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for being settled at the peace of Tilsit: while expeditions from Great-Britain were sent out into every quarter of the world.

The great affairs of nations fall naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Summer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring: the former division, the season of action in the field; the latter, that of deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and sovereign princes. In the year 1807, two campaigns were to be described, and an account given of the business and debates of two sessions of the British parliament. The first campaign was terminated by the long cessation of arms, at least of field-operations, which succeeded to the horrible battle of Eylau : the second, that which was opened in the beginning of June, and terminated in the armistice that followed the decisive battle of Friedland.--To trace, if possible, among scenes so various, such relations and dependences as might help

might help to weave them into some kind of narrative, more interesting than an assemblage of facts arranged in the mere order of time, was a task neither easy, nor to be performed in haste, or without waiting a little for the developement of time. And the advantages we have derived from this æconomy, which we bope will appear manifest in the History of Europe, will also, we trust, apologize for the late publication of the present volume.

Such an apology for tardy publication, may not probably, according to present appearances, occur soon again. The Continent of Europe, notwithstanding the glorious efforts of Austria and many parts of Spain, appears to be sinking fast into a state of degradation, and the servility, monotony, and barbarism of a military government.—But wherever Liberty, carrying in her train all that gives grace, dignity, and value to life, takes up her abode, it will be our business to attend her: without however being inattentive to the situation, character, and fate, of the unfortunate nations she may leave behind.

London, i8th of October, 1809.

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General Aspect of Europe.-Resources of the opposite Belligerent

Powers--and Views.-Fragility of Confederations.-General Marims and Measures of Buonaparte.-Position and Strength of the French and Russian Armies.--Military Force remaining to the King of Prussia after the Battles of Jena and Pultusk.The general Plans of the opposite Armies.- Battles of MohringenBergfried-Deppen-Hoff-and Eylau.Retreat of the French on the Vistula--and of the Russians behind the Pregel.

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T the commencement of 1807, ror of Russia, and the king of Prus

every eye was fixed on the sia on the one part, and, on the coasts of the Baltic. It was here other, Buonaparte emperor of that the destinies of Europe were to France, and king of Italy. The be decided, as they had been in latter derived support from the former periods, on those of the Me- nations whom he had subdued or diterranean. The genius and the intimidated, --- Italy, Spain, Holland, resources of the north were brought and a great part of Germany : the into conflict with those of the south. former depended on the aid of A mighty contest was to be decided Sweden, and the cordial and vigoby arms between Alexander empe. rous co-operation of Great Britain. VOL. XLIX,

B.

There

There was another ally more power. reasonably expect to be joined by ful than either of the two just meile the Austrians.--Such, it may be pretioned, on which the Russians sumed, were the considerations might, and no doubt did reckon, that encouraged and determined namely, a rigorous climate to which the court of St. Petersburg to un. they themselves were inured, but dertake and to persevere in the war which might prove fatal to soldiers with France. The battle of Pul. from France, Spain, and Italy. tusk, though bloody and obstinately The enemy too, in proportion as he contested, was indecisive: and it should advaoce into Poland, or be must be admitted that if the nations, yond it, would be drawn into diffi. on whose favour and co-operation culties and dangers on the line of his the Russians depended, had under. operations, in territories, with the stood and pursued their respective, nature or ground of which he could as well as their common interest, and not be well acquainted, and farther harmoniously joined in one well.conand farther removed from supplies certed plan of action, their design and reinforcements. The Russians, might not have proved abortive. on the contrary, would receive re It is, however, not physical, but inforcements and stores both by moral force that governs the world : land and sea from Russia, Sweden, bold conception, a just discriminaand England. The young and he tion between difficulty and impossiroic king of Sweden, emulating his bility, profound combination, unity ancestor the great Gustavus Adol- of design, promptitude and rapidity phus, with the aid both of a sub- of action. It was not physical force, sidy, and troops from England, but sublime genius and an ascendanmight march an army through the cy over the minds of men, that gave Lower Saxony, from Dantzig and energy and success to the measures Colberg, as far as Hamburgh. This of Alexander of Macedon, Hanni. ariny, augmented in its progress by bal, and Julius Cæsar. All great insurgents, in * Hesse, Hanover, and results spring from small, + and, at the Prussian dominions, might pass first, imperceptible origins ; one the Elbe, and establish a war in the constant impulsion, constandy and centre of Germany; where if he uniformly accelerating. Ia confeshould be able to maintain himself derations there is generally somefor any length of time, he might thing that misgives; something false

* In consequence of the exactions of the French, there had broken out in the territory of Hesse, a very considerable insurrection of about 10,000 men consisting principally of disbanded soldiers and peasants. Those among them wbo had served as non-commissioned officers, were appointed officers. They then armed themselves by seizing all the muskets, swords, and pieces of artillery they could lay their hands on. The insurrection had begun to extend itself to Hanover and Saxony, when this honest effervescence of German indignation was calmed by the prudent and paternal remonstránces of the prince of Hesse.

+ Natura in minimis maxima.---Pliny. The kingdoms of the earth are in this respect like the kingdom of heaven, i. e. of Jesus Christ : "The kingdom of lieaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which indeed is the least of all seeds, but when it is

grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of tlve air come and lodge in the branches thereof. Mark şiä, 31-.

and hollow. It is seldom even pos- and ministers, he endeavoured, if he sible for the confederating parties could not at once induce them to to form, as emergencies arise, a con. acquiesce in his plans, at least to cert of wills in time, and seldomer occupy, and distract their minds, still that they submit without re. and by an appearance of negotiation, serve to the will of one dictator. to sow the seeds of mutual discord The fragility of confederations had between the powers confederated, been proved by three coalitions or that might be inclined to con. against the rựler of France, and the federate against him. At the same isspe of a fourth was now to be added time that he was busily employed to the number.

in forming the confederation of the Buonaparte, sensible of the dis. Rhine, that is, in the extension of advantages of being placed at so his own power, and preparing for great a distance from France, as the the extension of his conquests, he countries between the Vistula and amused Russia and England with a the Niemen, was in the first place, negotiation for peace, which he proand above all things, attentive to the fessed to have always uppermost in means of conveyance, or what in the his mind and heart, but which he really French armies is called the Ambu. contemplated not as an end, but a lance. On the great roads between means: the means of renewing war the Rhine and the Vistula, hundreds with greater advantage. He laboured and thousands of carriages were by all means, to detach the king of every where to be seen, going or re- Sweden from the cause of his allies, turning from Thorn and Warsaw. by professions of goodwill, respect, Travellers unacquainted with the and admiration, and even by dis. state of public affairs in Germany memberments in bis favour, of Prus. and Poland, might 'hạre supposed sia and Denmark. He_roused the that the continued motion on the Turks to war against Russia, and highways was occasioned by a entered into a negotiation for an fourishing internal commerce. From alliance offensive and defensive with the countries that lay at his mercy, the emperor of Persia. Ambassa. Buona parte drew provisions, and dors were seen in his camp from forage, and even additions to his Ispahan and Constantinople. military force, while, at the same Whether he really harboured the time, one body of troops after extravagant design of sending a another continued to march for his French army through Persia to support from the frontier of France. Hindostan, or no, may reasonably

Buonaparte was also, in a very para be doubted: but an embassy from ticular manner, attentive to the com- Persia to the emperor of France, missary department. The different had an imposing air of widely ex. corps and divisions of his army were tended and formidable influence, sure to find bread, at least, in abun- and might have an effect in any fu. dance, and, as much as possible, ture negotiation for peace, on the every comfort required by a rigorous councils of Russia and England. climate. Being intimately ac. On every occasion when a hapquainted with the interests and views py stage-effect might be produced, of the courts of Europe, and the he was careful to produce it. Eightyindividual characters of favourites four pieces of cannon taken from the

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