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any national peculiarities of costume. Mendicants aboundedcrowds of women and filthy brats besetting and tormenting all strangers. Every one, however, must remember and admire, the valor displayed by the inhabitants of Porto, during the last seige.
The author is soon en voyage again. The coast to the south of Oporto is low, with a sandy beach ; the country inland, woody and well cultivated, the mountains of Coimbra long bounding the horizon. After a very rapid run for the rest of the day, we have the following evening scene off Cape Mondego, which the reader may admire or not, just as he thinks proper.
• The sun, after a career of undivided glory, was sinking to meet the western wave: the horizon was one transparent blaze ; and the surface of the ocean glowed with the restless and dazzling reflection of golden and orange hues. Then, while day was yet richly lingering on the waters, on the one hand, the moon stole forth in pearly splendour on the other, and shot her glittering streams of light across the ocean. Then, too, as the night advanced—what is rarely seen in northern climes, every wave as it broke was crested with a blaze ; the paddles of our vessel seemed to move in light, and in her wake were trains of liquid fire. The beauty of these phosphoric illuminations is indescribable. Who indeed can find words to describe the glories of an evening at sea in such a season, and in such a climate? The dark expanse of waters sparkling with innumerable lights, the clear warm glow, long lingering on the western horizon--the supernatural radiance of the moon, and the inexpressible beauty of the heavens, in which the stars,' &c., &c.-Voli. p. 12.
Day breaks, and they are running along a rocky coast, with low dark cliffs; a wild chain of peaked mountains, towered in the south-east. Passing the Rock of Lisbon, and steering eastward, the Tagus opens to their view off the strong fort of Cascaes, the entrance guarded by the forts St. Julias and Bugio. Entering between these forts, the Castle of Belem is seen five miles ahead. They now sweep by, passing, too rapidly,' the charming quintas (country seats) and smiling villages, and the city opens to their view.
• What beauties doth Lisboa first unfold,
Her image floating on that noble tide,
Which poets vainly pave with sands of gold ! Here is an eloquent a-la-George-Robins description of Lisbon from the river.'
• The many hilled city now opened upon the view, in all its magnificence-its splendid palaces—the domes, towers, and spires of its innumerable churches and convents-its white or yellow mansions and public buildings glittering in the sun - its majestic castle on the heights beyond—its delightful villas peeping from the luxuriant groves and gardens, which covered the slopes, or crowned the numerous low hills around. Then, on the opposite shore, were fertile and sloping banks adorned with villages and quintas, and terminating in the lofty and precipitous cliffs of Almada ; and before me was the broad bosom of the river glittering with gold, and chequered with snowy sails flitting over its waters, while a long line of huge men-of-war, at anchor, decked out with many coloured streamers, stretched up the centre of the stream almost as far as the eye could reach. Add to all this, the intense azure of a southern sky, canopying all, and that blaze of the noonday sun, which imparts to every object a splendour unknown in a northern climate-and the reader may perhaps form some conception of Lisbon, as it appeared to me for the first time. No hum of a busy city disturbed the tranquillity of the scene, for it was the Sabbath, and the silence was only broken, at intervals, by the bells of the churches summoning the citizens to their devotions.' - Ib.
Now for a nearer general view of this city.
· Lisbon is built on several hills—the mystic number of seven, I believe. Many of the streets are necessarily very steep ; and, in general, they are narrow, badly paved, and execrably filthy; yet those which stretch northwards in parallel lines from the Praça do Commercio, are broad and handsome, and reminded me of Paris, but there is a fine trottoir on either hand, with heavy stone posts, such as the Gallic capital cannot boast. The houses are lofty, with white-washed exteriors, and sometimes curiously painted façades; the roofs project very much, and the eaves are of bright red tiling, which contrasts gaily with the fronts; the corners of the overhanging roofs are often turned up as in Chinese buildings. Every window has its railed balcony, generally overhung by a blind, and filled with flowers ; and every balcony, on this occasion, had its fair occupant-dark, I should rather say, for the Portuguese are a very swarthy race. The shops are curious ; representations of the articles sold being usually painted on a board placed outside the door-way. Many streets contain, with few exceptions, a particular description of shops. In one, for example, all are workers in leather, saddlers, or shoemakers; in the Praça do Rocio nearly all are hatters. We have our · Row,' where book' merchants most do congregate ;' but in Lisbon, though by no means universal, the custom is far more prevalent, and might be regarded by one eager to discover traces of oriental manners, as a relic of Moorish times, for it has existed from the remotest ages in the cities of the East.'
-Ib. p. 19.
We must omit the enthusiastic description of the ride to Cintra, with the picturesque accounts of Ramalhão, Montserrat, Convento da Penha, Penha Verde, Cintra, and its truly Elysian scenery; nor shall we have room to touch upon sundries--such
as Lisbon vehicles,' Lisbon costume,' or the varieties met with on the road to Cintra, such as the Lisbon ox-cars, &c.
The filth of this capital is as notorious as its glories. Southey says an English pigsty is cleaner than the metropolis of Portugal. We cannot resist giving the following
Sketch from the Quays. From my windows on the Caes do Sodre the view was most ani. mated. Before me lay the noble Tagus, bounded by the fortified heights of Almada opposite, and stretching away to the left into a deep bay, backed by hills at the distance of eight or ten miles ; while to the right it extended beneath the mansioned heights of Buenos Ayres, to mingle with the blue horizon of the Atlantic. The centre of the stream was occupied by ranges of men-of-war-liners and frigates--at anchor; and merchant vessels of all nations were scattered here and there on its broad bosom, which seemed teeming with life, as numerous pleasure-boats and small craft chased each other over the sun-lit waters. Many feluccas, too, with their long yards hung with festoons of snowy canvass thrown obliquely against the azure sky, lay along the quay beneath my window, with cargoes of fish from the Atlantic, or of passengers from the villages on the opposite shore. Rows of half-naked boatmen were seated on the parapet overhanging the water, or squatting beneath its shade, smoking paper-cigars quarrelling one moment over a game of cards, and scrambling the next for a fare, as any one approached the landing-place. With their long red pendant caps--open shirts, displaying their hairy, brawny chests and loose white nether garments, girt about their middle with a crimson sash, and reaching only to the knee, leaving their limbs to be blackened by the sun—they are picturesque fellows; but what are they in uncouthness to the solitary gaunt figures, wrapt only in a short cloak of coarse rush matting, disposed in layers like a thatch, which, with their shaggy heads, matted beards, and sunburnt features and limbs, makes you fancy them some importation of savages from New Zealand ? They are but peasants in the costume of the rainy season.
• There is a market-place on my right, where fruit, fish, meat, and a thousand etceteras are laid out in stalls, and served by fair Portuguezas; and this causes a continual ebb and and flow of citizens of all orders, self-important National Guards in uniform, and prying customhouse officers, mingling with filthy, importunate beggars, and the lower classes of both sexes in many varieties of singular costume. Amongst them a party of tall, well-made figures, in high conical hats, gay short jackets, crimson sashes, and figured spatterdashes of white leather, strutting boldly along with the left hand on the hip, and a paper-cigar in the mouth—at once arrest the attention. turesque dress, the graceful bearing, the haughty and contemptuous looks which they cast around, show them to be Spaniards, for
• Well doth the Spanish hind the difference know
While their countenances embronzed by continual exposure to the sun, and their bold reckless air, mark them as contrabandistas. These fellows carry on a profitable but hazardous traffic in smuggling British goods from Oporto and Lisbon, across the Spanish frontier.
• Here are natives, also, of every other mercantile country of the globe ; Britons, Americans, French, Dutch, Italians, with occasionally a turbaned and loose-robed Moor, a squalid Jew, or a half-naked negro. The confusion of so many different tongues, and the varied character and contrast of costume in the motley multitude, combine to form a source of infinite amusement to the stranger.'
Our author quitted Lisbon after a week's stay without regret, as more romantic regions, inhabited by a nobler race, lay before him. Their vessel left the Tagus in the evening with a flowing sheet, and as they shaped a southern course, before night closed, the blue mountains of Cintra had faded from their view. The following morning the headland of St. Vincent rose to view, where England's greatest hero won his earliest laurels. A bluff headland of grey limestone, nearly one hundred feet high, washed into bold forms by the ocean, with a detached rock at its base, and a convent on its brow. The Cape receives its name from the saint having been murdered here. Another tradition asserts he was fed by a crow: and by the Spanish Arabs the promontory was called Keneesat Alghorab, or the Church of the Crow. About one league from St. Vincent is the Punta de Sagres, now a mere fishing village, but once a flourishing town, founded four centuries ago by the renowned Prince Henry, who resided there, and fitted out fleets of discovery along the western coast of Africa, which led to the passage to India by the Cape of Good Hope.
Evening closed ere they had doubled Cape Santa Maria. The sunset here was even more glorious than off the coast of Estramadura; the phosphoric illuminations of the ocean were more brilliant ; the air more soft and balmy ; and every thing indicated a more southern latitude. So our traveller went to bed, with ardent anticipations of the morrow, when he was for the first time to tread the soil of
Andalucia.' At seven in the morning Cadiz was visible ahead,-a faint white streak, between the dark blue of the sea and the softer azure of the sky. The many-towered city appears to rise, like Venice, out of the deep. They pass the glittering town of Rota on its low sandy coast, enter the bay, and at nine, come to anchor. On one hand spread the sunny white mass of the city, girt by the sea wall and batteries,—on the other, two leagues off
, on the bright line of coast, the town of Port St. Mary. Before them, the bay stretched far inward, like a lake, bounded by low shores, and overlooked in the south-east by the grey mountains of Ronda,
Around, numerous vessels at anchor with mighty British and French ships of war amongst them; and snowy sails scudding in every direction.
Landing, and having undergone the custom-house scrutiny, the traveller found himself in a large square—the Plaza del Mar -and turning out of it to the right, lo and behold! he finds himself in the midst of the grandest bustle of the grandest festival in the Romish calendar--the day of Corpus Christi,' --and the proceșsion of the host was about to commence. Of course our traveller was exceedingly fortunate in arriving just at this time, not for the sake of witnessing the miserable mummery, but for its concomitants'—the spectators, not the abominable spectacle--as the occasion gave him an opportunity of seeing an immense crowd of all classes, high and low, brought into contrast. An immense crowd it was, of all sorts, swarming round some dozens of priests, carrying about a piece of baked dough in state, which they call “Sa Majestad,'. His Majesty,' in a huge costodia of massive silver. We have no space for the procession, but the following is a partial description of the general scene of bustle and hilarity, set afloat by the idolatrous pageant.
• Lofty houses of the most dazzling whiteness rose up on either hand, with balconies to all the windows, hung with damask, or silk cloths richly flowered, crimson, blue, or canary coloured, behind which were ranged the dark eyed girls of Cadiz.' Below, crowds of citizens of both sexes, and of all ages and conditions, were working their way between ranks of the National Guard, in gay uniforms, drawn up on either side of the street. The fierce rays of the sun were excluded, or rather softened down into a voluptuous light, by awnings of canvass, or flags stretched from roof to roof across those streets through which the procession was to pass. The brightness and rich contrast of colour —the buzz and bustle-the eternal flutter and furling of fans—the flashing of the wild black eyes of their fair owners from the balconies and from below—together with the novelty of the costumes, formed a tout-ensemble that could not fail to astonish, amuse, and delight the stranger.
When I had recovered from the first surprise excited by this dazzling scene, and could look more calmnly around, my attention was naturally drawn to the singular costume of the women ; for on every side were mantillas of black lace or silk, which being fastened to the head, falling over the back and shoulders, and partly concealing the countenance, made me for a moment fancy myself among a nation of nuns. But the roguish unsaintly glances of these fair ones soon undeceived me with the assurance, that in the veil alone did the resemblance consist. Some few mantillas were of white lace, and here and there a French bonnet, all flowers and ribbons, contrasted with the more sober head-dresses. The young Gaditana gliding along as fast as the crowd, or her notions of grace, would allow, her black eyes sparkling with delight at so favorable an opportunity of displaying her