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merly stood some very old houses, which were then used as
the Judge's lodgings. The principal fragments, and relics discover
ed, consisted of burnt wood, Roman bricks, broken paterae, urns, coins, horns of animals, bones, and ashes; also two fragments of strong walls, about fifteen feet asunder, with large blocks of stone between them. Similar articles to those just mentioned, with the addition of a human skull, and an earthen sepulchral lamp, were found inclosed by the walls. The cemetery here alluded to appears to have extended under Church-street; as on the opposite side discoveries of the same description have been made. The only perfect inscriptions on the coins, were confined to one of brass of Marcus Aurelius; and a second small one of silver, in excellent preservation, of Faustina his wife; on the obverse Diva Faustina Pia, and on the reverse a monument and Consecratio. About 300 feet eastward of the Judge's lodgings, several large hewn stones were afterwards found, one of which was supposed to weigh at least three tons. This was only six feet beneath the surface, and under it were discovered many coins of Domitian, Vespasian, &c. It was thought to have been the corner stone of a temple, or of some other public building". In the year 1796 another Roman relic was discovered on clearing away some earth for improving and enlarging the castle. This was a small votive-Altar, and was deposited at about six feet from the surface, “between Adrian's + round Tower, and the great square one of Saxon architecture.” From the discovery of this inscribed fragment, Mr. Lee is induced to identify this station with the Longovicum of Antoninus, where “the imperial lieutenant of Britain kept a company of the Longovici in garrison.” Mr. Lee has made out the inscription as follows: DEO-SANCTO-MARTI-COCIDIO WIBINIWS LWCIS. BI-CS. W. : S. L. M. From these evidences, it cannot be doubted that Lancaster was, during - * Archaeologia, Vol. V, p. 98, 101, &c. - - “so called, and the lower part of it is evidently of Roman workmanship."—Extract of a letter from the Reverend Francis Lee, M. A. Archæologia, Vol. XIII. p. 401. * .
during the Roman colonization of Britain, a military station, or garrison; but whether it bore the appellation of Ad-Alaunam, or Longovicum, or both these names, at different periods, is not easily determinable *. Not only during the Roman, but also under the Anglo-Saxon dynasty, Lancaster was certainly a fortress of considerable consequence, for it appears to have been the grand barrier and obstacle to the northern Picts, or Scots, who having eluded or conquered the intermediate garrisons between their southern boundaries and this place, generally encountered a stubborn resistance and repulse heret. This greatly exasperated the marauding borderers, who, immediately after the Romans left the Island, attacked the town, and levelled its fortifications. Soon after the arrival of the Saxons, and the establishment of the Northumbrian kingdom, the commanding site of this ruined town attracted the new settlers, who appear to have restored some of the dwellings, and reeddified parts of the castle. The superiority of this, to any other town in the district, is manifested, in the event of its being
D 4 constituted
*To identify the names of Roman stations, to reconcile the jarring opinions of different antiquaries, and adjust the apparently opposite statements of the Roman-Iters, have proved great obstacles to many of our modern topographers. One perplexing difficulty, I am inclined to think, has arisen from the practice of some writers, who endeavour to find a different station for every name they perceive in the different writings relating to Roman Britain. Much of this difficulty will be removed by admitting that one town, as Lancaster, had two different names at different periods: or from some remarkable cir. cumstance, had a second denotative appellation affixed to it. This is pretty evident with respect to Camalodunum-Colonia: Colchesterin Essex; and if we admit Lancaster first to have had the name of Ad-Alaumam, or the town on the Laun, Lune, or Loyne: it might afterwards have acquired the adjunct Lon-go. vicum, in consequence of being garrisoned by a company of the Longovici. .
f According to the ancient feudal tenures, “ Roger de Hesam holds two carucates of land by the service of sounding his horn, when the king enters or leaves the county of Lancaster. Lands were given to various settlers in these parts, to hold by the service of blowing such horns, and being bound to go at the king's command, with his army, into Scotland; in which they were to be stationed in the can-guard, and in the rere-ward returning.”—Camd. Brit, Tit. Picts Wall. Beckwith's Fragmenta Antiquitatis, p. 71,
constituted the chief and designating town of the county. This marked event is referred, by Mr. Whitaker, to the “Seventh century,” at which period he observes, that the “Roman Alauna received the honor which it retains at present, and was made the metropolis of the shire *.” Of its annals during the Saxon Heptarchy, we have no records; but soon after the Norman conquest the town again assumes some historical consequence; though by the decisive evidence of the Domesday-book, Lon-caster, and Cherca-Longcastre, appear simply as two vills, or Berwics, among the twenty-two which composed the manor of Halton. It must be observed, that the Terra inter Ripam et Mersam was surveyed by itself, and Amounderness, together with that part of Lonsdale Hundred east of the estuary of Ken and Leven, in Yorkshire. Roger of Poitou was, at the time of the Domesday survey, possessed of Amounderness; but Halton, with its appurtenances, was still in possession of the crown. It must also be observed that there was at this time no church at Lancaster; yet from the name Chercalancaster affixed to one of the villages, it seems probable that here, as in many other instances, had been a Saxon church, which was probably destroyed in the ravages of the Danes. Amounderness, however, an unmarked and level tract of country, afforded no convenient site for a great baronial castle. Lancaster therefore, on account of its bold and elevated situation, was probably obtained from the Conqueror in the end of his reign, or from William Rufus soon after his accession, by Roger de Poitou, for this purpose. For, as early as the year 1094, we find this person granting the church of St. Mary in this place, then newly founded by him, to the Abbey of Sees, in Normandy, to which it continued a cell until the alien Priories were seized by Henry the Fifth, when it was granted once more to the Carthusian Abbey of Sion, in Middlesex, to which it continued to be a cell till the general dissolution of monasteries. The foundation of the Church and Castle were probably contemporary with each other. The great Tower of the latter, still standing, displays the strong massive
* Hist, Man. Vol.II, p. 122.
style of architecture of that period. Its walls are extremely thick, and the buttresses have narrow projections, whilst the lower windows have short round-headed arches, with single shaft columns on their sides. Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, besieged and took this Castle in 1199: at which period it was possessed by the brother of King John, in trust for that monarch when he came to the crown. In the seventh year of the reign of the same king, the Castle and honors appear to have been in the poseession of Ranulph Blundevil, Earl of Chester; and in the first and eighth years of Henry the Third, the same were held in charge by Wil
liam de Ferras, Earl of Derby. As the modern town of Lancaster appears to have grown up with the CASTLE, it will be necessary to inquire into the history, and to endeavour to define some of the characteristics of this august and important structure. Parts of its foundations have been attributed to the Romans, and the large square keep has been commonly ascribed to the Saxons; whilst the grand entrance towergateway, with some other portions, are generally referred to the reign of Edward the Third. Though, as a military station, Lancaster was always a place of some importance, yet it owes its chief celebrity to the last monarch, and to his third son John of Gaunt, who was created by his father, Duke of Lancaster. The era of this creation appears to have been marked with several distinguished events. “The completion of the fiftieth year of his age," (Edward the Third, A. D. 1362,) “he resolved to treat as an era of Jubilee; and on the thirteenth of November, which was the anniversary of his birth, beside other proceedings, by which he wished to stamp it as memorable, such as the enlargement of all debtors and prisoners, the restoration of such of his subjects as were in a state of banishment, and the abolition, by public ordinance, of the French language in all law-cases, pleadings, judgments, and contracts, within the realm; he also solemnly conferred, in full parliament, upon his second son Lionel of Antwerp, the title of Duke of Clarence, and upon his third son John of Gaunt,” as already observed, “the title of Duke of Lancaster,
ter. The style of John of Gaunt was now Duke of Lancaster, and Farl of Richmond, Leicester, Lincoln, and Derby *: and he claimed as Earl of Leicester, the office of hereditary seneschal, or Steward of England; as Duke of Lancaster, to bear the great sword called Curtana, before the kings of Fngland at their coronation; and as Earl of Lincoln, to be grand carver at the dinner given on that occasion f.” The Duke being now invested with this title, his royal parent next conferred on him certain grants and privileges to support his dignity; and by the charter given below, it appears that the Duchy of Lancaster constituted an important establishment, and was a sort of petty kingdom f. It is presumed
* Sandford, Book I. Ch. IV. * Godwin’s “Life of Chaucer," 8vo. Vol. II. p. 225, where the author refers to “Cotton, Abridgment of Records ad ann.” # The following charter, extracted from an old M.S. book in the Prothonotary's office at Preston, shows the important privileges of the Duchy, and marks the military character of the times. “Edward, by the grace of God, &c., Know ye, That Whereas we weighing with due consideration the great exploits of all those who have laudably and courageously served us in our wars, are desirous of exalting them by honors’ so more especially it behoveth us to bestow greater honors and favors upon our own sons, who are so eminently conspicuous for their wisdom and noble actions, and who are so nearly connected with us by ties of blood. Considering therefore the unshaken fidelity, and excellent wisdom of our dear son, John, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, who, by his labours and exertions, and many times when necessity required it, by bravely exposing himself to the dangers of war, bath proved himself always devoted to our service; and wishing on that account, and desiring to reward our said son with some sort of advantage and honor for the present, (though not to the fill as his merits justly require,) of our certain knowledge, and with heartfelt joy, do, with the assent of the Lords spiritual and temporal, in our present Parliament at Westminster being assembled, grant for ourself and our heirs unto our said son John, That he shall have for the term of his life his Chancery and Writs under his Seal for deputing to the office of Chancellor, for appointing his Justices, as well to hold Pleas of the Crown, as other Pleas whatsoever touching the Common Law, and to pass Judgments in the same, and to issue Executions of what sort soever by their writs and officers: and other liberties and Royal Rights (jura Regalia,) whatsoever to a County Palatine appertain