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antetypical, there must have been special reasons for the specification of these various articles, and to neglect the consideration of the differences, consistent students of the Old Testament can therefore in nowise afford. In 1 Kings xiv. 3 we read of " loaves, and cracknels, and a cruse of honey.” The word translated cracknels is nikuddim, and would seem to denote biscuits pricked all over with little holes, like the biscuits of the present day, whereby they were better adapted for travellers. When in Joshua ix. 5 and 12 the Gibeonites describe their bread as having become "mouldy” with long keeping, the sense is properly “as hard as biscuit." Though applied specially to food prepared from the produce of the Cerealia, the name of bread is also employed in Scripture to denote every kind and description of baked farinaceous food, and sometimes, as in Luke xi. 3, provisions in general. This use of the word simply anticipates the similar one which has existed with all civilized nations, and which is current with ourselves. It would seem indeed, that lechem, the accustomed Hebrew term for bread, absolutely so called, was in the first instance a collective term, afterwards made special, thus declaring the importance attached in ancient Palestine to cereal food. The charm of the scriptural allusions comes of their incessantly involving some declaration of man's dependence upon God for whatever within him accords with the nature of Christian virtue, the peculiar pabulum of his genuine existence. The best of foods Scripture makes representative of the highest and most excellent of blessings. “Give us this day our daily bread” implies a great deal more than a request for nourishment for the body. God bestows that upon all the inferior creatures, upon the unthankful and the evil. Essentially it is the same as “Incline our hearts to keep Thy law.” Elsewhere bread is coupled with wine, because wine, as we have seen, is representative of the Divine Truth, thus intimating that the perfection of the spiritual life needs the twofold basis of a good heart and cultivated intelligence.
Corn would seem to have been employed as an article of food by the ancient Hebrews sometimes in its simplest condition, or just as rubbed out of the ear. “And there came a man from Baal-shalisha, and brought bread, ... twenty loaves of barley, and full ears of corn in the husk thereof: and he said, Give unto the people that they may eat” (2 Kings iv. 42). Roasted ears of corn" are said to be “still used in the East,” in reference, it would seem, to the “parched corn” of the Old Testament. But the latter, as will be shown in our following chapter, was probably a different thing.
A SUBJECT of great interest to the Church as an organized body engaged the attention of the General Conference at its last session. It had long been felt and often said, that something should be done to supply our smaller and feebler Societies with efficient means for conducting public worship, and otherwise securing the greatest possible amount of those uses for the sake of which Societies exist. These benefits can only be adequately secured by Societies having the services of men who are able to devote their whole time and undivided attention to the duties of the ministry. Preaching, and teaching, and pastoral supervision supply sufficient work for one man to do, if the work is to be done efficiently. In our present condition this cannot, of course, be done universally. A considerable number of our congregations are too small to support a minister, or even to do much towards the support of one. There are, however, several that only need some aid to enable them to secure the services of a regular minister; and some there are which have ministers, but are unable to provide for their proper or comfortable maintenance. It is the duty, in these circumstances, of the stronger to help the weaker, the richer the poorer brethren. This has been done to some extent already by means of the “ Ministers' Aid Fund,” but it has been carried out neither very systematically nor very regularly, the funds being small, and the sums at the disposal of the Committee variable. The subject having been brought before the Conference, we find the result recorded in its Minutes, No. 45. A large Committee was appointed to consider the subject. The Committee's Report was inserted in the September number of the Magazine. On receiving the report, it was “Resolved, The Conference strongly recommends to the Church to aim at raising the income of all unmarried ministers who are exclusively employed in the work of the Church to the sum of at least £100 per annum, and that all married ministers who are so employed to an amount not less than £120.”
The existence of a separate fund for the purpose of increasing the salaries having thus been established, the October number of the Repository contained the gratifying intelligence that subscriptions to the amount of more than £1600 had then been received. This is certainly a noble initiation of what we have no doubt will be a most useful institution, and we hope it will not only continue, but go on increasing in prosperity.
There are some schemes having the same object in other religious
bodies, but we question whether there are any that are so like conditioned as to serve as models. The Wesleyan body pay their ministers' salaries out of a common fund ; and the Free Church of Scotland has a Sustentation Fund to which every congregation contributes, and from which every minister receives a certain salary, the minimum income of a minister being, we believe, fixed at £150 a year.
The congregations may make additions to their ministers' salaries ; and pastors of large or wealthy congregations have often very handsome incomes. Perhaps the nearest approach to our own body, as regards this matter, is to be found in the Church of England, in the means which exist for supplementing the small incomes of a numerous class of their clergy. But whatever particular scheme for the employment of the fund may be adopted, we may rest assured that the fund will be applied in a way that will do the greatest possible amount of good.
It is our opinion that this is one of the most important steps the Conference has ever taken for the benefit of the Church, as consisting of the Societies which it represents.
It will act beneficially in It will enable the Conference to take a more practical interest in the wellbeing of the Societies which are in connection with it; and it will help to bind the Societies more closely together by a work of practical charity, which is the real bond of union. Hitherto a good deal has been done by legislation, supervision, and advice, to strengthen Societies by means of order in worship and discipline ; by aiding them to support Day-schools, and encouraging them to carry on Sunday-schools. Now the Conference is about to strengthen them by helping them to support pastors. The school funds went to the larger and stronger Societies, for they only could maintain Day-schools. Now, the means of strength are to be extended to the smaller and feebler congregations. One of its useful results will be to stimulate Societies themselves to greater exertion, in order to provide themselves with ministers. What several of them have heretofore regarded as quite beyond their reach, they may now hope to attain. Every one that succeeds will add strength to the general body, and be better able to assist their neighbouring Societies who are not yet in circumstances to secure the services of pastors for themselves. There is
which this effort will perform. Charity, like mercy, is twice blessed ; it blesses those who receive and those who give. For we employ the word charity in its true sense, as meaning love to the neighbour, and practical charity is the good of neighbourly love. We believe that this good will in this case be exhibited both in its immediate and in its ultimate effects. We have no fear of danger. Societies will not be helped in such a way as to undermine their independence; and New Church Societies, like the members who compose them, have too much principle to seek aid which they do not require. Besides, the aid will no doubt bear some proportion to the exertions of the Societies who receive it; so that the fund will help them that help themselves.
Sanguine of the success of this excellent and generous movement, we earnestly commend it to the favourable consideration of the Church, and hope the support it receives will be the means of establishing the scheme on a solid foundation. Nearly two thousand pounds have been subscribed by the members of the Conference itself, and if others come forward with a proportionate liberality, the Sustentation Fund will be a triumphant success.
THOUGHTS ON SPHERES AND THE OMNIPRESENCE
The science and doctrine of spheres gives the best, most rational, and spiritual view of the creation of the universe that is extant. The activity of spheres is throughout the world—from everything animate and inanimate; and although not perceived everywhere, is nevertheless to be found if sought for.
Our scientific men do not seem to be much, if at all, acquainted with this particular action of everything in nature, going on with time and change, with growth and decay, with youth and age, and this throughout the three kingdoms of nature—the animal, vegetable, and mineral. Everything throws off a surrounding something from itself—itself with its nature and quality goes forth and fills to some extent the surrounding atmosphere. Man himself does the same; his sphere always accompanies him, sometimes goes before him and proclaims his presence even before his person is seen. This is the cause of our frequently thinking of a person just before he makes his appearance.
Every created thing emits from itself a surrounding or sphere of its own nature, quality, and substance; in fact, it goes out of itself, and surrounds itself to a greater or less extent, according to its power of emission. This is the case throughout the visible and invisible universe; the sun itself emits a sphere of heat, light, and glory, which is the means of clothing and supporting natural life under the auspices of the Creator.
The Creator Himself emits a sphere from Himself, which constitutes or forms the sun of heaven and the first emanation from God, and which is perceived, felt, and enjoyed by the angels as life, love, and wisdom.
This sphere of the Creator is divine, boundless, illimitable, omnipresent !—the very substance of all substances, penetrating and sustaining everything, and in which, and by which, the Lord our God is present everywhere, in everything, the least as well as the greatest, yea, in heaven and in hell.
This emanating sphere of God forming the sun of heaven is the origin of all space, though at the same time it is no part of it, for the Lord is in all space without space, and in all time without time. The universe, together with heaven and hell, are within this Divine sphere of God, the activities of which are perceived by angels, and felt by human intellects and human affections, as light, love, and life; whereever there is either of these there is God, the Lord of heaven and earth, who sees all, knows all, sustains all, and provides all. “Whither shall I go from Thy spirit, or whither shall I flee from Thy presence. If I ascend up into heaven, Thou art there. If I make my bed in hell, behold Thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there shall Thy hand lead me, and Thy right hand shall hold me."
NEW CHURCH COLLEGE.
The members of the New Church generally will be gratified to know that the College is continuing on its prosperous way.
By the Divine blessing both numbers, and the means of increased usefulness in the form of pecuniary aid, have been added to it.
Its friends may rest assured that with those who control its energies, as well as with those who have the care of their more immediate direction, there is but one object, one aim to render the College in every sense worthy of its name, and entirely deserving of the cordial support that has been extended to it, by seeking every opportunity to develop its usefulness to the Church at large, and to augment the advantages it may confer upon those who are placed under its conduct or brought within its influence.
Besides other extra classes, it is desired to set on foot one for Geology. A small nucleus of a geological museum has been formed. If our friends can contribute to it any specimens, their kindness will be thankfully appreciated.
The original intention of the founders of the College, the practicability of which has sometimes been doubted, viz., " to prepare such” of the pupils “as are suitable for the ministry," is now in a fair way to be realized. The two assistant teachers, both former pupils with