Smith, and numbers proportionably great by the other manufac-
turers of cotton. The manufacture of calicoes, which was begun
in Lancashire in the year 1772, was now pretty generally esta-
blished in several parts of England and Scotland. The manufac-
ture of muslins in England was begun in the year 1781, and was
rapidly increasing. In 1783 there were above a thousand looms
set up in Glasgow for that most beneficial article, in which the skill
and labour of the mechanic raise the raw material to twenty times
the value it was of when imported.
“The rapid increase in the number of spinning engines, which
took place in consequence of the expiration of Arkwright's patent,
forms a new aera, not only in manufactures and commerce, but
also in the dress of both sexes. The common use of silk, if it
were only to be worn while it retains its lustre, is proper only for
ladies of ample fortune: and yet women of almost all ranks affected
to wear it; and many of the lower classes of the middle ranks of
society distressed their husbands, parents, and brothers to procure
that expensive finery. Neither was a handsome cotton gown attain-
able by women in humble circumstances; and thence the cottons
were mixed with linen yarn to reduce their price. But now cotton
yarn is cheaper than linen yarn; and cotton goods are very much
used in place of cambrics, lawns, and other expensive fabrics of
flax; and they have almost totally superseded the silks. Women
of all ranks, from the highest to the lowest, are clothed in British
manufactures of cotton, from the muslim cap on the crown of the
head, to the cotton stocking under the sole of the foot. The in-
genuity of the calico-printers has kept pace with the ingenuity of
the weavers and others concerned in the preceding stages of the
manufacture, and produced patterns of printed goods, which, for
elegance of drawing exceed every thing that was imported,
and for durability of colour, generally siand the washing so well,
as to appear fresh and new every time they are washed, and give
an air of neatness and cleanliness to the wearer beyond the elegance
of silk in the first freshness of its transitory lustre. But even the
most elegant prints are excelled by the superior beauty and virgin
- purity

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purity of the muslims, the growth and the manufacture of the

British dominions”.” From the expiration of Mr. Arkwright's patent, the spinning of yarn, and manufacture of cotton goods rapidly increased; mechamics were successfully employed to abridge labour, and no difficulty or competition presented itself of so formidable a nature as to defeat the genius and industry of those who were engaged in the trade. However favourable these gigantic strides towards unrivelled distinction may be regarded in a commercial point of view, (the establishment of extended factories, requiring the congregated numbers of men, women, and children, for the purpose of attending to the multiplied and curious processes that it was found necessary for the cotton to pass through preparatory to spinning), has certainly operated to the injury of public morals, a circumstance which the friends of humanity cannot but deplore. The cotton, as it is received in its original packages, is committed to women, or girls, who beat it with slender rods, by which the fibres are expanded, and the seeds and husks are loosened, and more distinctly seen; these are carefully picked out, and the cotton is then taken to a machine, by which it is carded. This machine consists of two or more cylinders, moving with great velocity in opposite directions. By this machine the cotton is so disposed as to be taken off in a small substance, much resembling a spider's web. This is conveyed into a can, (by a pair of rollers, fixed to the machine); in a perpetual or endless carding, after which several of these cardings are united, and frequently passed between iron rollers, by which the fibres become better arranged, and the bulk considerably reduced. Another, and similar operation called roaving, succeeds with this difference, that after the cotton has passed through these rollers, it falls into a can, open at the top, which moves upon a centre with considerable velocity, and by which the cotton becomes a soft thread, and capable of further extension, according to the fineness of the yarn required. This process

* Macpherson's Annals of Commerce, Vol. IV.

process is succeeded by another called stretching, or roaving, upon
a machine very similar to the mule, and which is the last of the
preparatory processes. The mule upon which these roavings are
spun is a curious machine, and like the Jenny when first invented,
carried from 80 to 100 spindles; these have been successively in-
creased, until the prevailing size now is 300 spindles. Power
having also been found applicable to give motion to these machines,
two of them are managed by one man, and three or four children,
whose employment it is to lay the thread, when made, upon the
spindles, and to piece up those that may break. By this arrange-
ment, and the successful application of mechanics to this branch
of business, what would, thirty years since, have required six hun-
dred women or girls to have performed, can now be done by one
man and four children :
Of the Lancashire spinners it may not be improper to mention
here, that more than 400 hanks, weighing two pounds, have been
drawn from four pounds of raw East India cotton, each hank
measuring 840 yards, and reaching upwards of 180 miles, or nearly

as far as from London to Manchester. The following calculation.

will shew the value of this business to the country at large, and how necessary it is to give it their encouragement and support. The number of printers is calculated at about * 7000; and each of these employ in their works three persons, making the whole 21,000. Each printer will employ nine weavers to make the cloth he prints: now, supposing the printer to print three pieces per day, and the weaver to weave two pieces per week, the number

will be 63,000. These 63,000 weavers will employ 25,000 per

sons in making the yarns ready for the loom. According to this calculation it appears that there are 109,000 persons dependent on these 7000 printers, so that cvery printer set to work will employ nearly sixteen persons in all the different branches of the cotton business, notwithstanding the great improvements in ma


* This calculation from the number of persons who signed the petition to parliament.

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chinery of every description which has taken place. The present duty on printed calicoes is about six shillings and three-pence per piece, taking an average of the cloths, so that, supposing one printer to print three pieces per day, the revenue arising from that one printer will be 2921. 10s. per annum, and supposing the 7000 printers to be employed, will produce 2,047,500l. per annum".

The vast increase in the trade of this town has occasioned the erection of many new structures. Among these the MANCHESTERComMERCIAL-BUILDING is most entitled to notice. The foundation of this was laid the 20th July, 1806, and since that period the structure has been rapidly advancing. It is to be built entirely of Runcorn-stone, and is from the designs, &c. of Mr. Harrison, of Chester. The principal object of its erection is to furnish a place of public resort for the merchants and manusacturers of the place and neighbourhood, on the plan of Lloyd's Coffee-House, in London, and every article of political and commercial intelligence is to be procured for their perusal. The fund for defraying the expenditure (which is estimated at no less than 20,000l.) has been raised by the sale of shares of 50l. each. According to the population report, printed in 1801, the town of Manchester + is divided into twenty-eight districts, which, with the united township of Salford, contained 12,826 houses, and 84,020 inhabitants, 44,590 of whom were employed in trades and manufactures.

Though the town of Manchester is not distinguished for its literary, or other eminent natives, yet the names of Byrom and Falkner may be properly ranked with what Fuller calls the worthies of the place.

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* For some other details relating to the cotton manufacture, machinery, &c. see Vol. II. of this work.

# To such persons as are desirous of more copious information relating to this town, I can confidently recommend the “Manchester Guide,” published in 1804, as a judicious topographical manual.

John By Rom, A. M. and F. R. S. a native of Kersall, near Manchester, was the youngest son of Mr. Edward Byrom, of this town. After receiving a grammatical education in the country, he was sent to Merchant Taylor's school, in London, where he distinguished himself by his classical acquirements; and in 1708, in his seventeenth year, he was admitted a pensioner of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1714 he was elected a fellow of his College, soon after which he wrote his first paper in the Spectator, and afterwards his admired pastoral of Colin to Phoebe. He then practised short hand, with some success, at Manchester; and on coming to London, soon acquired, by successful exertions, a comfortable competency. The celebrated Earl of Chesterfield was his pupil. In 1723 he was admitted into the Royal Society; and in No. 488 of the Philosophical Transactions, is his paper on the Elements of Short Hand. He published Miscellaneous Poems, in 2 vols. 8vo.; but those on Enthusiasm and the Immortality of the Soul, are considered as excelling in merit. He died in September, 1763, having supported, through life, a character of integrity and virtue.

THoMAs FALKNER, the son of an eminent apothecary of Manchester, was originally brought up to his father's profession. At the age of twenty he removed to London, for the sake of learning the practice of the hospitals, but soon afterwards engaged as surgeon in a vessel which was bound to the coast of Africa. His health having been severely impaired during the voyage, when the ship arrived at Buenos Ayres, he went on shore to recover it. He there received so many acts of kindness from the Jesuits, as induced him to become a member of their college; whence he was soon sent out as a missionary to visit the extreme parts of the South-American continent, where he remained six years. On his return, he was appointed physician to the college, and continued until the suppression of the order in 1767, when their property was confiscated, and he and his colleagues were sent prisoners to Cadiz. He there lingered some months in a dungeon, but at

length procured his release, through the English ambassador, and

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