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nomination of Tripontium. The circular tumulus, called by dif: ferent writers the Praetorium Augurale, or Augustale, is sixty feet in height, having its base formed by a rampart or vallum, washed on the north side by the river Avon. This elevated spot, which commands a view of the whole encampment, was allotted to the general, the superior officers, and young men of rank who served as volunteers. On the eastern side of the Praetorium, and adjoining to it, is the upper camp, the north side of which is in like manner washed by the Avon. The northern side of the Praeto
rium, with that of the upper camp, form one line, two hundred and seventy-six feet in length. The inner vallum, or agger of the middle camp, is only twenty-eight feet in height, being defended by the river *.” South of this encampment is another of larger dimensions, which is separated from the former by a foss. Its southernmost outer vallum is about two hundred and fifty-eight feet in length, and the height of the inner vallum is fifty-seven
Sw1NFORD, a village and parish adjoining that of Cat-thorpe, was originally a preceptory of the Knights Templars; and within the church was a chantry, founded by Nicholas Cowley, for one Priest to sing mass, &c. The gift of this chantry was in the king, in right of the late monastery of Leicester. The church here has a semicircular east end, which being without windows, renders the altar very dark and gloomy. In the church is a large circular font, standing on four short columns, and ornamented with a series of arches running all round.
In the parish of Stanford is STANFORD-HALL, the seat of the Cave family, some of whom resided here for many generations; but the chief property in this place was purchased after the dissohution, by Thomas Cave, Esq. At that period the manor, recG g 3 - tory,
* Picturesque Views on the Upper, or Warwickshire Avon, p. 32, &c.
t As the principal part of this station is within Northamptonshire, I shall probably be induced to give some further account of it when describing that county.
tory, and advowson, of the vicarage of Stanford, with all the messuages, lands, and tenements, in Stanford upon Avon, Downe, Stormesworth, and Boresworth, part of the possessions of Selby Abbey, were first transferred to this family, the principal branch of which had previously resided at Cave, in Yorkshire. Sir Thomas Cave, who died in 1778, was an active, liberal, and learned public character. He completed the family mansion at Stanford, and stored its library with a large and well-selected collection of books. Being partial to topographical literature, he contributed very materially towards the publication of Bridges's History of Northamptonshire, which was above fifty years in the press. He also made ample collections for the history of his own county; and though he did not live long enough to arrange these for publication, the proprietor of them has very liberally submitted the whole to the use and benefit of the present indefatigable historian of the county. Stanford Hall is now the property and residence of Henry Otway, Esq. in right of his wife, only sister to the last Sir Thomas Cave, and is a large convenient family mansion, seated in a fine park. In front of the house the river Avon is forced beyond its original banks, and constitutes a pleasant feature in the landscape. The whole of the village is within the county of Northampton; and in the church are some monumental memorials, with inscriptions to different persons of the Cave family.
CLAYBRook is a large parish, comprehending an area of about four miles in length, by nearly two miles and a half in
breadth; and contains, according to estimation, 4000 acres of .
land. The parish is divided into two villages; the one indiscriminately called Great-Claybrook, Nether-Claybrook, or LowerClaybrook: the other Little-Claybrook, Over-Claybrook, or Upper-Claybrook. The church stands in the latter, which is situated on the great turnpike-road between Lutterworth and Hinckley. Though the two Claybrooks have separate poor-rates and overseers, yet they are subject to the jurisdiction of one constable; and the land-tax in both lordships is collected by the same assesSOIS,
sors. About two miles westward of Over-Claybrook is a place, now called High-Cross, but which, according to some antiquaries, was the Benonae, or Vennones, of the Romans. Dr. Stukeley describes this station as situated at the intersection of the two great Roman roads, “which traverse the kingdom obliquely, and seem to be the centre, as well as the highest ground in England; for from hence rivers run every way. The Foss-road went on the backside of an inn standing here, and so towards Bath. The ground hereabout is very rich, and much ebulus (an herb much sought after for the cure of dropsies,) grows here. Claybrook Hane has a piece of a quickset hedge left across it, betokening one side of the Foss; which road, in this place, bears exactly N. E. and S.W. as it does upon the moor on this side of Lincoln. In the garden before the inn abovementioned, a tumulus was removed about the year 1720, under which the body of a man was found upon the plain surface; as likewise hath been under several others hereabouts: and foundations of buildings have been frequently dug up along the street here, all the way to Cleycestre, through which
went the great street-way, called Watling-street; for on both
sides of the way have been ploughed and dug up many ancient. coins, great square stones and bricks, and other rubbish of that ancient Roman building; not far from a beacon, standing upon the way now called High-Cross, of a cross which stood there some time, upon the meeting of another great way”.” A short distance west of High-Cross is a tumulus, called Cloudsley-bush; about which Dugdale offers some conjectures, but nothing explanatory has been published. The preceding observations of Dr. Stukeley, and what has been advanced by other writers, do not satisfactorily prove the existence of any considerable Roman station at this place; and therefore if the Wenonae of Antoninus was here, it must have been merely a small temporary station, or guard camp, on the roads. The situation is high, and the surrounding country low and flat. It is said that fifty-seven churches may be seen from this spot, by the help of a glass. G g 4 At At the intersection of the roads is the pedestal, &c. of a Cross, which was erected here in 1712, and on which are two Latin inscriptions. The following judicious remarks on the customs, manners, and dialect, of the common people of this district, by Mr. Macaulay, who published a History of Claybrook, may be amusing to many readers. The people here are much attached to Wakes; and, among the farmers and cottagers, these annual festivals are celebrated with music, dancing, feasting, and much inoffensive sport; but in the manufacturing villages “the return of the wake never fails to produce a week, at least, of idleness, intoxication, and riot: these, and other abuses, by which those festivals are so grossly perverted from the original end of their institution, render it highly desirable to all the friends of order, of decency, and of religion, that they were totally suppressed.” On Plow-Monday is annually displayed a set of Morris Dancers; and the custom of ringing the Curfew is still continued here. On Shrove-Tuesday a bell rings at noon, as a signal for people to begin frying their pancakes. The dialect of the common people is broad, and partakes of the Anglo Saxon sounds and terms. “The letter H comes in almost on every occasion. where it ought not, and is as frequently omitted where it ought to come in. The words fine, mine, and such like, are pronounced as if spelt foine, moine; and place, face, with other similar words, as if spelt pleace, feace; and in the plural sometimes you hear pleacen; closen for closes; and many other words in the same style of Saxon termination. The words there and where, are generally pronounced theere and wheere; the words mercy, deserve, &c. thus, marcy, desarve. The following peculiarities are also observable: uz, strongly aspirated for us; war for was, meed for maid, faither for father, e'ery for every, brig for bridge, . thurrough for furrow, hauf for half, cart-rit for rut, malefactory for manufactory, inactions for anaious. The words mysen and himsen are sometimes used instead of myself and himself; the word shack is used to denote an idle, worthless vagabond; and . the word ripe for one who is very profane. The following phrases - Arg
* Itinerarium Curiosum. edition 1724, p. 104.
are common, “a power of people;”—“a hantle of money;”—“I don't know I'm sure;”—“I can't awhile as yet as.” The words like and such frequently occur as expletives in conversation: for example, “If you don't give me my price like, I won't stay here hagling all day and such.” The monosyllable as is generally substituted for that ; for instance, “the last time as I called.”—“I reckon as I an’t one.”—I imagine that I am not singular. It is common to stigmatize public characters by saying that they “set poor lights;” and to express surprise by saying, “dear heart alive!” The substantive right generally usurps the place of ought: for instance, “Farmer A. has a right to pay his tax.”— “The assessor has a just right to give him a receipt.”—“Next ways,” and “clever through,” are in common use: Thus, “I shall go next ways clever through Ullesthorpe.” Nigh-hand for probably, as, “He’ll nigh-hand call on us.” Duable, convenient or proper: thus, “the church is not served at duable hours.” It is not uncommon for the wives of farmers to style their husbands Our Master, and for the husbands to call their wives Mamy; and a labourer will often distinguish his wife by calling her the O'man. There are many people now living, who well remember the time when “Goody” and “Dame”—“Gaffer” and “Gammer,” were in vogue among the peasantry of Leicestershire; but they are now almost universally discarded, and supplanted by Mr. and Mrs. which are indiscriminately applied to all ranks, from the squire and his lady down to Mr. and Mrs. Pauper, who flaunt in rags, and drink tea twice a day”.”
A Sunday-School was instituted in the parish of Claybrook in 1786, and is liberally supported by the contributions of the parishioners. - *
At KNAPToft, near Shearsby, and at the distance of ten miles south of Leicester, the church is in ruins, and traces of an ancient encampment are still visible.” Here are also some remains of an old mansion-house, at one angle of which was a circular embattled
... --> tower. “” History and Antiquities of Claybrook.”