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for being settled at the peace of Tilsit: while expeditions from Great-Britain were sent out into every quarter of the world.

The great affairs of nations fall naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Summer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring: the former division, the season of action in the field; the latter, that of deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and sovereign princes. In the year 1807, two campaigns were to be described, and an account given of the business and debates of two sessions of the British parliament. The first campaign was terminated by the long cessation of arms, at least of field-operations, which succeeded to the horrible battle of Eylau : the second, that which was opened in the beginning of June, and terminated in the armistice that followed the decisive battle of Friedland. To trace, if possible, among scenes so various, such relations and dependences as might help to weave them into some kind of narrative, more interesting than an assemblage of facts arranged in the mere order of time, was a task 'neither easy, nor to be performed in haste, or without waiting a little for the developement of time. And the adýantages we have derived from this æconomy, which we hope will appear manifest in the History of Europe, will also, we trust, apologize for the late publication of the present volume.

Such an apology for tardy publication, may not probably, according to present appearances, occur soon again. The Continent of Europe, notwithstanding the glorious efforts of Austria and many parts of Spain, appears to be sinking fast into a state of degradation, and the servility, monotony, and barbarism of a military government.—But wherever Liberty, carrying in her train all that gives grace, dignity, and value to life, takes up her abode, it will be our business to attend her: without however being inattentive to the situation, character, and fate, of the unfortunate nations she may leave behind.

London, 18th of October, 1809.

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General Aspect of Europe.-Resources of the opposite Belligerent Powers-and Views.-Fragility of Confederations.-Generat Marims and Measures of Buonaparte.-Position and Strength of the French and Russian Armies. -- Military Force remaining to the King of Prussia after the Battles of Jena and Pultusk.

The general Plans of the opposite Armies.-Battles of Mohringen, Bergfried-Deppen-Hof-and Eylau.Retreat of the French on the Vistula--and of the Russians behind the Pregel.

AT

T the commencement of 1807, ror of Russia, and the king of Prus.

every eye was fixed on the sia on the one part, and, on the coasts of the Baltic. It was here other, Buonaparte emperor that the destinies of Europe were to France, and king of Italy. The be decided, as they had been in, latter derived support from the former periods, on those of the Me. nations whom he had subdued or diterranean. The genius and the intimidated, ---Italy, Spain, Holland, resources of the north were brought and a great part of Germany : the into conflict with those of the south. former depended on the aid of A mighty contest was to be decided Sweden, and the cordial and vigoby arms between Alexander empe.

rous co-operation of Great Britain. Vol. XLIX,

B.

There

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for being settled at the peace of Tilsit: while expeditions from Great-Britain were sent out into every quarter of the world,

The great affairs of nations fall naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Sures mer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring : the former vision, the season of action in the field; the latter, that deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and vereign princes. In the year 1807, two campaigns we to be described, and an account given of the busins and debates of two sessions of the British parliameni. The first campaign was terminated by the long cessa of arms, at least of field-operations, which succeeded to horrible battle of Eylau : the second, that which opened in the beginning of June, and terminated armistice that followed the decisive battle of land. To trace, if possible, among scenes so such relations and dependences as might help to them into some kind of narrative, more interesting assemblage of facts arranged in the mere order of tim a task neither easy, nor to be performed in haste, waiting a little for the developement of time. advantages we have derived from this æconomy hope will appear manifest in the History of also, we trust, apologize for the late public present volume.

Such an apology for tardy publication, bly, according to present appearances, The Continent of Europe, notwithsta efforts of Austria and many parts of sinking fast into a state of degrar monotony, and barbarism of a wherever Liberty, carrying dignity, and value to life, business to attend her: to the situation, charact tions she may leave bel

London, 18th of

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ANNUAL

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he endeavoured, if he once induce them to his plans, at least to

distract their minds, For i

carance of negotiation, eds of mutual discord powers confederated,

at be inclined to con. et ainst him. At the same

e was busily employed che confederation of the i is, in the extension of wer, and preparing for ion of his conquests, he ussia and England with a on for peace, which he pro.

have always uppermost in and heart, but which he really plated not as an end, but a : the means of renewing war reater advantage. He laboured i means, to detach the king of

!en from the cause of his allies, · professions of goodwill, respect,

1 admiration, and even by dis. emberments in bis favour, of Prus. :a and Denmark. He roused the l'urks to war against Russia, and

entered into a negotiation for an | alliance offensive and defensive with is the emperor of Persia. Ambassa. a dors were seen in his camp from his Ispahan and Constantinople.

Whether he really harboured the after extravagant design of sending a or his French army through Persia to rance. Hindostan, or no, may reasonably ery para be doubted: but an embassy from the com. Persia to the emperor of France,

different had an imposing air of widely ex. army were tended and formidable influence, ust, in abun. and might have an effect in any fu. as possible, ture negotiation for peace, on the by a rigorous councils of Russia and England. atimately ac. On every occasion when a haperests and views py stage-effect might be produced, -- and the he was careful to produce it. Eightysurites four pieces of cannon taken from the B 2

Russian

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There was another ally more power. reasonably expect to be joined by ful than either of the two just mén the Austrians.Such, it may be pretioned, on which the Russians sumed, were the considerations might, and no doubt did reckon, that encouraged and determined namely, a rigorous climate to which the court of St. Petersburg to un. they themselves were inured, but dertake and to persevere in the war which might prove fatal to soldiers with France. The battle of Pul. from France, Spain, and Italy. tusk, though bloody and obstinately The enemy too, in proportion as he contested, was indecisive: and it should advance into Poland, or be must be admitted that if the nations, yond it, would be drawn into diffi. on whose favour and co-operation culties and dangers on the line of his the Russians depended, had under. operations, in territories, with the stood and pursued their respective, nature or ground of which he could as well as their common interest, and not be well acquainted, and farther harmoniously joined in one well.con . and farther removed from supplies certed plan of action, their design and reinforcements. The Russians, might not have proved abortive. on the contrary, would receive re It is, however, not physical, but, inforcements and stores both by moral force that governs the world : land and sea from Russia, Sweden, bold conception, a just discriminaand England. The young and he

and hea tion between difficulty and impossi. roic king of Sweden, emulating his bility, profound combination, unity ancestor the great Gustavus Adol. of design, promptitude and rapidity phus, with the aid both of a sube of action. It was not physical force, sidy, and troops from England, but sublime genius and an ascendanmight march an army through the cy over the minds of men, that gave Lower Saxony, from Dartzig and energy and success to the measures Colberg, as far as Hamburgh. This of Alexander of Macedon, Hanniariny, augmented in its progress by bal, and Julius Cæsar. All great insurgents, in * Hesse, Hanover, and results spring from small, + and, at the Prussian dominions, might pass first, imperceptible origins ; one the Elbe, and establish a war in the constant impulsion, constantly and centre of Germany; where if he uniformly accelerating. In confeshould be able to maintain himself derations there is generally some. for any length of time, he might thing that misgives, something false

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* In consequence of the exactions of the French, there had broken out in the territory of flesse, a very considerable insurrection of about 10,000 men consisting principally of disbanded soldiers and peasants. Those among them wbo had served as non-commissioned officers, were appointed officers. They then armed themselves by seizing all the muskets, swords, and pieces of artillery they could lay their hands on. The insurrection had begun to extend itself to Hanover and Saxony, when this honèst effervescence of German indignation was calmed by the prudent and paternal remonstrances of the prince of Hesse.

+ Natura in minimis maxima---Pliny. The kingdoms of the earth are in this respect like the kingdom of heaven, i. e. of Jesus Christ : "The kingdom of lieaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which indeed is the least of all seeds, but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of ike air come and lodge in the branches thereof. Mark şiii, 31-7.

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