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These machines, subsequently combined and perfected by Crompton, have now reached such perfection, that instead of one thread held by hand, the mule will work a vast multitude at one and the same time. • There have been some machines constructed upon this principle, which spin the almost incredible number of 2200 threads, and with no other attendance than one spinner, assisted by a child; while the thread is spun with such 'evenness, and may be made of such delicacy of fineness, that it

would scarcely be possible to spin it by hand.' So also with regard to bleaching cloth, the discovery of Scheele in 1770, who ascertained that chlorine possessed the property of destroying colour, and whitening substances submitted to its action, was so beautifully applied by our countrymen, that through chloride of lime, this process is effected in a less number of hours, than it formerly occupied months. The invention of printing by cylindrical rollers, instead of blocks, then followed: enabling workmen to print just a hundred times faster than they ever could before. Power-looms brought up the rear of modern improvements. Nor have we room to enumerate the new fullingmills, the machinery for combing wools, nor all the other various modes in which wind, and water, and fire, and above all, steam, have enriched and blessed mankind. The results of labour are actually in some cases multiplied two hundred-fold: and the united aggregate of our steam-engines alone may be stated as equal to the force of twelve million of common operatives, such as existed from fifty years to a century ago. Gunpowder itself has helped to fill the cornucopia of peace, instead of glutting the appetite of war. Rock-blasting could have been carried on, to the degree we now see it, by no other means. Bridges, tunnels, roads over mountains, or mines excavated in their foundations, bear witness, that some mightier agent than vinegar has levelled every Alp of difficulty between barbarism and civilization. A greater than Hannibal is here! Knowledge and science have proved the true Prospero and Ariel of latter years : or rather, we would acknowledge with grateful reverence, that an Almighty Benefactor has so brought them to bear upon what the economists call production, that as Sir J. F. W. Herschel remarks, obstacles seem to diminish as we advance, instead of thickening around us • with an increasing complexity.' Unnecessary apprenticeships, ignorance, and monopolies, as well as the petty interferences of legislation, alone remain to be got rid of, that the fullest development may ensue of industrial power and ingenuity.

The labour of every nation is undoubtedly that wonderful fund, by the outlay of which, not only its supply of all the necessaries and conveniences of life is acquired, but all the higher interests of man, intellectual, social, and moral, are advanced. Industry mainly depends upon the operation of two motives to not agree with our author, that the denunciation • By the sweat

of thy brow shalt thou eat bread,' means something opposite to what the account in Genesis declares it to have been; but we quite accord with him in the idea, that the Almighty has superinduced upon what was at first penal, a law of benevolence. • The necessity,' he justly observes, for exertion, though it falls

on the human race in a more onerous manner than on most other animated beings, is yet tempered with goodness, and freighted with richer blessings. This necessity has impelled man to cultivate and improve his powers, whereby he not (merely subsists in a stationary condition, but has attained to a ' supremacy over creation, and has risen higher in intellect than “in station ; enlarging his abundance, securing his health, and administering to his enjoyments. It is not only the preceptor of the intellect, but the guardian of the morals of the human race.' It is not pretended, indeed, that labour can create any thing: but human agency, combining with the operations of nature, produces new forms of matter, suited to the necessities and desires of our species; and it is of course in this sense alone, that production must be understood in political economy. The employment of the several instruments of production,-labour in conjunction with capital, or with capital and land, is expressed by the term industry: and the circumstances which conduce to the effectiveness of industry, and the progress of opulence, are of two classes; those which are beyond our control, and those lying within it. Amongst the former, are fertility of soil, excellence of climate, certain natural productions, advantages of situation, or facilities of intercourse. Amongst the latter are knowledge, skill, excitements to industry, division of labour, freedom of trade, demand for commodities, roads, posts, canals, distribution of property, density of population, and amount of capital. In addition to these, political and moral causes should never be forgotten. Private probity tends to public opulence, as on the other hand general profligacy leads to national poverty. In touching upon such matters, Mr. Eisdell has filled his first volume, replete as it is with sound sense, conveyed in plain and perspicuous, if not always in the most attractive language.

On the mode in which science and skill have operated upon industry, he mentions amongst other striking illustrations, the manufacture of cloth. Yarn was spun by the distaff in ancient days, as it is still along some parts of the banks of the Danube, no doubt to the immense consolation of all anti-reformers in their neighbourhood. This primitive instrument in England gave way, ages ago, to the one thread spinning-wheel, which doubled the results

of toil, and added to the picturesque of poetry. Under George the Third, Hargreaves and Arkwright brought forward in quick succession the water-frame and the spinning-jenny. These machines, subsequently combined and perfected by Crompton, have now reached such perfection, that instead of one thread held by hand, the mule will work a vast multitude at one and the same time. “There have been some machines constructed upon this principle, which spin the almost incredible number of 2200 threads, and with no other attendance than one spinner, assisted by a child; while the thread is spun with such ' evenness, and may be made of such delicacy of fineness, that it * would scarcely be possible to spin it by hand.' So also with regard to bleaching cloth, the discovery of Scheele in 1770, who ascertained that chlorine possessed the property of destroying colour, and whitening substances submitted to its action, was so beautifully applied by our countrymen, that through chloride of lime, this process is effected in a less number of hours, than it formerly occupied months. The invention of printing by cylindrical rollers, instead of blocks, then followed : enabling workmen to print just a hundred times faster than they ever could before. Power-looms brought up the rear of modern improvements. Nor have we room to enumerate the new fullingmills, the machinery for combing wools, nor all the other various modes in which wind, and water, and fire, and above all, steam, have enriched and blessed mankind. The results of labour are actually in some cases multiplied two hundred-fold: and the united' aggregate of our steam-engines alone may be stated as equal to the force of twelve million of common operatives, such as existed from fifty years to a century ago. Gunpowder itself has helped to fill the cornucopia of peace, instead of glutting the appetite of war. Rock-blasting could have been carried on, to the degree we now see it, by no other means. Bridges, tunnels, roads over mountains, or mines excavated in their foundations, bear witness, that some mightier agent than vinegar has levelled every Alp of difficulty between barbarism and civilization. A greater than Hannibal is here! Knowledge and science have proved the true Prospero and Ariel of latter years : or rather, we would acknowledge with grateful reverence, that an Almighty Benefactor has so brought them to bear upon what the economists call production, that as Sir J. F. W. Herschel remarks, obstacles • seem to diminish as we advance, instead of thickening around us with an increasing complexity.' Unnecessary apprenticeships, ignorance, and monopolies, as well as the petty interferences of legislation, alone remain to be got rid of, that the fullest development may ensue of industrial power and ingenuity.

The labour of every nation is undoubtedly that wonderful fund, by the outlay of which, not only its supply of all the necessaries and conveniences of life is acquired, but all the higher interests of man, intellectual, social, and moral, are advanced. Industry mainly depends upon the operation of two motives to not agree with our author, that the denunciation By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread,' means something opposite to what the account in Genesis declares it to have been; but we quite accord with him in the idea, that the Almighty has superinduced upon what was at first penal, a law of benevolence. • The necessity,' he justly observes, for exertion, though it falls

on the human race in a more onerous manner than on most other animated beings, is yet tempered with goodness, and freighted with richer blessings. This necessity has impelled

man to cultivate and improve his powers, whereby he not (merely subsists in a stationary condition, but has attained to a supremacy over creation, and has risen higher in intellect than in station ; enlarging his abundance, securing his health, and administering to his enjoyments. It is not only the preceptor of the intellect, but the guardian of the morals of the human race.' It is not pretended, indeed, that labour can create any thing: but human agency, combining with the operations of nature, produces new forms of matter, suited to the necessities and desires of our species; and it is of course in this sense alone, that production must be understood in political economy. The employment of the several instruments of production,-labour in conjunction with capital, or with capital and land, is expressed by the term industry: and the circumstances which conduce to the effectiveness of industry, and the progress of opulence, are of two classes; those which are beyond our control, and those lying within it. Amongst the former, are fertility of soil, excellence of climate, certain natural productions, advantages of situation, or facilities of intercourse. Amongst the latter are knowledge, skill, excitements to industry, division of labour, freedom of trade, demand for commodities, roads, posts, canals, distribution of property, density of population, and amount of capital. In addition to these, political and moral causes should never be forgotten. Private probity tends to public opulence, as on the other hand general profligacy leads to national poverty. In touching upon such matters, Mr. Eisdell has filled his first volume, replete as it is with sound sense, conveyed in plain and perspicuous, if not always in the most attractive language.

On the mode in which science and skill have operated upon industry, he mentions amongst other striking illustrations, the manufacture of cloth. Yarn was spun by the distaff in ancient days, as it is still along some parts of the banks of the Dauube, no doubt to the immense consolation of all anti-reformers in their neighbourhood. This primitive instrument in England gave way, ages ago, to the one thread spinning-wheel, which doubled the results of toil, and added to the picturesque of poetry. Under George the Third, Hargreaves and Arkwright brought forward in quick succession the water-frame and the spinning-jevny.

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These machines, subsequently, combined and perfected by Crompton, have now reached such perfection, that instead of one thread held by hand, the mule will work a vast multitude at one and the same time. There have been some machines constructed upon this principle, which spin the almost incredible

number of 2200 threads, and with no other attendance than one spinner, assisted by a child; while the thread is spun with such

evenness, and may be made of such delicacy of fineness, that it 'would scarcely be possible to spin it by hand.' So also with regard to bleaching cloth, the discovery of Scheele in 1770, who ascertained that chlorine possessed the property of destroying colour, and whitening substances submitted to its action, was so beautifully applied by our countrymen, that through chloride of lime, this process is effected in a less number of hours, than it formerly occupied months. The invention of printing by cylindrical rollers, instead of blocks, then followed: enabling workmen to print just a hundred times faster than they ever could before. Power-looms brought up the rear of modern improve

Nor have we room to enumerate the new fullingmills, the machinery for combing wools, nor all the other various modes in which wind, and water, and fire, and above all, steam, have enriched and blessed mankind. The results of labour are actually in some cases multiplied two hundred-fold: and the united aggregate of our steam-engines alone may be stated as equal to the force of twelve million of common operatives, such as existed from fifty years to a century ago. Gunpowder itself has helped to fill the cornucopia of peace, instead of glutting the appetite of war. Rock-blasting could have been carried on, to the degree we now see it, by no other means. Bridges, tunnels, roads over mountains, or mines excavated in their foundations, bear witness, that some mightier agent than vinegar has levelled every Alp of difficulty between barbarism and civilization. A greater than Hannibal is here! Knowledge and science have proved the true Prospero and Ariel of latter years : or rather, we would acknowledge with grateful reverence, that an Almighty Benefactor has so brought them to bear upon what the economists call production, that as Sir J. F. W. Herschel remarks, obstacles seem to diminish as we advance, instead of thickening around us • with an increasing complexity.' Unnecessary apprenticeships, ignorance, and monopolies, as well as the petty interferences of legislation, alone remain to be got rid of, that the fullest development may ensue of industrial power and ingenuity.

The labour of every nation is undoubtedly that wonderful fund, by the outlay of which, not only its supply of all the necessaries and conveniences of life is acquired, but all the higher interests of man, intellectual, social, and moral, are advanced. Industry mainly depends upon the operation of two motives to

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