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with hands, is, or at least ought to be worshipped: and although a veil of mortality separates between things visible and those invisible, the movements of the mighty Artificer, enthroned within the Holy of Holies, flash frequently even to the outer courts, so that the province of faithful adorers is to watch, and wait, and work, according to the will of our heavenly Master. We see here through a glass darkly ; but the key, which will solve every enigma, lies beyond the grave. Meanwhile one thing is irrefragably certain, as Sir John Eliot expresses himself with regard to the social trials of his own day, not dissimilar as they were from ours,--that in the revolution of Wisdom, these affairs are so turned, -yea, in the divine wheel of Providence, their conversions are so made,- that all move directly to one end! The alloy and contestation of the parts work the conservation of the whole.'

We suppose that mere secular politicians scarcely ever anticipated more from any session of parliament than from that which has now concluded its wordy labours. The Chartists had covered the country with a webwork of affiliated societies. Their national petition was collecting signatures from the hill-sides and cottages of our rural districts; as well as from the looms, forges, and manufactories, of hives of human beings, at Manchester, Glasgow, Newcastle, Bolton, Wolverhampton, Oldham, and Ashton-underLyne. Birmingham was the capital of Feargus O'Connor,-as it was to prove a city of refuge to the Convention, in case of necessity. It must never be forgotten, that the first trains of the current agitations were laid by Toryism, anxious as it was to turn the New Poor Law into a battery of assault against government. Vainly was it reminded, that Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington had patronised the revolution which broke up workhouses, where no work but that of the devil was done, and established Unions in their stead, where industry, cleanliness, and fresh air, with a sufficiency of plain food, are inculcated and secured, just so far as to preserve sacred the distinction between the rights of labour and the rights of idleness. Vainly was it reminded of a dozen other inconsistencies, equally atrocious; with regard to which it acted, just as Jupiter is said to have done in the Greek fable,—that is carrying a wallet behind and a wallet before, the former holding every thing convenient to be forgotten, the latter every thing convenient to remember. So long as AntiPoor-Law oratory could thwart liberal measures, or seat a Conservative candidate, so long the hierarchy, squirarchy, and aristocracy clapped their gloved palms together,--cheered on to their task certain agents of sedition, who would have been hanged had the Home Department been as it was in the golden days of established espionage,--and voted even a combination with ultraradicalism very pardonable, because expedient policy. An indignant patriot might well have asked, what the opponents of even the smallest iota of parliamentary reform could really and honestly mean to do with those who were clamouring for nothing less than Universal Suffrage, Annual Parliaments, Vote by Ballot, and the abolition of property-qualification ? Meanwhile a previous failure in our harvests was sending up the price of corn to ten shillings a bushel; when, as might naturally have been expected, the great capitalists of the north began to sound an alarm. Committees were organized, large sums of money subscribed, interminable speeches spoken, and last though not least, magnificent dinners eaten, for the purpose of overthrowing the absurdest and most pernicious monopoly which Europe, not to say England, has ever tolerated. It was demonstrated, that the corn laws imposed a tax of fifteen millions sterling upon the prime necessary of life,that commerce and manufacturing superiority were deserting our shores, through the greater cheapness of the loaf, and therefore

labour, in other countries,- that the only gainers in the juggle were the members of an oligarchy, calling themselves the Landed Interest,—and that these were only apparently so, since they, as well as others, would participate in the general relief derived from strangling this Old Man of the Mountain. Truth for a time took its customary course; that is, it was admitted and acknowledged by all who were not purblind or biassed. Had our lower classes stepped forward at this moment, and supported the mass of the middle ones, they would have delivered themselves from a burthen equivalent to twenty-five per cent upon every crust consumed by themselves, their neighbours, or their children; besides averting from Great Britain that commercial catastrophe, which must sooner or later arrive, should no modification ensue. But no,-it was an opportunity too good for faction to lose. Moreover a vast majority of the monopolists mustered under conservative banners. It is idle to deny this statement of the case, because here and there occurred not a few honourable exceptions. Just as in the question of National Education a cry was raised of the Church in danger; so for the preservation of high rents, the proprietors of land, headed by the aristocracy, vociferated Agriculture,-agriculture! They roundly asserted, that Manchester manufacturers wanted to render our fields desolate,—to lower the rate of wages,--and drive our rustics into their factories. They affirmed that the rate of wages would sink in proportion to the income of the landlord, and the money-price of grain : which it is now well known is not, never has been, nor ever will be, the fact. The falsehood however passed current for just a sufficient number of weeks to deceive the Chartists into swelling the force of conservative clamour against altering the corn laws. Political partizanship makes strange bedfellows, as the late Mr. Sadler remarked: and it was illustrated on this occasion.

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with hands, is, or at least ought to be worshipped: and although a veil of mortality separates between things visible and those invisible, the movements of the mighty Artificer, enthroned within the Holy of Holies, flash frequently even to the outer courts, so that the province of faithful adorers is to watch, and wait, and work, according to the will of our heavenly Master. We see here through a glass darkly ; but the key, which wil solve every enigma, lies beyond the grave. Meanwhile one thing is irrefragably certain, as Sir John Eliot expresses himself with regard to the social trials of his own day, not dissimilar as they were from ours,--that in the revolution of Wisdom, these

affairs are so turned, -yea, in the divine wheel of Providence, “their conversions are so made, – that all move directly to one end! The alloy and contestation of the parts work the conserovation of the whole.'

We suppose that mere secular politicians scarcely ever anticipated more from any session of parliament than from that which has now concluded its wordy labours. The Chartists had covered the country with a webwork of affiliated societies. Their national petition was collecting signatures from the hill-sides and cottages of our rural districts; as well as from the looms, forges, and manufactories, of lives of human beings, at Manchester, Glasgow, Newcastle, Bolton, Wolverhampton, Oldham, and Ashton-underLyne. Birmingham was the capital of Feargus O'Connor,—as it was to prove a city of refuge to the Convention, in case of necessity. “It must never be forgotten, that the first trains of the current agitations were laid by Toryism, anxious as it was to turn the New Poor Law into a battery of assault against government. Vainly was it reminded, that Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington had patronised the revolution which broke up workhouses, where no work but that of the devil was done, and established Unions in their stead, where industry, cleanliness, and fresh air, with a sufficiency of plain food, are inculcated and secured, just so far as to preserve sacred the distinction between the rights of labour and the rights of idleness. Vainly was it reminded of a dozen other inconsistencies, equally atrocious ; with regard to which it acted, just as Jupiter is said to have done in the Greek fable,—that is carrying a wallet behind and a wallet before, the former holding every thing convenient to be forgotten, the latter every thing convenient to remember. So long as AntiPoor-Law oratory could thwart liberal measures, or seat a Conservative candidate, so long the hierarchy, squirarchy, and aristocracy clapped their gloved palms together,-cheered on to their task certain agents of sedition, who would have been hanged had the Home Department been as it was in the golden days of established espionage,—and voted even a combination with ultraradicalism very pardonable, because expedient policy. An indig.

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nant patriot might well have asked, what the opponents of even the smallest iota of parliamentary reform could really and honestly mean to do with those who were clamouring for nothing less than Universal Suffrage, Annual Parliaments, Vote by Ballot, and the abolition of property-qualification ? Meanwhile a previous failure in our harvests was sending up the price of corn to ten shillings a bushel; when, as might naturally have been expected, the great capitalists of the north began to sound an alarm. Committees were organized, large sums of money subscribed, interminable speeches spoken, and last though not least, magnificent dinners eaten, for the purpose of overthrowing the absurdest and most pernicious monopoly which Europe, not to say England, has ever tolerated. It was demonstrated, that the corn laws imposed a tax of fifteen millions sterling upon the prime necessary of life,that commerce and manufacturing superiority were deserting our shores, through the greater cheapness of the loaf, and therefore of labour, in other countries,- that the only gainers in the juggle were the members of an oligarchy, calling themselves the Landed Interest,--and that these were only apparently so, since they, as well as others, would participate in the general relief derived from strangling this Old Man of the Mountain. Truth for a time took its customary course; that is, it was admitted and acknowledged by all who were not purblind or biassed. Had our lower classes stepped forward at this moment, and supported the mass of the middle ones, they would have delivered themselves from a burthen equivalent to twenty-five per cent upon every crust consumed by themselves, their neighbours, or their children; besides averting from Great Britain that commercial catastrophe, which must sooner or later arrive, should no modification ensue. But no,-it was an opportunity too good for faction to lose. Moreover a vast majority of the monopolists mustered under conservative banners. It is idle to deny this statement of the case, because here and there occurred not a few honourable exceptions. Just as in the question of National Education a cry was raised of the Church in danger; so for the preservation of high rents, the proprietors of land, headed by the aristocracy, vociferated Agriculture,-agriculture ! They roundly asserted, that Manchester manufacturers wanted to render our fields desolate,—to lower the rate of wages,--and drive our rustics into their factories. They affirmed that the rate of wages would sink in proportion to the income of the landlord, and the money-price of grain : which it is now well known is not, never has been, nor ever will be, the fact. The falsehood however passed current for just a sufficient number of weeks to deceive the Chartists into swelling the force of conservative clamour against altering the corn laws. Political partizanship makes strange bedfellows, as the late Mr. Sadler remarked : and it was illustrated on this occasion,

Parliament assembled in February, about as early as usual. Expectation was on the tiptoe. Besides agitation in Ireland, where O'Connell had enrolled some myriads of Precursors, besides all the copia verborum touching the Corn Laws and the National Charter,—there was the anticipated collision between Viscount Melbourne and the Farl of Durham. The Quarterly Review promulgated an article on this express subject: nor ever, during the feudal ages, could young ladies have looked forward more earnestly to an approaching tournament, than the old ones of a certain party in the state did to the expected duello in the House of Lords. It would have been years added to their natural life, could they but have witnessed some fierce and foul rencontre between the Premier and the Governor-General of the Canadas. All however have been cruelly disappointed. Verily that play of our great dramatist has been acted all through the session, —Much ado about Nothing. The Upper House for months was tameness itself, except when a noble and learned lord, the intellectual Samson of his generation, having had the eyes of his mind extinguished, either through vanity or infirmity, condescended to make sport for the Philistines! In the Commons there appeared violence and storm enough: for an unlucky seconder of the Address, from accident and not design, made the sort of trip respecting the Corn Laws, which a clumsy menial does towards some dainty dish, which, by stumbling at the threshold, he deposits in ruin upon the floor, instead of placing it with dignity upon the table. In days gone by, an affair, so malappropos, would have excited in Pitt, or Fox, or Tierney, or even in Perceval or Lord Castlereagh, immense laughter, and yet much commiseration. Alas! for men, dool vuv Bpotol ELOL! The present leader of opposition had no pity for a fallen antagonist. In the debate, he not only kicked him when down ; but instead of helping him to get up, as one gentleman should do another, whether friend or enemy, he continued to keep him down, and then kicked him again. We feel satisfied, that amongst even his own party, Sir Robert Peel by no means retains the elevated position which he held twelve months ago. More than one significant symptom of this has recently appeared. In trampling however on the member for Kendal, at the expense of enormous self-debasement, he was enabled to make some heavy, and for the session a few fatal thrusts against Mr. Villiers. He also well knew, as an experienced parliamentary tactician, that the majority of his audience went with him, in their wishes for maintaining a monopoly, in which the landed aristocracy imagines itself so deeply and personally interested. Nothing will ever make either Whig or Tory lords alive to the true nature of the question, except fear ; that tingling, indefinable apprehension, which renders juvenile depredators, for the moment, honest even

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