« 前へ次へ »
now enquire ; if this be not, perhaps there may be several of the like nature, that are. I would only add, that St. Peter himself in his ift Epistle a makes mention of St. Mark, as being along with him, and calls him his fon : The Church which is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you, and so doth Marcus my son. There can be no just reason to question, whether the fame Mark is here intended, who wrote the Gofpel ; and if the word Babylon be here taken for Rome, as the Fathers, the papists in general, and many other among the Protestants • do take it, then the foregoing account receives a very great confirmation, from St. Peter and St. Mark's having been at Rome together. So Jeromeand Eusebius & make use of this argument for this very purpose. The words of the latter are these; “ But Peter makes mention of Mark in “ his first Epistle, which they say was wrote at Rome, and it
was that which Peter himself meant, when by a strong fi gure
he makes use of the word Babylon to denote that “ city, viz. Rome, in these words, The Church which is at “ Babylon, chosen together with you, faluteth you, and Mark “my son.”
If then upon the whole it be reasonable to conclude, that St. Mark wrote his Gospel at Rome, at the request of the brethren there, from the things which he had heard of St. Peter; we have, I think, an undeniable argument, that this Gospel is not an abstract, or epitome of St. Matthew's. If his Gospel be a collection of what St. Peter had told him, then it is not a bare transcript of St. Matthew: for to say, he took his Gospel from St. Peter's mouth, and transcribed it from St. Matthew's writing, is fomewhat like a contradiction. But besides this, if St. Mark had had St. Matthew's Gospel along
και συντάξαι φασίν επ' αυτής Ρώ-
with him at Rome, why should the Romans have pressed him so very earnestly to make an epitome of it? Was it too long, and did it contain any things that were tedious or superfluous ? The truth is, if St. Mark, or any one else, had had St. Matthew's Gospel at Rome, there would have been no need of St. Mark's writing. « If (says the famous Cardinal Bellarmine a) " the Gospel of St. Matthew had been then at Rome in the “ hands of any of the Christians, when St. Mark wrote there, “ he would not have wrote.” And one would think they should rather have desired St. Matthew's Gospel, being wrote by one that was an eye and ear-witness of what he said. Befides, those for whom he wrote, wanted much of the zeal of the primitive Christians; nay, and of that zeal, which Eufebius •fays they had for the Gospel history, if they did not desire an account of all that our Lord said, and did. They would hardly desire, and be contented with a less full, when they could have a more full and perfect account. I conclude therefore, that St. Matthew's Gofpel was not then at Rome, and confequently that St. Mark did not epitomize, or make any use of it, when he composed his Gospel.
a Immo fi tunc (scil. quando Romæ fuiffet, credibile eft Marcum Marcus Romæ feriplit) Evange. fcripturum non fuisle. Bellarm. de lium Matthæi in manibus fidelium Matrimon. Sacr. lib. 1. c. 16.
The Second Argument, to prove St. Mark's Gospel not to be an
Epitome of St. Matthew's, because his Accounts are generally largery. and contain many more particular Circumstances, than St. Matthew's do. This evidenced by several Instances.
Mark's Gospel is not an abridgement or epitome
of St. Matthew's, because for the most part his accounts are much more large and full, and related with many more particular circumstances, than the same accounts are by St. Matthew. There is scarce any one story related by both these Evangelists, in which St. Mark does not add some considerable circumstances, which St. Matthew has not ; and if this be fo, I think there can be no more convincing evidence, that St. Mark did not design to epitomize St. Matthew: but if we were to conclude any thing of this nature from comparing them together, the conclufion must be, that St. Matthew in all these parts did design to abridge St. Mark.
The matter of fact, which I have here asserted, will easily appear to be true to any one, who reads these two Gospels with this view, and compares them together. To save the reader the pains, I have collected some instances, and set them down in such a manner, that by a bare casting the eye upon them, the truth of that which I contend for, will sufficiently appear, viz. that St. Mark is generally larger in his accounts than St. Matthew.
A Table of several instances, in which St. Mark relates his stories more fully and with more particular circumstances, than St. Matthew.
The story of the devils cast into the swine.
Chap. V. Ver. 28. And when he was Ver. 1. And they came ocome to the other side, into ver unto the other side of the the country of the Ger- sea, into the country of the gesenes, there met him two Gadarenes. possessed with devils, coming 2. And when he was come out of the tombs, exceeding out of the ship, immediately fierce, so that no man might there met him out of the pass by that way .
tombs, a man with an unclean fpirit;
3. Who had his dwelling among the tombs, and no man could bind him, no not with chains. 4.
Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces ; neither could any man tame him.
5. And always night and day he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying and cutting himself with stones.
6. But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worship
ped him; 29. And behold they cri 7. And cried with a
loud ed out, saying, What have we voice, and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou to do with thee, Jesus, thou Vol. III. 0
Chap. V. Son of God? Art thou come Son of the most high God? hither to torment us, before I adjure thee by God, that the time?
thou torment me not.
8. (For he said unto him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit.)
9. And he asked him, what is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion; for we are many.
10. And he besought him much, that he would not fend them away out of the coun
try. 30. And there was a good II. Now there was there way off from them, an herd of nigh unto the mountains, a many swine feeding.
great herd of swine feeding. 31. So the devils besought 12. And all the devils be. him, saying, If thou cast us fought him, saying, Send us out, suffer us to go away into into the swine, that we may the herd of swine.
enter into them. 32. And he said unto them, 13. And forthwith Jesus Go; and when they were gave them leave, and the uncome out, they went into the clean spirits went out, and herd of swine, and behold the entered into the swine, and the whole herd of swine ran vio- herd ran violently down a lently down a steep place into steep place into the sea, (they the sea, and perished in the were about two thousand) and waters.
were choaked in the sea. 33. And they that kept 14. And they that fed the them Aed, and went their swine fled, and told it in the ways into the city, and told city and in the country. And every thing, and what was
they went out to see what it befallen to the poffeffed of was that was done. the devils.
15. And they come to Je