« 前へ次へ »
ing views both pleasing and surprising; comprehending what is at “once grand, elegant, rural, and marine. On the eastern side, you have a fine estuary, spotted with rocks, isles, and peninsulas, a variety of shore, deeply indented in some places, in others coinposed of noble arched rocks, craggy, broken, and fringed with wood; over these, hanging woods, intermixed with cultivated inclosures, covered with a back ground of stupendous mountains. As a contrast to this view, from the other end of the gravel walk (between two culminating hills, covered with tall wood), is seen in fine perspective, a rich cultivated dale, divided by hedge-row trees; beyond these, hanging grounds cut into inclosures, with scattered farms, and above them all, a long range of waving pasture ground and sheep walks, shining in variety of vegetation.”
About half a mile from Ulverston is Sw ARTMooR-HALL, an ancient mansion, which has been the residence and property of two singular characters, and is intimately connected with the establishment of Quakerism. Towards the end of the seventeenth century it belonged to Thomas Fell, who was a barrister at law of Gray’s-Inn, afterwards justice of the quorum in this county, a member in several parliaments, vice chancellor of the duchycourt, and one of the judges for the circuit of north Wales, &c. “In after times, the melancholy spirit of George For, the founder of quakerism, took possession of Swartmoor-Hall, first captivating the heart of a widow, the relict of Judge Fell, the then inhabitant, moving her congenial soul to resign herself to him in the bonds of matrimony. From thence he sallied forth, and, I trust, unintentionally, gave rise to a crowd of spiritual Quirotes, (disowned indeed by his admirers, as his genuine followers), who, for a time, disturbed mankind with all the extravagancies that enthusiasm could invent".” It may be necessary to detail a few other particulars relating to Mrs. Fell and Mr. Fox: for the spirit of Quakerism appears to have acquired an establishment here, and from this place gradually to have expanded itself over the whole of England;
* Pennant's Tour in Scotland, Vol. II. p. 32.
land; also into Ireland, Scotland, America, &c. The above named George Fox, who is admitted to be the founder of this sect, having seceded from the protestant church, left his natal soil”, and first attracted public notice at Derby, in 1650. Here he was imprisoned for profanely addressing the congregation after divine service; and during his examination before the magistrate, he commanded the company to tremble at the voice of the Lord; whence both himself and his followers were jeeringly called Quakers. Having regained his liberty he proceeded northward, and zealously proclaimed his mission, doctrines, and tenets. These being novel and singular, were adopted by some persons, and scouted by others. After encountering many obstacles, he reached the district of Furness; and during the absence of Judge Fell, prevailed on his wife and family to embrace his opinions. This was in the year 1652. The Judge, on his return home, manifested some displeasure towards the new preacher, and opposition to his principles; but the latter persevered, and at length converted the Judge also. George now secured himself within the home, and influence of Mr. Fell, who established a weekly meeting in his house; and accompanied the preacher in some of his spiritual excursions. “At Gleaston, Dendron, and Hampside, he was well received; at Ulverston, Cocken, and Northscale in the Isle of Walney, he not only met with opposition, but abuse, to the imminent danger of his life. Judge Fell, after being convinced of the rectitude of his principles, was ever a steadfast friend; but death terminated his suffrage in September, 1658+.” Eleven years after this event, George married the Judge's widow, who survived her second husband about eleven years, and died at Swartmoor-Hall, in 1702, in the 88th year of her age. Swart, or Swartz-moor, appears to have obtained its name from one Martin Swartz, who, with an army of Germans, encamped here in the year 1487, in order to collect forces in these parts, before * He was born in Leicestershire; and some memoirs of him will be given in
the course of describing that county. * The Antiquities of Furness, edited by W. Close, 8vo. 1805, p. 402.
fore his attempt to wrest the crown from Henry the Seventh. He was supported by Sir Thomas Broughton, a gentleman of this neighbourhood, who escaping afterwards from the battle of Stoke, 'like Owen Glendowr, lived many years (when he was supposed to have been slain) in great obscurity, supported by his faithful tenants in Westmoreland. About three miles south-west of Ulverston are the exhausted WhitRIGG IRoN MINEs, which formerly, and at a very remote period, produced large quantities of ore. Others, equally productive, have been opened on LINDALE-MooR. The Iron Mines of this district were called, by Mr. West, the Peru of Furness, as they formerly constituted a valuable property: but from the increased expence attending the conveyance of fuel, they are now depreciated in value. The woods of High-Furness formerly supplied the furnaces with charcoal, for smelting the ore; but this fuel has been sometimes obtained from the Hebrides. From the appearance of the ground here, it is evident that the Iron-works are very ancient, and by a grant of William of Lancaster, Lord of Kendal, to the priory of Conishead, he conveys the mine of Plumpton “libero introitu et eritu ad duos, equos cum hominibus,
minem cariandam, &c.”.”
Is a small market town, pleasantly situated in the midst of a tract of country scarcely to be equalled for fertility and cultivation. Its name was probably given by the Saxons, from its situation being near several dells or vallies; but obtained its chief support and historical consequence from its vicinity to, and connection with Furness-Abbey. King Stephen contributed greatly to the importance of this town, which, by the privilege granted to the abbot, became the capital of Furness, and held that rank till the dissolution of the monastery; after which, its consequence diminished, and Ulverston, being a more favourable situation for trade,
Vol. IX. F gradually
* Dugdale, Vol. II. p. 425.
gradually attained a superior state of commercial pre-eminence. Dalton consists of one principal street, which ascending to the west, terminates in a spacious market place. The appearance of the town is of late much improved; as some of the oki houses have been rebuilt and covered with slate. Being situated on an enlinence of limestone, much inconvenience is experienced in obtaining soft water, which is brought by hand from a small brook in the adjoining valley. A charter for a weekly market on Saturdays, and an annual fair, was granted by Edward the Third. The market is seldom held for grain, except when it is at a very advanced price. Wheat and oats are generally sent to Ulverston, or other markets; and barley is never sold in public, but carried to the maltsters: malt-making is the only trade carried on here to any great extent. The ancient fair is held October 23d; another en June 6th; and a third, established in 1803, on April 28th, for cattle, and for hiring servants. On the west side of the town is a rocky eminence, crowned with a square tower of an ancient CASTLE, which was probably built by the abbots of Furness, to guard the northern approach to the Abbey. In this fortress, the chief of that religious house held his secular court, and secured his prisoners. At present, the building contains three floors, and is appropriated to the courts-leet, and baron of the Duke of Buccleugh and Lord Beaulieu, who are the chief lords of the liberty and manor of Furness. The CHURCH is a small meat building, and contains an organ, the expence of which was defrayed by voluntary contribution. The parish of Dalton is divided into four portions, or townships, and the customary tenements in each are of equal size, pay the same yearly rent to the lords, cannot be divided by the proprietor, and are not deviseable by will. Every tenant used formerly to furmish the abbot with a man and a horse for the service of the king, Dalton has been noted for its annual hunts; and here are some large rooms, which were built by gentlemen who resorted to this place, from different parts of the country, to enjoy the sports of the chace. This jubilee was formerly denominated the Daltonroute,
route, as appears from an advertisement in the London Gazette for