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* says he, are wont to appear at Tombs and Sepulchres, and which are nothing but fading Spectres and airy Forms. And the learned Mr. Mede observes, from a Passage of this same ancient Father, † “ That the Heathens “supposed the Presence and Power of Demons (for so the Greeks called the Souls of Men “ departed) at their Coffins and Sepulchres; " as tho' there always remain’d some natural “ Tye between the Deceased and their Re“ licts.” Agreeable to this, Dr. Scot, & in his Discourse of the Christian Life, speaks of “ gross and sensual Souls, who appeared often, " after their Separation, in Church-Yards or Charnel-Houses, where their Bodies were laid, The || Soul that is infected with a greut Lust, to the Body, continues so, for a great while after Death, and suffering many Reluctances, hovers about this visible Place, and is hardly drawn from thence by Force ; by the Dæmon that hath the Guard and Care of it. By the visible Place, he means $ their Monuments " and Sepulchres, where the shadowy Fantasms, “ of such Souls, have sometimes appeared.

* Poos oun, &c. Admonit. ad Gent. P. 37. + Mede, Lib. 3. P. 633, de Cultu Dæmon. | Scot. Christ. Life, P. 71, Part 1. # Plat. Phæd. P. 348. § P. 386, ibid.

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. It having therefore been a current Opinion of the Heathens, that Places of Burial and Church-Yards were frequently haunted with Spectres and Apparitions, it is easy to imagine, that the Opinion had been handed from them, among the Ignorant and unlearned, through

out all the Ages of Christianity to the present : Day. And indeed, tho' now there may be

no such Things, yet that i here have been, need
not be disputed; not that they were the real
Souls of Men'departed : For I cannot see for
what Reason it should be supposed, “ (* how-
's ever unucquainted such Souls might be with
" the Pleasures of Spirits) that they are permit-
ted to wander, to hover about, and linger after
their Bodies.It seems rather to be true,
what is mentioned of such Apparitions in
St. Athanasius's Questions to Antiochius, that
of these Apparitions of the Saints which appear
at Tombs and Temples, are not the Souls of
the Saints themselves, but the good Angels
appearing in their Likeness. And I imagine
it must be so too, with the Souls of bad Men,
they appear not themselves, but they are re-
presented by the evil Angels. For the Soul
upon the Departure, returns to GOD that
* Scot. Christ. ibid. - † Athun. Tom. 2. P. 340.

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gave it, who allots it its Station in the World of Spirits, where it is kept till the Day of Judgment in Happiness or Misery, when it shall receive its Completion of the one, or the other. However, whatever these Apparitions were, they are a certain Proof, that such Appearances have been in such Places; and indeed, to add no more, it is the whole Voice of Antiquity..

But now with us, God be thanked, the Scene is changed, we live not in the Darkness of Errour, but in the Light of Truth; we worship not Damons, but the GOD of the whole Earth ; and our Temples are not the Temples of Idols, but the Temples of the Holy God. If among the Heathens such Delusions were permitted, it was because GOD had forsaken them : But when he vouchsafes to have his Residence in his Holy Temple, we are the further from Harm, the nearer we approach it; * There the Sparrow hath found her an House, and the Swallow a Nest, where she may lay her Young; and there shall no harm happen to good Men, but they shall be rather protected, because they are so near their Father's House, the House of Prayer,

* Psalm Ixxxiv.
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OBSER.

OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP, VII.

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We learn from Moresin*, that Church-yards were used for the Purposes of Interment, in order to remove Superstition.-Burial was in antient Times without the Walls of Cities and Towns. Lycurgus, 'he tells us, first introduced Grave-stones within the Walls, and as it were brought home the Ghosts to the very Doors.—Thus we compel horses that are apt to startle, to make the nearest possible Approaches to the Objects at which they have taken the Alarm.

Our Author is certainly very right, when he tells us that Church-yards are as little frequented by Apparitions and Ghosts as other Places, and that therefore it is a Weakness to be afraid of passing through them. Superstition however will always attend Ignorance"; and the Night, as she continues to be the Mother of Dews, will also

* Cemeteria hinc sunt. Lycurgus, omni superstitione sublata, et ut vanæ superstitionis omnem evelleret è mentibus suorum formidlnem, inhumari intra Urbem et sepulchra extrui circa Deorum Templa, &c. Deprav. Rel. Orig. in verbo. .

Mr. Strutt tells us, that before the Time of Christianity it was held unlawful to bury the Dead within the Cities, but they used to carry them out into the Fields hard by and there deposited them. Towards the End of the sixth Century, Augustine obtained of King Ethelbert, a Temple of Idols (where the King used to worship before his Conversion) and made a Burying-place of it; but St. Cuthbert afterwards obtained Leave to have Yards made to the Churches, proper for the Reception of the Dead.

Anglo-Saxon Æra, Vol. I. p. 69. * Now it is the Time of Night,

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never fail of being the fruitful Parent of chimerical Fears*

When the Sun sets, Shadows, that shew'd at Noon
But small, appear most long and terrible.

Dryden. The Inconveniences, complained of by our Author in the first part of this Chapter, we have had the Pleasure of seeing remedied. With great Decency and Propriety, the Church-yards here are now all inclosed : They are no longer the Receptacles of Filth, or Haunts of nightly Lewdness; and the Ashes of our Friends and Ancestors are suffered to remain (as he wished) " in greater " Quiet, and more undisturbed Peace.”

That the Graves all gaping wide,
Ev'ry one lets forth his Sprite,
In the Church-way Path to glide.

Shakespear.

CHAP.

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