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easy civility quickly made us forget that we were dered from entering it. A decent attempt, as I strangers; and in the whole time of our stay we was since told, has been made to convert it into were gratified by every mode of kindness, and a kind of green-house, by planting its area with entertained with all the elegance of lettered hos- shrubs. This new method of gardening is unpitality.
successful; the plants do not bitherto prosper. In the morning we arose to perambulate a To what use it will next be put, I have no pleacity, which only history shows to have once sure in conjecturing. It is something, that its flourished, and surveyed the ruins of ancient present state is at least not ostentatiously dis- . magnificence, of which even the ruins cannot played. Where there is yet shame, there may long be visible, unless some care be taken to pre in time be virtue. serve them; and where is the pleasure of pre- The dissolution of St. Leonard's College was serving such mournful memorials? They have doubtless necessary; but of that necessity there been till very lately so much neglected, that is reason to complain. It is surely not without every man carried away the stones who fancied just reproach that a nation, of which the comthat he wanted them.
merce is hourly extending, and the wealth ins The cathedral, of which the foundations may creasing, denies any participation of its prosbe still traced, and a small part of the wall is perity to its literary societies; and while its standing, appears to have been a spacious and merchants or its pobles are raising palaces, sufmajestic building, not unsuitable to the primacy fers its universities to moulder into dust. of the kingdom. Of the architecture, the poor Of the two colleges yet standing, one is by remains can hardly exhibit, even to an artist, a the institution of its founder appropriated to disufficient specimen. It was demolished, as is vinity. It is said to be capable of containing well known, in the tumult and violence of fifty students; but more than one must occupy Knox's reformation.
a chamber. The library, which is of late erecNot far from the cathedral, on the margin of tion, is not very spacious, but elegant and luthe water, stands a fragment of the castle, in minous. which the archbishop anciently resided. It was The doctor, by whom it was shown, hoped to never very large, and was built with more atten- irritate or subdue my English vanity, by telling tion to security than pleasure. Cardinal Bea- me, that we had no such repository of books in toun is said to have had workmen employed in England. improving its fortifications, at the time when he St. Andrews seems to be a place eminently was murdered by the ruffians of reformation, in adapted to study and education, being situated the manner of which Knox has given what he in a populous, yet a cheap country, and exposing himself calls a merry narrative.
the minds and manners of young men neither to The change of religion in Scotland, eager and the levity and dissoluteness of a capital city, por vehement as it was, raised an epidemical enthu- to the gross luxury of a town of commerce, siasm, compounded of sullen scrupulousness and places naturally unpropitious to learning ; in one warlike ferocity, which, in a people whom idle the desire of knowledge easily gives way to the ness resigned to their own thoughts, and who, love of pleasure, and in the other, is in danger conversing only with each other, suffered no of yielding to the love of money. dilution of their zeal from the gradual influx of The students however are represented as at new opinions, was long transmitted in its full this time not exceeding a hundred. Perbaps it strength from the old to the young, but by trade may be some obstruction to their increase that and intercourse with England, is now visibly there is no episcopal chapel in the place. I abating, and giving way too fast to that laxity of saw no reason for imputing their paucity to the practice, and indifference of opinion, in which present professors ; nor can the expense of an men, not sufficiently instructed to find the middle academical education be very reasonably ob-. point, too easily shelter themselves from rigour jected. A student of the highest class may keep and constraint.
bis annual session, or, as the English call it, his The city of St. Andrews, when it had lost its term, which lasts seven months, for about fifteen archiepiscopal pre-eminence, gradually decayed : pounds, and one of lower rank for less than ten; one of its streets is now lost; and in those that in which board, lodging, and instruction are all remain, there is the silence and solitude of inac- included. tive indigence and gloomy depopulation.
'The chief magistrate resident in the univerThe university, within a few years, consisted sity, answering to our vice-chancellor, and to of three colleges, but is now reduced to two; the the rector magnificus on the continent, had comcollege of St. Leonard being lately dissolved by monly the title of Lord Rector; but being adthe sale of its buildings, and the appropriation of dressed only as Mr. Rector in an inauguratory its revenues to the professors of the two others. speech by the present chancellor, he has fallen The chapel of the alienated college is yet stand from his former dignity of style. Lordship was ing, a fabric not inelegant of external structure : very liberally annexed by our ancestors to any but I was always, by some civil excuse, hin- / station or character of dignity: they said, tho,
Lord General, and Lord Ambassador ; so we | which in Scotch is called a polucy, but of these atill say, my Lord, to the judge upon the circuit, there are few, and those few all very young. and yet retain in our Liturgy, the Lords of the The variety of sun and sbade is here utterly urCouncil.
known. There is no tree for either sheltex or In walking among the ruins of religious timber. The oak and the thorn is equally a buildings, we came to two vaults over which had stranger, and the whole country is extended in formerly stood the house of the sub-prior. One uniform nakedness, except that in the road beof the vaults was inhabited by an old woman, tween Kirkaldy and Cowpar, I passed for a few who claimed the right of abode there, as the yards between two hedges. A tree might be a widow of a man whose ancestors had possessed show in Scotland, as a horse in Venice. the same gloomy mansion for no less than four | Andrews, Mr. Boswell found only one, and generations. The right, however it began, was recommended it to my notice; I told him that considered as established by legal prescription, it was rough and low, or looked as if I thought and the old woman lives undisturbed. She so. This, said he, is nothing to another a few thinks however that she has a claim to some- miles off. I was still less delighted to hear that thing more than sutterance ; for as her husband's another tree was not to be seen nearer. Nay, name was Bruce, she is allied to royalty, and said a gentleman that stood by, I know but of told Mr. Boswell, that when there were per- this and that tree in the county. sons of quality in the place, she was distin. The Lowlands of Scotland had once undoubt: guished by some notice; that indeed she is now odly an equal portion of woods with other counneglected, but she spins a thread, has the com- tries. Forests are every where gradually dimipany of a cat, and is troublesome to nobody, nished, as architecture and cultivation prevail,
Having now seen whatever this ancient city by the increase of people, and the introduction offered to our curiosity, we left it with good of arts. But I believe few regions have been wishes, having reason to be highly pleased with denuded like this, where many centuries must the attention that was paid us. But whoever have passed in waste, without the least thought surveys the world, must see many things that of future supply Davies observes in his acgive him pain. The kindness of the professors count of Ireland, that no luishman had ever did not contribute to abate the unrasy remem- planted an orchard. For that negligence some brance of a university declining, a college alie- excuse might be drawn from an unsettled state nated, and a church profaned and hastening to of life, and the instability of property ; but is the ground.
Scotland possession has long been secure, and inSt. Andrews indeed has formerly suffered heritance regular, yet it may be doubted whether more atrocious ravages, and more extensive de- before the Union any man between Edinburgh struction ; but recent evils affect with greater and England had ever set a tree. force. We were reconciled to the sight of ar- Of this improvidence no other account cna chiepiscopal ruins. The distance of a calamity be given than that it probably began in times of from the present time seems to preclude the tumult, and continued because it had begur. mind from contact or sympathy. Events long Established custom is not easily broken, till past are barely known; they are not considered.
some great event shakes the whole system of We read with as little emotion the violence of things, and life seems to recommence upon Dew Knox and his followers, as the irruptions of principles. That before the Union the Scots Alaric and the Goths. Had the university been had little trade and little money, is no valid apo. destroyed two centuries ago, we should not have logy; for plantation is the least expensive of all regretted it; but to see it pining in decay, and methods of improvement. To drop a sced into struggling for lite, fills the mind with mournful the ground can cost notbing, and the trouble is images and ineffectual wishes.
not great of protecting the young plant, till it is
out of danger; though it must be allowed to ABEKBROTHICK.
have some difficulty in places like these, where
they have neither wood for palisades, nor thorns As we knew sorrow and wishes to be vain, it for hedges, was now our business to mind, our way. The
as over the Firth of Tay, where, roads of Scotland afford little diversion to the though the water was not wide, we paid four traveller, who, seldom sees himself either en shillings for ferrying the chaise, In Scotland countered or overtaken, and who has nothing to the necessaries of life are. easily procured, but contemplate but grounds that bave no visible superfluities and elegances are of the saine boundaries, or are separated by walls of loose price at least as in England, and therefore may stone. From the bank of the Tweed to St. be considered as much dearer. Andrews, I had never seen a single tree, which We stopped a while at Dundee, where I reI did not believe to have grown up far within member nothing reinarkable, and mounting out the present centary.
Now and then about a chaise again, came about the close of the day gentleman's housę stands a small plantation, to .I berbruthick,
The monastery of Aberbrothick is of great i unaccustomed mode of begging, excitcs ilp unrenown in the history of Scotland. Its ruins accustomed degree of pity. But the force of afford ample testimony of its ancient magnific novelty is by its own nature soon at an end; the cence: its extent might, I suppose, easily be efficacy of outcry and perseverance is permafound by following the walls among the grass nent and certain. and weeds, and its height is known by some The road from Montrose exhibited a contiparts yet standing. The arch of one of the nuation of the same appearances. The country gates is entire, and of another only so far dila- is still naked, the hedges are of stone, and the pidated as to diversify the appearance. A tields so generally plowed, that it is hard to imhsquare apartment of great loftiness is yet stand- gine where grass is found for the horses that till ing; its use I could not conjecture, as its eleva- them. The harvest, which was almost ripe, aption was very disproportionate to its area. Two peared very plentiful. corner towers particularly attracted our atten- Early in the afternoon Mr. Boswell observed, tion. Mr. Boswell, whose inquisitiveness is se- that we were at no great distance from the housd conded by great activity, scrambled in at a high of lord Monboddo. The magnetism of his conwindow, but found the stairs within broken, and versation easily drew us out of our way, and the could not reach the top. Of the other tower entertainment which we received would have we were told that the inhabitants sometimes been a sufficient recompense for a much greater climbed it, but we did not immediately discern deviation. the entrance, and as the night was gathering The roads beyond Edinburgh, as they are less upon us, thought proper to desist. Men skilled frequented, must be expected to grow gradually in architecture might do what we did not at-rougber; but they were hitherto by no means tempt; they might probably form an exact incommodious. We travelled on with the genground-plot of this venerable edifice. They tle pace of a Scotch driver, whó, having no rimay from some parts yet standing conjecture its vals in expedition, neither gives himself nor his general form, and perhaps by comparing it with horses unnecessary trouble. We did not affect other buildings of the same kind and the same the impatience we did not feel, but were satisage, attain an idea very near to truth. I should fied with the company of each other, as well scarcely have regretted my journey, had it af- riding in the chaise, as sitting at an inn. The forded nothing more than the sight of Aber night and the day are equally solitary and brothick.
equally safe ; for where there are so few travellers, why should there be robbers ?
LEAVING these fragments of magnificence, we
Sir Alexander Gordon, whom I had formerly At our inn we did not find a reception sach known in London, and after a cessation of all as we thought proportionate to the commercial intercourse for near twenty years, met here proopulence of the place; but Mr. Boswell desired fessor of physic in the King's College. Such me to observe that the innkeeper was an Eng- unexpected renewals of acquaintance may be Jishman, and I then defended him as well as I numbered among the most pleasing incidents of could.
life. When I bad proceeded thus far, I had oppor- The knowledge of one professor soon protunities of observing what I had never heard, cured me the potice of the rest, and I did not that there were many beggars in Scotland. In want any token of regard, being conducted Edinburgh the proportion is, I think, not less wherever there was any thing which I desired than in London, and in the smaller places it is to see, and entertained at once with the novelty far greater than in English towns of the sanje of the place, and the kindness of communicaextent. It must, however, be allowed, that they tion. are not importunate, por clamorous. They so- To write of tbe cities of our own island with licit silently, or very modestly, and, therefore, the solemnity of geographical description, as if though their behaviour may strike with more we had been cast upon a newly-discovered coast, force the heart of a stranger, they are certainly has the appearance of a very frivolous ostentain danger of missing the attention of their coun. tion; yet as Scotland is little known to the trymen. Novelty has always some power; an greater part of those who may read these obser
vations, it is not superfluous to relate, that under fling money. In the present age of trade and the name of Aberdeen are comprised two towns, taxes, it is difficult even for the imaginations standing about a mile distant from each otber, to raise the value of money, or so to diminish but governed, I think, by the same magistrates. the demands of life, as to suppose four and for
Old Aberdeen is the ancient episcopal city, in shillings a year an honourable stipend; yet which are still to be seen the remains of the ca- was probably equal, not only to the needs, bd thedral. It has the appearance of a town in to the rank of Boethius. The wealth of Eng decay, having been situated, in times when com land was undoubtedly to that of Scotland men merce was yet unstudied, with very little atten- than five to one, and it is known that Henry tion to the commodiousness of the harbour. the Eighth, among whose faults avarice wa
New Aberde 'n bas all the bustle of prosper. never reckoned, granted to Roger Ascham, a ous trade, and all the show of increasing opu- a reward of his learning, a pension of te Jence. It is built by the water-side. The pounds a year. houses are large and lofty, and the streets spa- The other, called the Marischal College, is cious and clean. They build almost wholly with in the new town. The hall is large and well the granite used in the new pavement of the lighted. One of its ornaments is the picture of streets of London, which is well known not to Arthur Johnston, who was principal of the colwant hardness, yet they shape it easily. It is lege, and who holds among the Latin poets oi beautiful, and must be very lasting.
Scotland, the next place to the elegant Bucbanan, What particular parts of commerce are chiefly In the library I was shown some curiosities; exercised by the merchants of Aberdeen, I have a Hebrew manuscript of exquisite penmanship, not inquired. The manufacture which forces and a Latin translation of Aristotle's Politics itself upon a stranger's eye, is that of knit- by Leonardus Aretinus, written in the Roman stockings, on which the women of the lower character, with nicety and beauty, which, as the class are visibly employed.
art of printing has made them no longer neces In each of these towns there is a college, or sary, are not now to be found. This was one of in stricter language, a university; for in both the latest performances of the transeribers
, for there are professors of the same parts of learn- Aretinus died but about twenty years before tying, and the colleges hold their sessions, and pography was invented. This version has been confer degrees separately, with total indepen. printed, and may be found in libraries, but is dence of one on the other.
little read; for the same books have been since In Old Aberdeen stands the King's College, translated both by Victorius and Lambinus, who of which the first president was Hector Boece, lived in an age more cultivated, but perhaps owed or Boethius, who may be justly reverenced as in part to Aretinus that they were able to excel one of the revivers of elegant learning. When bim. Much is due to those who first broke the he studied at Paris, he was acquainted with way to knowledge, and left only to their succes. Erasmus, who afterwards gave him a public sors the task of smoothing it. testimony of his esteem, by inscribing to him a In both these colleges the methods of instruccatalogue of his works. The style of Boethius, tion are nearly the same ; the lectures differing though, perhaps, not always rigorously pure, is only by the accidental difference of diligence
. formed with great diligence upon ancient models, or ability in the professors. The students wear and wholly uninfected with monastic barbarity. scarlet gowns, and the professors black, which His history is written with elegance and vigour, is, I believe, the academical dress in all the Setbut his fabulousness and credulity are justly tish universities, except that of Edinburgh, where blamed. His fabulousness, if he was the author the scholars are not distinguished by any partiof the fictions, is a fault for which no apology cular habit. In the King's College there is kept can be made; but his credulity may be excused a public table, but the scholars of the Marie in an age when all men were credulous. Learn-chal College are boarded in the town. The esing was then rising on the world; but ages so pense of living is here, according to the inforlong accustomed to darkness, were too much mation that I could obtain, somewhat more than dazzled with its light to see any thing distinctly. at St. Andrews. The first race of scholars in the fifteenth century, The course of education is extended to four and some time after, were, for the most part, years, at the end of which those who take a de learning to speak, rather than to think, and were
gree, who are not many, become masters of arts ; therefore more studious of elegance than of and whoever is a master may, if he pleases, imtruth. The contemporaries of Boethius thought mediately commence doctor.
The title of doo it sufficient to know what the ancients had de-tor, however, was for a considerable time be livered. The examination of tenets and of facts stowed only on physicians. The advocates are tras reserved for another generation.
examined and approved by their own body; the Boethius, as president of the university, en- ministers were not ambitious of titles, or were nyed a revenue of forty Scottish marks, about afraid of being censured for ambition ; and the tvo pounds four shillings and sixpence of ster-) doctorate in every faculty was commonly giren
or sold into other countries. The ministers are quantities, and carried to such a distance, that now reconciled to distinction, and as it must al- an estate was overwhelmed and lost. Such ways happen that some will excel others, have and so hopeless was the barrenness superinthought graduation a proper testimony of un- duced, that the owner, when he was required common abilities or acquisitions.
to pay the usual tax, desired rather to resign the The indiscriminate collation of degrees has ground. justly taken away that respect which they originally claimed, as stamps by, which the literary
THE BULLER OF BUCHAN. value of men so distinguished was authoritatively denoted. That academical honours, or any We came in the afternoon to Slanes Castle, others, should be conferred with exact propor- built upon the margin of the sea, so that the tion to merit, is more than human judgment or walls of one of the towers seem only a contihuman integrity have given reason to expect. nuation of a perpendicular rock, the foot of Perhaps degrees in universities cannot be better which is beaten by the waves. To walk round adjusted by any general rule, than by the length the house seemed impracticable. From the of time passed in the public profession of learn- windows the eye wanders over the sea that seing. An English or Irish doctorate cannot be parates Scotland from Norway, and when the obtained by a very young man, and it is reason
winds beat with violence, must enjoy all the able to suppose, what is likewise by experience terrific grandeur of the tempestuous ocean. I commonly found true, that he who is by age would not for my amusement wish for a storm ; qualified to be a doctor, has in so much time but as storms, whether wished or not, will gained learning sufficient not to disgrace the sometimes happen, I may say, without viotitle, or wit suficient not to desire it.
lence of humanity, that I should willingly look The Scotch universities hold but one term or out upon them from Slanes Castle. session in the year. That of St. Andrew's When we were about to take our leave, our continues eight months, that of Aberdeen only departure was prohibited by the countess, till five, from the first of November to the first of we should have seen two places upon the coast, April.
which she rightly considered as worthy of curiIn Aberdeen there is an English chapel, in osity, Dun Buy, and the Buller of Buchan, to which the congregation was numerous and which Mr. Boyd very kindly conducted us. splendid. The form of public worship used Dun Buy, which in Erse is said to signify the by the church of England, is in Scotland le- | Yellow Rock, is a double protuberance of stone, gally practised in licensed chapels served by open to the main sea on one side, and parted clergymen of English or Irish ordination, and from the land by a very narrow ehannel on the by tacit connivance quietly permitted in separate other. It has its name and its colour from the congregations, supplied with ministers by the dung of innumerable sea-fowls, which in the successors of the bishops, who were deprived spring choose this place as convenient for incuat the Revolution.
bation, and have their eggs and their young We came to Aberdeen on Saturday, August taken in great abundance. One of the birds 21st. On Monday we were invited into the that frequent this rock has, as we were told, i s town-hall, where I had the freedom of the city body not larger than a duck's, and yet lays eggs given me by the Lord Provost. The honour as large as those of a goose. This bird is by the conferred had all the decorations that politeness inhabitants named a Coot. That which is called could add, and, what I am afraid I should not Coot in England, is here a Cooter. have had to say of any city south of the Tweed, Upon these rocks there was nothing that I found no petty officer bowing for a fee. could long detain attention, and we soon turned
The parchment containing the record of ad- our eyes to the Buller, or Bouilloir of Bucian, mission is, with the seal appending, fastened to which no man can see with indifference, who A riband, and worn for one day by the new citi- has either sense of danger, or delight in rarity. zen in his hat.
It is a rock perpendicularly tubulated, united By a lady who saw us at the chapel, the earl on one side with a high shore, and on the other of Errol was informed of our arrival, and we rising steep to a great height above the main had the honour of an invitation to his seat, The top is open, from which may be seen called Slanes Castle, as I am told, improperly, a dark gulf of water which flows into the cavity, from the castle of that name, which once stood through a breach made in the lower part of the at a place not far distant.
enclosing rock. It has the appearance of a vast The road beyond Aberdeen grew more stony, / well bordered with a wall. The edge of the and continued equally naked of all vegetable | Buller is not wide, and to those that walk round, decoration. We travelled over a tract of ground appears very narrow. He that ventures to look near the sea, which not long ago suffered a very downward, sees that if his foot should slip, he uncommon and unexpected calamity. The sand must fall from his dreadful elevation upon stones of the shore was raised by a tempest in such on one side, or into the water on the other. We