tinued, and about the end of the year all hope if the Spaniards had complained at the British of reconciliation was so nearly extinguished, court, their reasons would have been beard, and that Mr. Harris was directed to withdraw, with all injuries redressed ; but that, by presupposing the usual forms, from his residence at Madrid. the justice of their own title, and having recourse Moderation is commonly firm, and firmness is to arms, without any previous notice or remon- commonly successful; having not swelled our strance, they had violated the peace, and insult- first requisition with any superfluous append. ed the British government; and therefore it was ages, we had nothing to yield, we therefore only expected that satisfaction should be made by repeated our first proposition, prepared for war, public disavowal, and immediate restitution. though desirous of peace.

The answer of Grimaldi was ambiguous and About this time, as is well known, the king of cold. He did not allow that any particular or- France dismissed Choiseul from his employders had been given for driving the English fromments. What effect this revolution of the their settlement; but made no scruple of de- French court had upon the Spanish counsels, I claring, that such an ejection was nothing more pretend not to be informed. Choiseul had althan the settlers might have expected; and that ways professed pacific dispositions, nor is it cer. Buccarelli had not, in his opinion, incurred any tain, however it may be suspected, that he talkblame, as the general injunctions to the Ameri-ed in different strains to different parties. can governors were, to suffer no encroachments It seems to be almost the universal error of on the Spanish dominions.

historians to suppose it politically, as it is physiIn October, the Prince of Masseran proposed cally true, that every effect has a proportionate a convention for the accommodation of differ-cause. In the inanimate action of matter upon ences by mutual concessions, in which the warn- matter, the motion produced can be but equal ing given to the Spaniards by Hunt should be to the force of the moving power; but the opedisavowed on one side, and the violence used by rations of life, whether private or public, adBuccarelli on the other. This offer was consi- mit no such laws. The caprices of voluntary dered as little less than a new insult, and Gri. agents laugh at calculation. It is not always maldi was told, that injury required reparation; that there is a strong reason for a great event. that when either party had suffered evident Obstinacy and flexibility, malignity, and kindwrong, there was not the parity subsisting which ness, give place alternately to each other, and is implied in conventions and contraets ; that we the reason of these vicissitudes, however imporconsidered ourselves as openly insulted, and tant may be the consequences, often escapes the demanded satisfaction plonary and uncondi- mind in which the change is made. tional.

Whether the alteration which began in JanuGrimaldi affected to wonder that we were not ary to appear in the Spanish counsels, had any yet appeased by their concessions. They had, other cause than conviction of the impropriety he said, granted all that was required; they had of their past conduct, and of the danger of a offered to restore the island in the state in which new war, it is not easy to decide; but they be they found it; but he thought that they likewise gan, whatever was the reason, to relax their might hope for some regard, and that the warn- baughtiness, and Mr. Harris's departure was img sent by Hunt would be disavowed.

countermanded. Mr. Harris, our minister at Madrid, insisted The demands first made by England were still that the injured party had a right to uncondi- continued, and on January 22nd, the prince of tional reparation, and Grimaldi delayed his an- Masseran delivered a declaration, in which the swer, that a council might be called. In a few king of Spain “disavows the violent enterprise days orders were dispatched to Prince Masseran, of Buccarelli,” and promises “to restore the by which he was commissioned to declare the port and fort called Egmont, with all the artilking of Spain's readiness to satisfy the demands lery and stores, according to the inventory." of the king of England, in expectation of re- To this promise of restitution is subjoined, ceiving from him a reciprocal satisfaction, by that “this engagement to restore Port Egmont the disavowal, só often required, of Hunt's cannot, nor ought in any wise to affect the ques warning.

tion of the prior right of sovereignty of the Finding the Spaniards disposed to make no Malouiné, Otherwise called Falkland's Isother acknowledgments, the English ministry lands. considered a war as not likely to be long avoid- This concession was accepted by the Earl af ed. In the latter end of November, private no- Hochford, who declared on the part of his mas tice was given of their danger to the merchants ter, that the prince of Masserap being autherat Cadiz, and the officers absent from Gibraltarized by his catholic majesty " to offer in his were remanded to their posts. Our naval force majesty's name to the king of Great Britain a was every day increased, and we made no abate- satisfaction for the injury done him by dispos ment of our original demand.

1 sessing him of Port Egmont," and having signed a declaration expressing that his catholic of antecedent right, it may not misbecome us, majesty “ disavows the expedition against Port either as moralists or politicians, to consider Egmont, and engages to restore it in the state what Grimaldi could have answered. We have in which it stood before the 10th of June, 1770, already, he might say, granted you the whole efhis Britannic majesty will look upon the said fect of right, and have not denied you the name. declaration, together with the full performance We have not said that the right was ours before of the engagement on the part of his catholic this concession, but only that what right we majesty, as a satisfaction for the injury done to bad, is not by this concession vacated.

We the crown of Great Britain."

have now for more than two centuries ruled This is all that was originally demanded. large tracts of the American continent, by a The expedition is disavowed, and the island is claim which perhaps is valid only upon this conrestored. An injury is acknowledged by the sideration, that no power can produce a better ; reception of Lord Rochford's paper, who twice by the right of discovery and prior settlement. mentions the word injury, and twice the word And by such titles almost all the dominions of satisfaction.

the earth are bolden, except that their original The Spaniards have stipulated that the grant is beyond memory, and greater obscurity gives of possession shall not preclude the question of them greater veneration. Should we allow this prior right, a question which we shall probably plea to be annulled, the whole fabric of our make no haste to discuss, and a right of which empire shakes at the foundation. When you no formal resignation was ever required. This suppose yourselves to have first descried the disreserve has supplied matter for much clamour, puted island, you suppose wbat you can hardly and perhaps the English ministry would have prove. We were at least the general discoverers been better pleased had the declaration been of the Magellanic region, and have hitherto without it. But when we have obtained all that held it with all its adjacencies. The justice of was asked, why should we complain that we this tenure the world has hitherto admitted, and have not more? When the possession is con- yourselves at least tacitly allowed it, when about oeded, where is the evil that the right, which twenty years ago you desisted from your purthat concession supposes to be merely hypothe-posed expedition, and expressly disowned any tical, is referred to the Greek calends for a fu- design of settling, where you are now not con. ture disquisition ? Were the Switzers less free tent to settle and to reign, without extorting or less secure, because after their defection from such a confession of original right, as may invite the house of Austria they had never been de every other nation to follow you. clared independent, before the treaty of West- To considerations such as these, it is reasonphalia ? Is the king of France less a sovereign able to impute that anxiety of the Spaniards, because the king of England partakes his title? from which the importance of this island is in

If sovereiguty implies undisputed right, scarce ferred by Junius, one of the few writers of his any prince is a sovereign through his whole do- despicable faction whose name does not disgrace minions; if sovereignty consists in this, that no the page of an opponent. The value of the superior is acknowledged, our king reigns at thing disputed may be very different to him that Port Egmont with sovereign authority. Al gains and him that loses it. The Spaniards, by most every new-acquired territory is in some yielding Falkland's Island, have admitted a predegree controvertible, and till the controversy cedent of what they think encroachment; have is decided, a term very difficult to be fixed, all suffered a breach to be made in the outworks of that can be had is real possession and actual their empire; and, notwithstanding the reserve dominion.

of prior right, have suffered a dangerous excepThis surely is a sufficient answer to the feudal tion to the prescriptive tenure of their American gabble of a man who is every day lessening that territories. splendour of character which once illuminated Such is the loss of Spain; let us now compute. the kingdom, then dazzled, and afterwards in the profit of Britain. We have, by obtaining a flamed it; and for whom it will be happy if the disavowal of Buccarelli's expedition, and a renation shall at last dismiss him to nameless ob- stitution of our settlement, maintained the honscurity, with that equipoise of blame and praise our of the crown, and the superiority of our inwhich Corneille allows to Richelieu, a man fluence. Beyond this wbat have we acquired ? who, I think, had much of his merit, and many What, but a bleak and gloomy solitude, an island of his faults.

thrown aside from human use, stormy in win

ter, and barren in summer; an island which Chacun parle à son gré de ce grand Cardinal,

not the southern savages have dignified with hạ. Mais pour moi je n'en dirarien; Il m'a fait trop de bien pour en dire du mal,

bitation; where a garrison must be kept in a I m'a fait trop de mal pour en dire du bien. state that contemplates with envy the exiles of

Siberia ; of which the expense will be perpetual, To push advantages too far, is neither gene- and the use only occasional; and which, if forrous nor just. Had we insisted on a concession

tune smile npon our labours, may become a nest

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