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arua, thua παραπτωμα



the exact degree in which the English version conforms to, or deviates from the original text, and thus frequently enables the student to exercise a sounder judgment on the propriety of particular renderings. Let us, to explain our meaning, select the word auapria. This word, which occurs in 172 places, is in 171 of these expressed by "sin :' the single remaining instance being translated offence. On looking to the index for these two words, we find that “sin' has been exployed to represent auaprnua whenever it occurs, (which is four times,) and three times to express napatwua, which last term is in other places rendered trespasses,' (nine times,) 'offence,' (seven times,) fall, (twice,) and fault, (twice.) Offence again represents, as we find, not only αμαρτία, but παραπτωμα. (seven times,) πρόσκομμα, (once,) TPOOkorn, (once,) okávoadov, (nine times.) The comparison of terms might be carried further, but the following is a general tabular view of the interchanges connected with the words in question.





Tror nourea



things that offend
occasion to fall .

occasion of stumbling The above table conveys a sufficient general idea of the way in which terms are interchanged with each other, and it is obvious that the facility of comparison thus afforded must render valuable assistance in judging of the propriety of the term selected in any individual instance. To illustrate as we wish the value of the aid thus offered, we must however trespass on the attention of our readers a little longer.

Many a smile has doubtless been occasioned by the mistake of the illiterate expositor, who is said to have arrested his youthful reader at Heb. xii. 10: •but he for our profit,' that he might open the true doctrine concerning the prophetical office of our Lord. Ignorance like this strikes us as ludicrous or lamentable according to the class of feelings to which we may be predisposed at the time. But gross as such an instance would be, too gross we would fain hope for reality, instances approaching it are more frequent than would be expected. If many do not exactly argue in this way from the mere sound of words, we believe that very many do from their appearance, and that one text is often quoted

парап тока


in illustration of another, purely in consequence of the occurrence of the same word in both. Of this we could multiply instances from printed books of great circulation, were it not invidious to do so, and, indeed, considering the easy abuse to which our common concordances are open, and the unscientific principle (that of mere verbal coincidence for the most part) on which the Scripture references in even our best Bibles have been prepared, we do not much wonder at it. Our pulpits also, owing to the same causes, are prolific of such misapplications. Now in such cases the error consists in carelessly identifying the different significations of a word; and this word may either be one whose variety of import being analogous to that of the original, may therefore very properly have furnished the occasion of its selection by our translators to represent the same original in different places, or one which on account of some partial agreement in its various applications with more than one original, may have been employed in different places as a representative of two or more of them. In reference to cases of the former class it will be obvious that the student is thrown upon the context, and must use his common sense upon the passage, together with all the information he can acquire respecting the equivocal term; but as regards the latter we must declare that with the Englishman's Greek Concordance in his hands, it will be entirely his own fault if he unawares fall into error. Thus if, to give a single illustration, from the occurrence of the same term conversation,' in Phil. iii. 20 and Heb. xiii. 5, he were to presume that the idea in both passages was also the same, a reference to the word in the index would lead to the discovery that πολιτευμα and αναστροφη, two words of different significations had been here employed, and must of course be variously interpreted. Of such hints of discrimination the index offers many instances.

We have already declared our admiration of the care which has been taken to secure the accuracy and completeness of this work, which reflects the highest credit on all who have been concerned in its publication. If there be any thing we miss, it is the marginal readings of our larger Bibles, which though never yet, we believe, inserted in any concordance, are nevertheless integral parts of the English version; frequently present constructions which would have been preferred by the translators, but for the restrictions imposed on them by authority; and as such, are clearly necessary to the perfection of the present design. In the discrimination of grammatical forms also, and syntactical peculiarities, such, for instance, as we have hints of at the head of the article åıwv, something more might have been done with great advantage. But as it is, the work is a very seasonable and useful undertaking. We sincerely hope that the Hebrew Concordance, which we observe that the editors have announced

upon the same principle, may deserve as much encouragement as we consider due to their present publication.

We attach our notice of Mr. Robson's manual Greek Lexicon to the present article, partly from the connection which, in common with the preceding volume, it has with the study of the New Testament, partly because our previous notice of the valuable work of Dr. Robinson, of which it is professedly an abridgment, would render any lengthened observations on it superfluous. The design of this abridgment had its origin in the persuasion that the original work being suited rather to the

advanced scholar than to the young divinity student, or the youth ' in the higher classes of our public schools,' a lexicon adapted to their use was still a desideratum in our educational catalogue; and the editor has therefore used his best endeavours to produce upon the basis of Dr. Robinson's volume, a book which shall deserve the title of a School Lexicon to the New Testament. The character of the attempt may be thus briefly stated.

• This lexicon contains every word occurring in the New • Testament, including proper names both of men and places, arranged in alphabetical order and followed by a statement of

their inflection, derivation, signification, and construction.' Irregularities of inflection and contracted forms are carefully noted; the derivation of words, where necessary, uniformly given; their signification traced from the root-meaning through all the various changes they may have severally undergone previous to their occurrence in the sacred text; and their construction, especially that of the particles, and of verbs followed by prepositions, illustrated by every necessary variety of example. These examples are carefully examined and selected. Particular attention has been paid to the accentuation and orthography of the Greek terms and phrases; the want of uniformity with which the original is chargeable, being avoided here by a rigid adherence to the scheme exhibited in Dr. Passow's Handwörterbuch der Griechischen Sprache, than which, it must be granted, a better standard could not have been followed. Occasionally, as in kåyó, and kóun, serviceable grammatical elucidations have been contributed by the editor.

Conductors of seminaries of education, and, indeed, all to whom a portable Greek Lexicon to the New Testament is a matter of interest, are greatly indebted to Mr. Robson for his excellent volume, which in point of fulness, comes between the larger work of Dr. Robinson and the little lexicon prepared for Mr. Bagster by the lamented Mr. Greenfield. The latter, as our readers know, is in one of its sizes a mere waistcoat-pocket book, and happy was the student who by means of its publication was put in possession of the pith of Wahl's lexicographical labours at so low a price and in so elegant a form. In learning and lightness combined it is still without a parallel, and with Mr. Greenfield's concordance forms a valuable accession to the polyglott and polymicrian Greek Testaments of its enterprising publisher. But viewed as a specimen of lexicography the present volume goes far a-bead, as far, indeed, as Dr. Robinson, the independent lexicographer, has gone a-head of Dr. Robinson the remodeller of Wahl, and communicates in a most convenient manual and pocket form the last results of lexicographical skill.

The 'getting up of this school lexicon is also, we are happy to say, on an equality with the rest of the performance, the Greek character employed being remarkably pleasant to the eye, and the page really beautiful. The quantity of matter moreover, as compared with the bulk of the volume, would be, were this not an age of typographical wonders, a subject of surprise. Without presenting any appearance of heaviness, such is the fulness of its pages, that the 518 duodecimo pages of which it consists are equal to 546 of the 8vo. edition of the original lexicon, with which we have compared it. In conclusion, not only do we wish that the editor may be duly rewarded for the outlay both of trouble and expense occasioned by this publication, but in that case we would venture to ask him, what he would think of a reprint, in the same Greek type, and of paper, and form of page to match, and bind with his lexicon, of Knapp's Greek Testament, copied exactly from the second Halle edition, and in every respect a reprint of that edition, with the single exception of the arguments being transferred from the foot of the page, each to the head of its appropriate section.

Art. V. Dissertation on Church Polity. By A. C. Dick, Esq., Ad

Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black.


THE 'HE advocates of state churches are divided, as the reader is

probably aware, into two parties, each of which denies the soundness of the reasonings of the other. The first are the high churchmen, who build their arguments for a state ecclesiastical establishment on divine authority, and defend the existent system on the assumption of divine right. The second are the low churchmen, who are contented with the humbler ground of expediency and public advantage. The one class advocate state establishments of religion because God has ordained them; the other, because they promote the public good. To the first, belong Hooker, Inglis, and most of the old authors who professed to answer the writings of the Puritans, with Mr. Gladstone : to the second, belong Warburton, Paley, and not least, Dr. Chalmers.

Each of these great men has framed his argument most consistently with his own views, and fortunately enough has generally expressed it so as to answer or deny the reasonings of the rest. Hooker and Inglis are on some points agreed, but they had no conception of the dogmas of Gladstone, while Mr. Gladstone on the other hand has very much to object to theirs. Warburton denies that the magistrate has any business to trouble himself about truth, all he wants are the sanctions of religion; Paley assents; and Chalmers rejects the theories of both as eminently secular and unchristian. The two parties themselves are still more opposed. Dr. Chalmers has no sympathy with Mr. Glad“stone's bigotry ;' Mr. Gladstone regrets to differ from a man so

excellent and useful :' while Drs. Warburton and Paley have either elaborately or contemptuously answered Drs. Hooker and Inglis. What else than ruin can await a house so lamentably • divided !

To give a reply to the two classes of reasoning to which we have referred--the one founded on Scripture, the other on civil utility—is the object of the writer of the treatise which is placed at the head of this article, and which we beg to introduce with great good will to the attention of the reader.

We know not how it has happened, that this treatise has hitherto failed to obtain, on this side of the Tweed, the attention to which it is so eminently entitled. Where the fault may lay, it is not for us to determine, -of this we are certain, it is not traceable to any deficiency of merit in the work itself, which is not surpassed by any modern treatise, in the closeness and severity of its logic, the clear and forcible enunciation of scriptural principles, or the uniform maintenance of a calm and dignified temper.

The first two sections (which we wish had been called the first chapter) are intended to meet the arguments of the high churchman. They are both devoted to the consideration of the plea, that it is the duty of the civil magistrate to establish religion. The first, showing that it is not his duty from any right interpretation of the functions of his office; the second, that it is not his duty from any right interpretation of the precepts or examples of the Bible.

That it is not his duty from the nature of his office, will appear, if it be remembered, that national establishments rob the dissentient subject of privilege or inflict penalty, just because he does as God bids him-reads for himself, and acts consistently with his belief. Now no man surely can affirm that it is a magistrate's duty thus to oppose God.

Besides, if it be his duty to establish religion, let it be established ; let it be national, and no longer as now the religion of a sect. If duty be at all involved, dissent is rebellion ; toleration

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