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integrity of the Ottoman empire, so far as they actually exist; with the single exception of Bulgaria, which already swarms with Russian agents, and has done so, we believe, ever since the treaty of Adrinople. We should sincerely regret having to adopt coercive measures against Mehemet Ali, for reasons already intimated; and who can tell, when the first gun is fired, where the conflagration may pause. Meanwhile whatever ambitious projects the Czar and his cabinet may be meditating, there will never be a fifth universal monarchy; in the sense we mean of the Assyrian, Medo-Persian, Macedonian, or Roman empires. Every child learning to read from Archangel to Sebastopol, --every press that prints a line within the limits of Muscovy or Christendom,every loom, every sail, and every highway, rail-road, port, or packet,-above all

, every copy of the Scriptures winging its silent way to hearts, and hearths, and names on earth unknown,-are one and each among the component portions of an irresistible machinery which will grind despotism and ignorance to powder. What we apprehend most, just at the present crisis, is, that Foreign Powers are fostering the idea in their minds that we are a divided nation. The severe remark of an ancient consul as to Rome, Discordia ordinum est venenum urbis hujus, patrum ac plebis certamina, may be too applicable to ourselves. A government, vacillating at home, will not long retain its proper weight and influence abroad: and the impression is, we fear, not an unfounded one, that our diplomacy, which has never been creditable to us, is incurably tainted and stained with all those corrupt humours,-those tendencies to dalliance with tyranny and absolutism,—which could scarcely fail to be inherent in the aristocracy, whence it was derived. Autocracy itself is better for foreign objects, than an oligarchy; the force of public opinion bearing directly upon a single devoted head in the one case ; whilst it breaks away in various subdivisions of responsibility, in the other. An occasional decapitation of some unfortunate Charles Stuart may have often checked the madness, or ferocity, or even the folly of an emperor; he is a mark for the eyes of the world abroad; and is after all only the slave of slaves at home. But aristocracies are like the wild ass of the desert,—' in her occasions, who can turn her away?' We may perceive the truth of this in even the commercial republics of the middle ages. Venice never seems to have taught her own senators or any others, the slightest compunctious visitings, as selfishness and venality led them down from the low depths of national degradation to lower abysses still; the idea being too borrible for conception, whatever might be their demerits, of consigning so many titled heads to the axe of the headsman, the cord of the gibbet, or the nobler waves of the Adriatic !

Brief Notices.

Ancient Christianity. By the Author of Spiritual Despotism.' Nos.

1, 2, 3. London : Jackson and Walford. 1839.

The author appears to promise two, or perhaps three, more numbers. We feel debarred from reviewing an incomplete work, although what has already appeared is a whole, taken by itself: but we cannot defer any longer to call our reader's attention to this interesting and auspicious production.

It is professedly written against the new High Church school of divinity; whom it attacks with weapons hitherto used by none of their opponents. Instead of contending against these modern divines, or assailing tradition by abstract topics, he comes directly to the question, • What is that doctrine which they are calling on us to adopt ?' Their golden age is the Nicene era ; their teachers, the Nicene theologians; meaning hereby, chiefly those of the fourth century, but also their predecessors of the third. This our author denotes as ancient Christianity, in opposition to apostolic Christianity. He urges that it must be taken as a whole, and not by picking and choosing at our will; of which the Oxford divines are thoroughly aware, although they are now translating select treatises of their favorite writers so as to give a most partial exhibition of the system. This work is, then, intended to bring strongly into view such cardinal points of the Nicene theology as its modern votaries are fain to keep, for the present, in the back ground.

The first of these points is the merit of Virginity ; which the author shows to be the great pivot of the system. From it, or with it, followed unbounded fanaticism, shocking dissoluteness, degradation and perversion of the moral principle, the celibacy of the clergy, ascetic practices; also monachism, and conventual establishments, alternating between sanctimonious hypocrisy and rigorous cruelty. With monachism grew up legends and false

. miracles innumerable, and the entire science (so to say) of demonology. The same fanaticism, overflowing in another channel, produced extravagant honors to martyrdom, insolent assumption of spiritual authority by confessors, miracles wrought by relics, and unbounded superstition concerning the eucharist. Meanwhile the church was practically divided into two classes, saints and common Christians, the fanatical will-worship of the former being a sort of justification of worldliness in the latter ; and certainly a discouragement of all genuine virtue and piety. Amid these antichristian absurdities the gospel of the grace of God was lost: nay, the ability to understand the Scripture was almost destroyed. False meanings were put on its terms; thus chastity and purity were understood solely of the unmarried state ; saints were interpreted as indicating the select inner church: all the promisės were appropriated to them alone. A mystical mode of exposition was introduced, contemptible for its puerility, but fatally alluring, and turning holy writ into a series of

riddles or quibbles. Such practices, according to our author, had already reached a fearful height in the third century; and the most eminent doctors of the fourth exerted all their strength to support the entire system of error.

Mr. Taylor does not merely assert; he PROVES this : so proves it, that we do not apprehend bis opponents will choose to meet the main argument. They will probably attack only secondary questions, such as his opinion that the merit attached to virginity rose out of Gnostic doctrine, imbibed unawares by the church, while in conflict with that heresy. According to him, ' Buddhism and Brahminism’ formed the two elements of that monkery which all the great saints of the fourth century lauded to the skies. Against this unpleasing thought the new Nicenists will perhaps exert their chief efforts. The Author has also 'made himself somewhat vulnerable to an uncandid adversary by a needless show of paradox in some of his statements, and by an apparent vacillation of opinion as to the real spiritual character of these ancient divines. We are bound also to say that some of his allusions to the Dissenting body are far from being in good taste. But in so concise a notice, the minor blemishes which strike us in the work disappear in comparison with its sterling merits We earnestly hope that it will attain the wide circulation to which its learning, its sobriety and tone of sound virtue, its general candor, its genuine religious spirit, and the high importance of its topic, entitle it; and we are gratified to learn that the first number is already out of print In our opinion that number is decidedly inferior to the two others; we hope that the purchasers of the first will lose no time in ordering the rest.

In concluding, we would remark, that the general argument might operate to drive into Romanism those who are so infatuated with their tradition as to hold it at any cost : and this gives great importance to that part of the investigation which traces home to Gnosticism, Platonism, Buddhism, Soofecism, (for all appear to possess the common element,) the ascetism of the ancient church. Indeed, this part of the subject deserves to be developed and enforced with the author's utmost power; for to trace historically the parentage of the error is the most forcible of confutations to the votaries of tradition.

The Evangelist. An Itinerant Ministry shown to be the Ministry of

the New Testament, and a Compulsory Itinerary proved to be t'rscriptural and fatal to the Religious Liberty of Ministers and Churches. Also Remarks upon a Trust- Deed, Proposed to the Wesleyan Association. In a Letter to a Friend. By OMICRON. 8vo. pp. 37. London : 1839,

The gist of this pamphlet, which the title we have just copied so fully describes, lies in its bearing on a deed poll, by which, it seems, with a sort of hereditary infatuation, that child of Methodism, the Wesleyan Association, is about to bind itself—we were going to say in swaddling, but we should rather say in funeral bands. The writer of it argues most justly, and we think unanswerably, against this crushing

of Christian liberty, and fettering of evangelical truth ; and we should be truly happy to see the men, who, for freedom's sake, have broken away from the fearful tyranny of one Conference, shunning, with enlightened and unconquerable hatred, the constitution of another. It is little to the credit either of their heads or their hearts, that it should be said of them, that their struggles against the domination of others have been intended only to enthrone themselves. The proceeds of Omicron's letter are appropriated to a Sabbath-school library.

Medical Notes and Reflections. By Henry Holland, M.D., F.R.S.

London : Longman and Co. 8vo. 1839.

Dr. Holland's book is exclusively devoted to the elucidation of medical subjects, and its special professional bearing precludes us from giving it more than a brief and cursory notice. Its claims to the attention of the medical profession are founded on its embodying the results of twenty years medical practice in London, and the reflections on the number of facts accumulated during this period. There is no surer niethod of testing the truth of theoretical views than a careful retrospect of materials thus collected-and a generalization of them—if executed in an impartial and philosophical spirit, will rarely fail to secure valuable results. "False experience is the prevailing corruption of medical science, and were Dr. Holland's example more frequently followed, of patiently registering facts, and suspending for a similar period the conclusions derived from them, we should rarely witness the promulgation of vague and immature opinions, which obstruct the progress of truth, impair testimony, and serve only to mislead. The author does not indulge in speculative inquiry, but treats practically a series of miscellaneous subjects. The absence of systematic arrangement and strict elementary knowledge, renders the work ill. adapted for the medical student; but the scientific medical practitioner will collect much that is useful from the several topics treated on, and will gather many valuable hints to guide him in some of the embarrassing and anomalous cases which he may encounter in private practice. The style is pure and elegant, and very free from the ambiguous expressions which afford so convenient a shelter for loose and undefined notions.

Choral Psalmody for the Church and the Family ; consisting of

Seventy-Eight Original Melodies; in Four Parts, with an Accompaniment for the Organ or Piano Forte ; written erpressly for the Peculiar Measures Contained in the Church and Home Psalmody,' of the Rev. T. J. Judkin. M.A. By I. Cobbin.

Mr. Judkin has laudably employed his poetical talents in furnishing his congregation with a ' Church and Home Psalmody' well adapted for all the purposes of worship, whether public or domestic ; nor has he been less attentive in providing appropriate melodies to his beautifully simple compositions. To Mr. Cobbin both the minister of Somers Chapel' and his large circle of friends are greaily indebted for

uniting the gratification of refined taste with the hallsvei in of derout feelings.

These melodies have the merit of amplest adaptation so te vie for which they were composed, while at the same time sies en rendered available for other words of the same measure, and see a similar character. As Mr. Judkin's work is chiefy ste to his own congregation, this is a consideration of compare to those who may wish to introduce the musie inte the puncte services or to adapt it to a psalmody of their ow.. The character of the compositions considering the narrow limits prescribed to their author, is highly creditable to his ingenuity and pover, su he has abundant resources in himself. While by far the gestz of the melodies may be used either in public worship ce in fata where sacre.) music is cultivated, a few of them must be considered a exclusively domestic. This, indeed, the author mentions in bis in

Throughout these varied productions Mr. Cobbin has rigidly adhered to the true choral style, to the exclusion of imitations and other rations of that majestic simplicity which ought preeminenti etaracterize public worship. On the whole, our opinion is that Mr. Cartbin has produced a work on the true principles of musical coupesinu and good taste. The Inquirt. October, 1839. Art. The Plymouth Brethren and the

Ecirctic Reriew. London : J. Dumas.

Want of space compels us to defer till next month an article size we had prepared in reply to the statements and reasonings of ti pærer. In the meantime we request our readers to possess themes er the Inquirer for October, that they may be fully competent toutes of the currectness of the strictures we shall submit to them appearance.

Literary Intervis

In the P Mr. Johnson is preparing for the pres

Collines. To be printed and illustr e British Zoophytes, to which this 1 Brement, and as completing his origin Ver made for publication, in two

ini yasions' Br the late Rev. Mirich vu bus Life and Character by the R ** How dars will be published, in 2 v

diri Island Queen. Fi Sherai « Dissent, or Dissent in its Be. * The laws Mal National Education, Pul time with Strictures on Dr. Brown's 1

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