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sea has ravaged great part of it, and threatens to waste it entirely.”
This island has been, at different times, nearly inundated by the
swelling tides; “yet,” says Mr. West, “the inhabitants seem almost
insensible of any danger, or loss. As a spur, however, to their
industry, every tenant is charged with the lords rent for the whole
island; so that if all, except one tenement, should be swallowed
up by the sea, that one tenement must discharge the whole of the
said rent.” The island is about ten miles in length, by one in
breadth, and has the appearance of a bank, or wall in the sea:
hence it was called by the Saxons Waghney, Woney, and Walney.
It contains two hamlets, called Bigger, and North-Scale; and
has a chapel of ease under Dalton. At the southern extremity of
the island is a light-house, which was erected in 1790, with stone
obtained from a quarry at Overton, near Lancaster. It is about
sixty-eight feet high; and its lamps and reflectors are made to re-
volve on a vertical axle by a piece of clock-work. Nearly oppo-
site to this is another small island called the PILE OF FOULDREY,
on which are the mouldering remains of an ancient Castle. Ac-
cording to Camden, this was built by an Abbot of Furness, in the
first year of the reign of Edward the Third, and was probably in-
tended to guard the coast in the neighbourhood of the Abbey;
also to serve for a place of retreat, in case an enemy should drive
the monks from their sacred monastery. This castle was formerly
extensive, and strong, and consisted of several towers, with in-
termediate walls, which inclosed two court-yards. Near the
southern end of the inner court, was the main-tower, or keep, a
strong edifice; and in the outer ballia was a small chapel.
At North-scale are several Wells of fresh water, which are af.
fected by the flux and influx of the tides; and the waters rise and
fall with the fluctuating ocean. “The deepest wells begin to gain
water about half flood; but those which perforate the higher part
of the stratum are then empty, and do not receive their supply
until about the time of high-water, and during the first part of the
ebb-tide; for the fresh water will continue to accumulate until it
attains the level of the salt water in the channel. These wells are
situated close by the side of Walney channel, and are sunk into

3 e a bed tities.


a bed of sand before any water can be procured: hence it is reasonable to suppose, that the salt water is deprived of its saline

particles by percolating through this arenaceous stratum".”


Is a small town, situated on the western borders of Furness, at the distance of about one mile from the estuary of the Duddon. The town is raised on the southern slope of a hill, and its houses, which are all built of stone, and tiled with slate, are disposed nearly in a regular square. This place has been greatly improved within a few years; and has a weekly market, and one fair annually; which are chiefly appropriated to the sale of woollen yarn, spun by the country people, sheep, short-wool, and blackcattle. The surrounding country is mountainous, and abounds in iron-ore, copper, slate, &c. On the north side of the town is an ancient tower, standing on the summit of a hill.

CoNISToN-LAKE, or THURSTON-WATER, occupies an area of about seven miles in length from north to south, by three

quarters in its greatest breadth from east to west. The shores of

this lake are indented by several small bays, and its surrounding scenery consists of coppice-woods, small farms, and patches of rocky common rising from the shore, above which the mountains ascend to considerable eminence. At the north western end of the lake is the village of Coniston, behind which rise the romantic mountains called Coniston-fells. Mr. West recommends the traveller to view this lake first at its southern end, and by advancing northward, the surrounding scenery, with the most interesting features of the water and country, progressively display themselves. Mrs. Radcliffe calls it “the most charming lake” that she had seen during her tour. The greatest depth of the water is said to be forty fathoms; and among the fish, the char is most esteemed for its flavour. The fells of Coniston have produced great quan

* Close, in West's Antiquities of Furness, 8vo, p. 379.


tities of copper ore; and very large slate quarries are now opened

in these mountains. CoN1ston-HALL is an old mansion, almost covered with ivy,

and seated near the western edge of the lake.


Is a small market town, situated in a vale near the lake of Estwaite, at the northern extremity of this county, where it projects between those of Westmoreland and Cumberland. It is sheltered from the bleak winds by the over-hanging fells of Coniston. Being the principal town of Furness-Fells, Hawkshead is the centre where all the business is transacted, and the produce disposed of; and though it has no staple manufacture or trade, yet, from the concurrence of local circumstances, it has a considerable market, held on Monday, by a charter granted by James the First, who, by the same grant, established four annual fairs. The Church, which was formerly a chapel under Dalton, was made parochial towards the close of the sixteenth century, by Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York, who was a native of this place: he also founded a free grammar school here, and endowed it with a revenue of 3ol. per annum, which is now increased to upwards of 100l. One hundred boys are educated in this school, which is held in high estimation. A meat Town-house was lately built by subscription, towards which several merchants of London, who had received their education in this school, were the chief contributors. At GallowBarrow, an adjoining village, is a charity-house, endowed in 1717, by the will of the Reverend Thomas Sandys, curate of St. Martinin-the-Fields, London, for the maintenance of poor boys born in this town, who are to be educated in the free-school. Hawkshead, in 1801, contained 160 houses, and 634 inhabitants. Near this town are the remains of a house where one or more monks, as representative of the Abbot of Furness, resided, and performed divine service, and other parochial duties. Over the gateway is a court-room where the Abbot's temporal rights and jurisdiction were exercised by the bailiff of Hawkshead. - 2 DR. DR. EDw1N SANDys, already mentioned as a native of this town, was the son of William Sandys, Esq. of Estwaite in Furness; and after being educated at Cambridge, he attained the honors of Master of Catherine Hall, and Vice Chancellor of the University. By a sermon in defence of Lady Jane's right to the crown, he incurred the displeasure of Queen Mary, was deprived of his promotions, and imprisoned six months; after which he withdrew to Germany, till the queen's death, when he returned, and took an active part in the reformation of the church under Elizabeth, who advanced him to the see of Worcester; whence he was translated to that of London in 1570, and afterwards to the Archbishopric of York in 1576. He died July 10, 1588, at Southwell, and was buried in that collegiate church. His father and mother were interred in Hawkshead church.


In the vicinity of this town are the following Seats:—GRAITHwAITE-HALL, on the western banks of Windermere, is the seat

of Myles Sandys, Esq. a descendant of Bishop Sandys, of whose .

family and genealogy a long account is given in West's Antiquities of Furness. Low-HALL, in the same neighbourhood, is the seat of William Rawlinson, Esq. a descendant of an old family in High-Furness. At Coniston-WATER-HEAD is a seat of George Knott, Esq.; and at BELLMonT is a seat of the Rev. Reginald Braithwaite, M.A.

Estwait E-WATER, or LAKE, is about two miles in length, by half a mile in breadth; and is almost divided by two peninsulas, one of which projects from each of the shores. These are fringed with trees and coppice woods, and the scenery round the lake partakes inore of the sylvan, than of the grand or romantic character. On the eastern side is a gentle slope partly covered with woods: and near the head of the lake is a small island of about two perches of land, covered with shrubs, &c. This formerly shifted its situation, and was driven about by every strong gust of wind; but has for some time been stationary. Perch, pike, eel, and trout, are found in this lake; but though its waters unite


with Windermere, the char-fish has not hitherto been found here.

WINDERMERE, or WIN ANDERMER2, is a large lake on the eastern border of this county, dividing the district of Furness from Westmoreland. The water occupies an area of about fifteen miles .in length, by one mile in width on an average. In some places the breadth is more, and in others it is not above 500 yards across. Near Newly-bridge it is fordable. “On the third and fourth of June, 1772, when the water was six feet below its greatest known height, and three feet above the lowest ebb, a trial was made to ascertain by soundings the depth and form of this lake, which is the largest in England, and supposed to be unfathomable. Its greatest depth was, however, found to be 201 feet, near Ecclesrig-crag. The bottom of the lake in the middle of the stream is a smooth rock; in many places the sides are perpendicular, and in some they continue so for a mile without interruption. The rivers Brathay and Rothay join at the west corner of the lake, called the Three-foot Brandreth, and form this vast reservoir. About four miles lower down, on the east side, Troutbeck river descends from the fells, and joins the mere. Estwaitewater also discharges itself into Windermere at Cunsey-beck".” At its southern end this mere terminates at Newly-bridge, whence the waters usually fall with great rapidity through the channel of the Leven-river, and in their course form several cascades over the cragged rocks. From Newly-bridge, to the mouth of the Crake-river, a distance of about two miles, the water of the Leven falls nearly 105 feet. As the principal islands of this lake, and many of its local characteristics, are more directly connected with Westmoreland, than Lancashire, the whole of these will be hereafter described in the history of that county.

At CASTLE-HEAD, near Lindale, on the banks of the Winster river, is the beautiful modern seat of John Wilkinson, Esq. who - - has.

* West's Antiquities of Furness, 8vo. p. 35.

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