Itself in more danger of wanting money than of nists, just rescued from the French, would not loring liberty.

move to indignation, like that of the Scythians, It is difficult to judge with what intention who, returning from war, found themselves such airy bursts of malevolence are vented; excluded from their own houses by their slaves. if such writers hope to deceive, let us rather That corporations constituted by favour, and repel them with scorn than refute them by dis- existing by sufferance, should dare to probibit putation.

commerce with their native country, and threatIn this last terrific paragraph are two posi- en individuals by infamy, and societies with at tions, that, if our fears do not overpower our least suspension of amity, for daring to be mere reflectiou, may enable us to support life a little obedient to government than themselves, is a longer. We are told by these croakers of degree of insolence which not only deserves ta ralainity, not only that our present ministers be punished, but of which the punishment is design to enslave us, but that the same malig- loudly demanded by the order of life, and the nity of purpose is to descend through all their peace of nations. sucoessors, and that the wealth to be poured Yet there have risen up, in the face of the into England by the Pactolus of America, will, public, men who, by whatever corruptions of wbenever it comes, be employed to purchase whatever infatuation, have undertaken to defend the remains of liberty.

the Americans, endeavour to shelter them from Of those who vow conduct the national af. resentment, and propose reconciliation without fairs, we may, without much arrogance, presume submission. to know more than themselves, and of those As political diseases are naturally contagious, who shall succeed them, whether minister or let it be supposed for a moment that Cornwall

, king, not to know less.

seized with the Philadelphian frenzy, may reThe other position is, that “ the Crown," if solve to separate itself from the general system this laudable opposition should not be success- of the English constitution, and judge of its ful, “ will have the power of taxing America at own rights in its own parliament. A congress pleasure.” Surely they think rather too meanly might then meet at Truro, and address the of our apprehensions, when they suppose us not other counties in a style not unlike the language to know what they well know themselves, that of the American patriots they are taxed, like all other British subjects, by parliament; and that the Crown has not * FRIENDS AND FELLOW-SUBJECTS, by the new imposts, whether right or wrong, “ We, the delegates of the several towns and obtained any additional power over their pos- parishes of Cornwall, assembled to deliberate sessions.

upon our own state and that of our constituents, It were a curious, but an idle, speculation to having, after serious debate and calm considerainquire, what effect these dictators of sedition tion, settled the scheme of our future conduct

, expect from the dispersion of their Letter among hold it necessary to declare the resolutious us. If they believe their own complaints of which we think ourselves entitled to form by hardship, and really dread the danger which the unalienable rights of reasonable Beings, and they describe, they will naturally hope to com- into which we have been compelled by griermunicate the same perceptions to their fellow- ances and oppressions, long endured by us in subjects. But probably in America, as in other patient silence, not because we did not feel, er places, the chiefs are incendiaries, that hope to could not remove them, but because we were i rub in the tumults of a contlagration, and toss unwilling to give disturbance to a settled goro brands among a rabble passively combustible. ernment, and hoped that others would in time Those who wrote the Address, though they find, like ourselves, their true interest and tbeir have shown no great extent or profundity of original powers, and all co-operate to universal mind, are yet probably wiser than to believe it: happiness. but they have been taught by some master of “ But since having long indulged the pleasmischief, how to put in motion the engine of ing expectation, we find general discontent ut political electricity; to attract by the sounds likely to increase, or not likely to end in general of Liberty and Property, to repel by those of defection, we resolve to erect alone the standard Popery and Slavery; and to give the great stroke of liberty. by the name Boston.

Know then, that you are no longer to collWhen subordinate communities oppose the sider Cornwall as an English county, visited by decrees of the general legislature with defiance English judges, receiving law from an English thus audacious, and malignity thus acrimonious, parliament, or including in any general taxatica nothing remains but to conquer or to yield; to of the kingdom ; but as a state distinct and isallow their claim of independence, or to reduce dependent, governed by its own institutions, ad. them by force to submission and allegiance. ministered by its own magistrates, and exempt

It might be hoped that no Englishman could from any tax or tribute but such as we shall be found, whom the menaces of our own Colo- impose upon ourselves.



" We are the acknowledged descendants of proper share of contribution to the necessary the earliest inhabitants of Britain, of men, who expense of lawful government, but will decide before the time of history, took possession of the for ourselves what share is proper, what expense island desolate and waste, and therefore open to is necessary, and what government is lawful. the first occupants. Of this descent, our lan- “ Till our council is proclaimed independent guage is a sufficient proof, which, not quite a and unaccountable, we will, after the tenth day century ago, was different from


of September, keep our tin in our own hands : “ Such are the Cornishmen; but who are you can be supplied from no other place, and you? who, but the unauthorised and lawless must therefore comply, or be poisoned with the children of intruders, invaders, and oppressors ? copper of your own kitchens. who, but the transmitters of wrong, the inheri- If any Cornishman shall refuse his name to tors of robbery? In claiming independence, we this just and laudable association, he shall be claim but little. We might require you to de- tumbled from St. Michael's Mount, or buried part from a land which you possess by usurpa- alive in a tin-mine; and if any emissary shall tion, and to restore all that you have taken from be found seducing Cornishmen to their former

state, he shall be smeared with tar and rolled in “ Independence is the gift of Nature. No feathers, and chased with dogs out of our domiman is born the master of another. Every nions. Cornishman is a freeman, for we have never From the Cornish Congress at Truro." resigned the rights of humanity; and he only can be thought free, who is not governed but by Of this memorial what could be said but that his own consent.

it was written in jest, or written by a madman? “ You may urge that the present system of | Yet I know not whether the warmest admirers government has descended through many ages, of Pennsylvanian eloquence can find any arguand that we have a larger part in the represen- ment in the Address of the Congress, that is tation of the kingdom than any other county.

not with greater strength urged by the Cornish“ All this is true, but it is neither cogent nor persuasive. We look to the original of things. The argument of the irregular troops of conOur union with the English counties was either troversy, stripped of its colours, and turned out compelled by force, or settled by compact. naked to the view, is no more than this. Li

“ That which was made by violence, may by berty is the birthright of man, and where obeviolence be broken. If we were treated as a dience is compelled, there is no liberty. The conquered people, our rights might be obscured, answer is equally simple. Government is nebut could never be extinguished. The sword cessary to man, and where obedience is not can give nothing but power, which a sharper compelled, there is no government. sword can take away.

If the subject refuses to obey, it is the duty of “ If our union was by compact, whom could authority to use compulsion. Society cannot the compact bind but those that concurred in subsist but by the power, first of making laws, the stipulations? We gave our ancestors no and then of enforcing them. commission to settle the terms of future exist- To one of the threats hissed out by the Conence. They might be cowards that were fright- gress, I bave put nothing similar into the Cored, or blockheads that were cheated; but what nish proclamation ; because it is too wild for ever they were, they could contract only for folly and too foolish for madness. If we do not themselves. What they could establish, we can withhold our King and his parliament from annul.

taxing them, they will cross the Atlantic and “ Against our present form of government it enslave us. shall stand in the place of all argument, that we

How they will come, they have not told us : do not like it. While we are governed as we do perhaps they will take wing and light upon our not like, where is our liberty? We do not like coasts. When the cranes thus begin to futter, taxes, we will therefore not be taxed : we do not it is time for pigmies to keep their eyes about like your laws, and will not obey them.

them. The Great Orator observes, that they “ The taxes laid by our representatives, are will be very fit, after they bave been taxed, to laid, you tell us, by our own consent; but we impose chains upon us. If they are so fit as will no longer consent to be represented. Our their friend describes them, and so willing as number of legislators was originally a burden, they describe themselves, let us increase our And ought to have been refused; it is now con-army, and double our militia. sidered as a disproportionate advantage; who, It has been of late a very general practice to then, will complain if ve resign it?

talk of slavery among those who are setting at “ We shall form a senate of our owu, under a defiance every power that keeps the world in President whom the King shall nominate, but order. If the learned Author of the “ Reflecwhose nuthority we will limit, by adjusting his tions on Learning” has rightly observed, that mlary to his merit. We will not withhold a no man ever could give law to language, it will

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, and did are seems to propose it serisely. si e shult wbulis stand inactive while the sons of Britain coce release our claims, declare tikes 12 were 6ghting in their cause.

themselves, and waistie them do te si If we cannot admire, we are called to pity His opinion is the use in for the vi then; to pity there that show no regard to their the same, and our expense less that there Blocher country; bave ebeyed to law which can bare best ebeply from Britais, the si they could violate; have imparted to gond stil bor; what they can sell to sathe gas which they could withhold; have entered into price, tbey will seese associations of fraad w mub their creditors; and It is, bu werer, a Erde fard eas brings into combinations to distress all who depended lately fought and conquered for their stutt, et on their commerce. We are reproached with shoald gern thea ne lenger. By besture the the cruelty of shatting one port, wbere zrezy loose betire the war. bos wang ri. port is shot against us. We are censured as ty- bave been saved. One si prepara rannical for hindering those from fishing, who answered by anetber. Let us restore te have condemned our merchants to bankruptcy, French ebat we have taken from the and oor manufacturers to hanger.

sball see our coljaists at our feet at Oiber persuade us to give them more liberty, have an enemy so near them. Let us give the to take off restraints, and relax authority: and Indians arms, and teach them discipizde, 234 tell as what happy consequences will arise fram enoverage ebem now and then to plah : fortearance: how their a Feciiens will be con- plantation. Security and leisure are sbe press ciliated, and into what ditiusions of benescence of seditico. their gratitude will laxrate. They will love While these different opinions se sgitari, their friends. They will reverence their protert it seems to be determined by the legisistare that ors. They will throw themselves into our arms, force shall be tried. Men of the pen bare seda and lay their property at our feet. They will dom any great săill in conquering biedens bay from no other what we can sell them; they but they bave wrong inclination to give adre will sell to no other what we wish to bay. I cannot forbear to wish, that tbis comment

That any obligations should overpower their may end without bloodshed, and that the rebels attention to protit, we have known them long way be subdued by terror rather than by vie enough not to expect. It is net to be expected lence; and therefore recommend such a fuze from a more liberal people. With what kindness as may take away, not only the power, but the they repay benefits, they are now showing os, bape of resistance, and by conquering without a who, as soon as we have delivered them from battle, save many from the sword. France, are defying and proscribing us.

If their postisaey continues visboat actual But if we will peru.it them to tar themselves, bustilities, it may perhaps be meilised by turving tboy will give us more than we require. If we out the soldiers to free quarters, furbidding any prowlaim them independent, they will during personal cruelty or burt. It has been propose they pleasure pay us a subsids. The contest is nos that the slares should be set free, as act orbica

surely the lovers of liberty cannot but commend. domineer as legislators, will siuk into sober mer. If they are furnished with tire-arms for defence, chants and silent planters, penceably diligent, and utensils for husbandry, and settled in some and securely rich. simple form of government within the country, But there is one writer, and perhaps many they inay be more grateful and honest than their who do not write, to whom the contraction of masters.

these pernicious privileges appears very dangerFar be it from any Englishman to thirst for ous, and who startle at the thoughts of England the blood of his fellow-subjects. Those who free and america in chuins. Children fly from most deserve our resentment, are unhappily at their own shadow, and rhetoricians are frighted less distance. The Americans, when the Stamp by their own voices. Chains is undoubtedly a Act was first proposed, undoubtedly disliked it, dreadful word; but perhaps the masters of civil as every nation dislikes an impost; but they had wisdom may discover some gradations between no thought of resisting it, till they were encou- chains and anarchy. Chains need not be put raged and incited by European intelligence, upon those who will be restrained without them. from men whom they thought their friends, but This coutest may end in the softer phrase of who were friends only to themselves.

English Superiority and American Obedience. On the original contrivers of mischief let an We are toll, that the subjection of Americans insulted nation pour out its vengeance. With


tend to the diminution of our own liberties: whatever design they have inflamed this perni- an event, wbich none but very perspicacious pocious contest, they are themselves equally de- liticians are able to foresee. If slavery be thus testable. If they wish success to the colonies, fatally contagious, how is it that we hear the they are traitors to this country; if they wish loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of their defeat, they are traitors at ouce to America negroes? and England. To them, and them only, must be But let us interrupt a while this dream of impated the interruption of commerce, and the conquest, settlement, and supremacy. Let us miseries of war, the sorrow of those that shall

remember that being to contend, according to be ruined, and the blood of those that shall fall.

one orator, with three millions of Whigs, and Since the Americans have made it necessary according to another, with ninety thousand pato subdue them, may they be subdued with the

triots of Massachusett's Bay, we may possibly least injury possible to their persons and their be checked in our career of reduction. possessions! When they are reduced to obe- may be reduced to peace upon equal terms, or Jience, may that obedience be secured by stricter driven from the western continent, and forbidlaws and stronger obligations !

den to violate a second time the happy borders Nothing can be more noxious to society, thau of the land of liberty. The time is now perthat erroneous clemency, which, when a rebel- haps at hand, which Sir Thomas Browne prelion is suppressed, exacts no forfeiture and esta- dicted between jest and earnest, blishes no securities, but leaves the rebels in

When America should no more send out her treasure, their former state. Who would not try the ex

But spend it at home in American pleasure. periment which promises advantage without expense ?

If rebels once obtain a victory, their If we are allowed upon our defeat to stipulate wishes are accomplished; if they are defeated, conditions, I hope the treaty of Boston will they suffer little, perhaps less than their conquer- permit us to import into the confederated Canors; however often they play the game, the tons such products as they do not raise, and chance is always in their favour.

In the inean such manufactures as they do not make, and time, they are growing rich by victualling the cannot buy cheaper from other nations, paying troops that we have sent against them, and per- like others the appointed customs; that if an haps gain more by the residence of the army English ship salutes a fort with four guns, it than they lose by the obstruction of their port. shall be answered at least with two; and that

Their charters being now, I suppose, legally if an Englishman be inclined to hold a planta forfeited, may be modelled as shall appear most tion, he shall only take an oath of allegiance to commodious to the Mother-country. Thus the the reigning powers, and be suffered, while he privileges which are found by experience liable lives inoffensively, to retain his own opinion of to misuse, will be taken away, and those who English rights, unmolested in his conscience by pow bellow as patriots, bluster as soldiers, and an oath of ahjuration.






I HAD desired to visit the Hebrides, or Western | employed a while on the different appearance Islands of Scotland, su long, that I scarcely re- that it would have made, if it had been placed at meinber how the wish was originally excited; the same distance from London, with the same and was in the Autumn of the year 1773 in- facility of approach; with what emulation of duced to undertake the journey, by finding in price a few rocky acres would have been purMr. Boswell a companion, whose acuteness chased, and with what expensive industry they would help my inquiry, and whose gayety of would have been cultivated and adorned. conversation and civility of manners are suffi- When we landed, we found our chaise ready, cient to counteract the inconveniences of travel, and passed through Kinghorn, Kirkaldy, and in countries less hospitable than we have passed. Cowpar, places not unlike the small or strag.

On the eighteenth of August we left Edin- gling market-towns in those parts of England burgh, a city too well known to admit descrip- where commerce and manufactures have not yet tion, and directed our course northward, along produced opulence. the eastern coast of Scotland, accompanied the Though we were yet in the most populous part first day by another gentleman, who could stay of Scotland, and at 80 small a distance from the with us only long enough to sbow us how much capital, we met few passengers. we lost at separation.

The roads are neither rough por dirty; and it As we crossed the Frith of Forth, our curiosity affords a southern stranger a new kind of plezwas attracted by Inch Keith, a small island, sure to travel so commodiously without inter which neither of my companions had ever visited, ruption of tollgates. Where the bottom is rocky, though, lying within their view, it had all their as it seems commonly to be in Scotland, a lives solicited their notice. Here by climbing smooth way is made indeed with great labour, with some difficulty over shattered crags, we but it never wants repairs; and in those parts made the first experiment of unfrequented where adventitious materials are necessary, the coasts. Inch Keith is nothing more than a rock ground once consolidated is rarely broken: for covered with a thin layer of carth, not wholly the inland commerce is not great, nor are bar; hare of grass, and very fertile of thistles. A commodities often transported otherwise than small herd of cows grazes annually upon it in by water. The carriages in common use at the summer. It seems never to have afforded small carts, drawn each by one little horse; and to man or beast a permanent habitation. a man seems to derive some degree of dignity

We found only the ruins of a small fort, not and importance from the reputation of possessing so injured by time but that it might be easily a two-horse cart. restored to its former state. It seems never to i bave been intended as a place of strength, nor

ST. ANDREWS. was it built to endure a siege, but merely to af. lord cover to a few soldiers, who perhaps bad Ar an hour somewhat late we came to St. An the charge of a battery, or were stationed to give drews, a city once archiepiscopal ; where the signals of approaching danger. There is there- university still subsists in which philosophy Fa fore no provision of water within the walls, formerly taught by Buchanan, wbose name ba though the spring is so near, that it might have as fair a claim to immortality as can be conferred been easily enclosed. One of the stones had by modern latinity, and perbaps a fairer than this inscription : “ Maria Reg. 1564.” It has the instability of vernacular languages adraits. probably been neglected from the time that the We found, that by the interposition of some whole island had the same king.

invisible friend, lodgings had been provided for We left this little island with our thoughts' us at the house of one of the professors, when

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