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In the reasons assigned by the editor for the selection of the present translation, in preference to that of Lord Berners, we must upon the whole concur. It has undoubtedly the merit of greater accuracy, and is to the general reader far more intelligible. By the scholar well versed in our older literature, the translation of Lord Berners will undoubtedly be preferred. As might be expected, it is expressed in far more racy English, not to mention, that as the spirit and the usages of chivalry still existed unimpaired at the time the translation was executed, it reflects the original more vividly than any modern version can. The terms of old Froissart were translated, not by explanatory phrases and feeble circumlocutions, but into the very language of chivalry, then every-where current, and forming part of the living language--the language of the people. Still it was not desirable to make that version the basis of the present edition. Not only are the technicalities of chivalry no longer intelligible, but a large portion of the general language of the work has become entirely obsolete, while the orthography is of course throughout exceedingly antiquated. To render it intelligible, therefore, to the mass of the people, there must have been an abundance of comments attached to the text, a copious glossary, and an entire revision of the orthography; while even then, to all but the comparatively few who are familiar with the style of our ancient writers, its perusal would have been a very tedious task. Upon the whole, therefore, we see no reason to complain that the modern has been preferred to the older version. At the same time, we observe with pleasure, that in some few passages of stirring interest, where Lord Berner's version possesses great fidelity, vigour, or raciness, the editor has judiciously appended his translation also to the text.
We shall now proceed to introduce the reader to a few striking extracts from Froissart himself; and we are much mistaken if their perusal does not render them anxious to cultivate a more intimate acquaintance with this graphic writer.
We have purposely abstained from more lengthened comment on his genius or writings, in order that the particular events or scenes described in the following extracts might be given nearly entire and unmutilated. The reader can hardly fail to perceive in every one of them that vividness of colouring, and vivacious minuteness of detail which we have already represented as so characteristic of this ancient historian.
Our first extract shall be the description of the battle of Crecy, in which the reader will admire, not only the vigour and life-like character of the painting, but the candour and impartiality with which the author has narrated events so humiliating to his own countrymen.
• The English, who were drawn up in three divisions, and seated on the ground, on seeing their enemies advance, rose undauntedly up,
and fell into their ranks. That of the prince was the first to do so, whose archers were formed in the manner of a portcullis, or harrow, and the men at arms in the rear. The earls of Northampton and Arundel, who commanded the second division, had posted themselves in good order on his wing, to assist and succour the prince, if necessary.
You must know, that these kings, earls, barons, and lords of France, did not advance in any regular order, but one after the other, or any way most pleasing to themselves. As soon as the king of France came in sight of the English, his blood began to boil, and he cried out to his marshals, Order the Genoese forward, and begin the battle, in the name of God and St. Denis.' There were about fifteen thousand Genoese cross-bowmen; but they were quite fatigued, hav. ing marched on foot that day six leagues, completely armed, and with their cross-bows. They told the constable, they were not in a fit condition to do any great things that day in battle. The earl of Alençon hearing this, said, “This is what one gets by employing such scoundrels, who fall off when there is any need for them. During this time a heavy rain fell, accompanied by thunder, and a very terrible eclipse of the sun; and before this rain a great flight of crows hovered in the air over all those battalions, making a loud noise. Shortly afterwards it cleared up, and the sun shone very bright; but the Frenchmen had it in their faces, and the English in their backs. When the Genoese were somewhat in order, and approached the English, they set up a loud shout, in order to frighten them ; but they remained quite still, and did not seem to attend to it. They then set up a second shout, and advanced a little forward ; but the English never moved. They hooted a third time, advancing with their cross-bows presented, and began to shoot. The English archers then advanced one step forward, and shot their arrows with such force and quickness that it seemed as if it snowed. When the Genoese felt these arrows, which pierced their arms, heads, and through their armour, some of them cut the strings of their cross-bows, others Aung them on the ground, and all turned about and retreated, quite discomfited. The French had a large body of men-at-arms on horseback, richly dressed, to support the Genoese. The king of France, seeing them thus fall back, cried out, • Kill me those scoundrels, for they stop up our road without any reason !' You would then have seen the above-mentioned men-at-arms lay about them, killing all they could of these runaways.
• The English continued shooting as vigorously and quickly as before ; some of their arrows fell among the horsemen, who were sumptuously equipped, and killing and wounding many, made them caper and fall among the Genoese, so that they were in such confusion they could never rally again. In the English army, there were some Cornish and Welshmen on foot, who had armed themselves with large knives ; these, advancing through the ranks of the men-at-arms and archers, who made way for them, came upon the French when they were in this danger, and, falling upon earls, barons, knights, and squires, slew many, at which the king of England was afterwards much exasperated. The valiant king of Bohemia was slain there. He
was called Charles of Luxembourg; for he was the son of the gallant king and emperor, Henry of Luxembourg; having heard the order of the battle, he inquired where his son, the lord Charles was ; his attendants answered, that they did not know, but believed he was fighting. The king said to them, Gentlemen, you are all my people, my friends and brethren at arms this day; therefore, as I am blind, I request of you to lead me so far into the engagement that I may strike one stroke with my sword.' The knights replied, they would directly lead him forward; and, in order that they might not lose him in the crowd, they fastened all the reins of their horses together, and put the king at their head, that he might gratify his wish, and advanced towards the enemy. The lord Charles of Bohemia, who already signed his name as king of Germany, and bore the arms, had come in good order to the engagement; but when he perceived that it was likely to turn out against the French, he departed, and I do not know well what road he took, The king, his father, had rode in among the enemy, and made good use of his sword; for he and his companions had fought most gallantly. They had advanced so far that they were all slain; and on the morrow they were found on the ground, with their horses all tied together.
The earl of Alençon advanced in regular order upon the English, to fight with them; as did the earl of Flanders, in another part. These two lords with their detachments, coasting, as it were, the archers, came to the prince's battalion, where they fought valiantly for a length of time. The king of France was eager to march to the place where he saw their banners displayed, but there was a hedge of archers before him. He had that day made a present of a handsome black horse to Sir John of Hainault, who had mounted on it a knight of his, called Sir John de Fusselles, that bore his banner; which horse ran off with him, and forced his ay through the English army, and, when about to return, stumbled and fell into a ditch, and severely wounded him ; he would have been dead, if his page had not followed him round the battalions, and found him unable to rise : he had not, however, any other hindrance than from his horse ; for the English did not quit the ranks that day to make prisoners. The page alighted, and raised him up; but he did not return the way he came, as he would have found it difficult from the crowd. This battle, which was fought on the Saturday, between la Broyes and Crecy, was very mur. derous and cruel ; and many gallant deeds of arms were performed that were never known. Towards evening, many knights and squires of the French had lost their masters; they wandered up and down the place attacking the English in small parties; they were soon destroyed, for the English had determined that day to give no quarter, or hear of ransom from any one.
* Early in the day, some French, Germans, and Savoyards, had broken through the archers of the prince's battalion, and had engaged with the men-at-arms ; upon which the second battalion came to his aid ; and it was time, for otherwise he would have been hard pressed. The first division, seeing the danger they were in, sent a knight in great baste to the king of England, who was posted upon an eminence,
near a windmill. On the knight's arrival, he said, “Sir, the earl of Warwick, the lord Stafford, the lord Reginald Cobham, and the others who are about your son, are vigorously attacked by the French, and they intreat that you would come to their assistance with your battalion ; for, if their numbers should increase, they fear he will have too much to do.' The king replied, “Is my son dead, unhorsed, or so badly wounded that he cannot support himself? Nothing of the sort, thank God!' rejoined the knight; but he is in so hot an engagement that he has great need of your help.' The king answered, Now, Sir Thomas, return back to those that sent you, and tell them from me, not to send again for me this day, or expect that I shall come, let what will happen, as long as my son has life; and say, that I command them to let the boy win his spurs ; for I am determined, if it please God, that all the glory and honour of this day shall be given to him, and to those into whose care I have instrusted him.' The knight returned to his lords, and related the king's answer, which mightily encouraged them, and made them repent they had ever sent such a message..
It is a certain fact, that Sir Godfrey de Harcourt, who was in the prince's battalion, having been told by some of the English, that they had seen the banner of his brother engaged in the battle against him, was exceedingly anxious to save him; but he was too late, for he was left dead on the field, and so was the earl of Aumarle, his nephew, On the other hand, the earls of Alcençon and of Flanders, were tighting lustily under their banners, and with their own people ; but they could not resist the force of the English, and were there slain, as well as many other knights and squires that were attending on or accompanying them. The earl of Blois, nephew to the king of France, and the duke of Lorraine, his brother-in-law, with their troops, made a gallant defence; but they were surrounded by a troop of English and Welsh, and slain in spite of their prowess. The earl of St. Pol, and the earl of Auxerre, were also killed, as well as many others. Late after vespers, the King of France had not more about him than sixty men, every one included. Sir John of Hainault, who was of the number, had once remounted the king ; for his horse had been killed under him by an arrow ; he said to the king, “Sir, retreat whilst you have an opportunity, and do not expose yourself so simply; if you have lost this battle, another time you will be the conqueror.' After he had said this, he took the bridle of the king's horse, and led him off by force; for he had before entreated of him to retire. The king rode on until he came to the castle of la Broyes, where he found the gates shut, for it was very dark. The king said to the governor, ‘Open, open, governor; it is the fortune of France.' The governor, hearing the king's voice, immediately descended, opened the gate, and let down the bridge. The king and his company entered the castle ; but he had only with him five barons—Sir John of Hainault, the lord Charles of Montmorency, the lord of Beaujeu, the lord of Aubigny, and the lord of Montfort. The king would not bury himself in such a place as that, but, having taken some refreshments, set out again with his attendants about midnight, and rode on, under the direction of guides who were well acquainted with the country, until about day-break, he came to Amiens, where he
halted. This Saturday, the English never quitted their ranks in pur. suit of any one, but remained on the field, guarding their position, and defending themselves against all who attacked them. The battle was ended at the hour of vespers.
Chapter CXXX.—The English on the morrow again defeat the French.'
• When, on this Saturday night, the English heard no more hooting or shouting, nor any more crying out to particular lords or their banners, they looked upon the field as their own, and their enemies as beaten. They made great fires, and lighted torches, because of the obscurity of the night. King Edward then came down from his post, who all that day had not put on his helmet, and, with his whole battalion, advanced to the prince of Wales ; whom he embraced in his arms, and kissed, and said, “Sweet son, God give you good perseverance : you are my son, for most loyally have you acquitted yourself this day ; you are worthy to be a sovereign.' The prince bowed down very low, and humbled himself, giving all honour to the king his father. The English, during the night made frequent thanksgivings to the Lord, for the happy issue of the day, and without rioting. On the Sunday morning the king ordered a detachment from the army, under the command of the two marshals, consisting of about five hundred lancers and two thousand archers, to make an excursion, and see if there were any bodies of French collected together. The quota of troops, from Rouen and Beauvais, had, this Sunday morning, left Abbeville and St. Ricquier in Ponthieu, to join the French army, and were ignorant of the defeat of the preceding evening; they met this detachment, and, thinking they must be French, hastened to join them.
• As soon as the English found who they were, they fell upon them; and there was a sharp engagement; but the French soon turned their backs, and fled in great disorder. There were slain in this flight in the open field, under hedges and bushes, upwards of seven thousand ; and had it been clear weather, not one soul would have escaped.
A little time afterwards, this same party fell in with the archbishop of Rouen and the great prior of France, who were also ignorant of the discomfiture of the French ; for they had been informed that the king was not to fight before Sunday. Here began a fresh battle ; for those two lords were well attended by good men-at-arms : however, they could not withstand the English, but were almost all slain, with the two chiefs who commanded them ; very few escaping. In the course of the morning, the English found many Frenchmen, who had lost their road on the Saturday, and had lain in the open fields, not know. ing what was become of the king, or their own leaders. The English put to the sword all they met, and it has been assured to me for fact, that of foot soldiers, sent from the cities, towns, and municipalities, there were slain this Sunday morning four times as many as in the battle of the Saturday.”---vol. I. p. 164–168.
Our next extract shall be the Battle of Otterbourne, in which the Scots gained their great victory, and in which the author has related the discomfiture of the English (whom he has been wrong