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mun began at last to make Is T*. etiay of the electors ar zemes to the Cortes bad Dan summaed to the Exchange

, to 2011 ? IsBee of a plan of the con:

mi na grycused for the future di

EUR Brazils, in the absence

rze TT. This assembly rapidly ..i III Tag: Som the dull routine of 1.S N.

Sus OSTIS Tciples of gorernment Tilbud Tu 7 de jusness that came home to

men s hears ad bosons, the depart"$" *** **2011. Se tratze Rita, Faniis. It became

INTUD VALDI I eausa a Inter of discussion wheE...lur jaar mere moder which the king was De ulice ummat Lous to use with bim should be 1.2.5: 1 rcprince sufered to go out of the country.

Par mani un- One racor stated that the king was ** ve Te On 2.0 carry of the funds of some 2 jedi, sics vith orije charitable institutions; another -vaisuus, 20 moored thit measures should be in

dosta ur te iie scandy adopted to prevent the sail-*1772 by popular ing of the squadrva until they were *12de] to cose in searched; and orders were actually

Froa thar bed we sent to the forts commanding the ->solution which so bas to tire on any ship of the squa5 an extraordinary dron which attempued to sail. It was 3, to abandon the clear that, if this spirit of oratory were prators and philoso- allowed to spread its wings eren so th of March folloir far as the next street, a rising of the zion appeared, an- populace would be the next thing, al determination to and the king and his ships would tely for Portugal, hare put off their royage together Cortes,

sine die. But though the national ascertain who was feeling was strong for detaining the in those popular King, there was a prirate and pert seems a striking sonal feeling, equally strong, for get

the King's an- ting rid of him as fast as possible. thus leaving the And the distinction was, that the e for themselves, national feeling waited for a leader, ult of any kind. and was therefore ineffective; while us more likely to the personal feeling waited for no-ople to violence, thing but the first opportunity of e unquestionably gaining its point. The debates of the

months before. assembly at the Exchange had awa- royal family to kened its jealousy, and a determina

must become tion was adopted to give those emgovernment,- barrassing debaters an early lesson, atend the Portu- which should teach them the bazard

country must of impeding the will of their supeceat of the mo- riors. The sitting had been prolonged Etal the advan- on this occasion till midnight, and the nditure of the hall was still crowded when the tramp

the populace, of soldiery was heard, and a whole were perfectly Portuguese regiment, without farther n. It was per question or explanation, poured in. er had pulled to the hall. To the astonishment and ppets before, horror of every body, those misnger, or were creants instantly levelled their muspets remain in kets, and began a regular fire upon However, the the unarmed electors. A scene of

horrid carnage followed. Those who The fleet was now ori

instant readiness, and were not killed by the fire, were charged with the bayonet. As resist- barked on the 24th ance was impossible, and the doors many of the nobles were blocked up, there was a gene men. They were wear ral attempt to escape by the win- petual Auctuations of dows. The firing was mercilessly tionary fellow-subject and wickedly continued while this fearful of the insecurit desperate attempt was made, for few which is involved in al could even thus escape, as the wina on constitutions; and dows were high; and some who leap- more reluctant to exc ed down were mutilated or killed by quiet government of th the fall, and some who reached the King, for the irregular ground comparatively unhurt, were successor. Dom Pedr so much under the impression of be- hind as Prince Regent ing still pursued, that they ran intocil of three ministers, the sea and were drowned. When all his death, succession is were either driven out or dead, the to the Princess Leopo murderers proceeded at their ease was now no farther q to plunder the corpses. They carried money carried on boa off their watches, money, and every was accounted at fifthing else worth carrying, then strip- crusadoes, (the crusade ped the room of its plate and rich a-crown,) a formidab ornaments, and having done their from the circulating co work completely, they left the spot. state. The massacre Thus closed the session of an as To whom the ultima sembly lawfully constituted, called spurious exhibition of together by the King's authority, and be attributed, has nev convened by the Ouvidor, or High tained ; it was charged Sheriff. As the details of this most spontaneous wickedne atrocious affair transpired, they pro- pered soldiery, glad te duced additional horror. Individuals portunity of safe robl were slain who had no share in the der. The popular feeli deliberations of the assembly, be

the Conde de Arios, il those wise or foolish. One was a nor of Pernambuco. O clerk in an English mercantile house. the Prince Regent. B He happened to be near the door, tory evidence was of and standing up on hearing the bus- that can be now said o tle, saw the muzzle of a musket precipitated the Kiug pushed close to his breast. In the

Yet though the popu next moment the musket was dis- frightened into silence charged through his heart. Another disgust and abhorren was a young man, who, tired with subsided. The hall the length of the sitting, had fallen tered afterwards by t asleep. As he was stretched upon for whom it had be one of the benches, he was fearfully whom voluntarily furni awoke by the thrust of a bayonet, whom this new Excha which was driven through his back a most favourite reso into the bench on which he lay, and of murder and treach which pinned the unfortunate man and they could not be to it. About thirty persons of a cer

to enter its polluted w tain respectability were found dying time it had remained or dead within the hall; others dis- condition as on the nig appeared and were heard of no more, sacre, the walls and probably being drowned; and many with bullets and blood otbers were hurt in various ways. remove the palpable

The massacre had its intended ef- fact which was equall fect. It completely frightened the the government, and a people. There was now no further people, the hall was re debating on the royal departure; that into the same order a point, at least, was fully secured. ing. Still the mercha

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enter it; and after being left in this be subject to the caprice, and abanstate of contemptuous desertion and doned to the will of their masters; disgust for some years, it was finally and not a coequal kingdom as they converted into a store-house for lum- were, more powerful, and possessing ber. The building was suffered to go more resources, than Portugal herto decay, and the vaults and offices self. Impolitic—because it was prewere tenanted bybeggars and negroes. cisely at the moment when their

The departure of the King was the union was likely to be most advansignal for a total change of measures. tageous to the mother country, that The popular outcry which had been she chose to fill them with disgust, sosummarily extinguished, was again and to render in the eyes of the as summarily raised, and a demand world their separation a matter of was made of total independence. both justice and necessity.” This The Cortes of the mother country strong language was echoed by all felt this demand as an act of rebel. voices. A still more direct denial of lion, and orders were haughtily is- the authority of the Cortes was sued to break up the government, couched in the address of one of the put the country into the hands of a Andrada family, men distinguished provisional government more ame for their abilities, and their succesnable to the will of Portugal, and, as sive high employments under the an essential measure, to send the

“ How dare those Deputies Prince Regent, without delay, to of Portugal,” says this bold manifesEurope, “ to travel for his improve- to, “without waiting for the concurment,” the well understood phrase rence of the Deputies of Brazil, lefor royal disgrace and exile. gislate on a matter, involving the

The Prince's situation bad now most sacred interests of the entire become one of delicacy. Open re. kingdom? How dare they deprive sistance to the decree must have been Brazil of her Privy Council, her Court followed by his denouncement as a of Conscience, her Board of Comrevolter. Acquiescence must have merce, her Court of Requests, and so closed his career as the sovereign of many other institutions, just estaa great empire. But he was soon blished among us, and which proextricated from the dilemma. The mised us such future benefits? Where frigate was scarcely ordered to be now must the people apply for jusready for sea, and the Prince bad tice in their civil and judicial conscarcely announced his “dutiful sub- cerns ? Must they once more, after mission to the will of his illustrious enjoying for twelve years the advanfather," when an uproar arose from tages of speedy justice, seek it in a one end of the Brazils to the other. foreign land, across two thousand Newspapers, now for the first time leagues of ocean, among the procrascalled into activity, popular meet- tinations and corruptions of Lisbon ings, provincial riots, the general tribunals, where the oppressed suitor convulsion of men and things, com- is abandoned by hope and life ?” But mande the refusal of the ordinance the more pungent part of the address of the Cortes, the creation of a so was an appeal to the Prince, to know vereignty, and the stay of the Prince whether he would allow himself" to in the country. The newspapers led be led about like a schoolboy, surthe way,

The Déspertador Bra- rounded by masters and spies.” The zilieuse (Brazilian Awakener) was Camera presented an address exfilled with eloquent diatribes on the pressed in the same terms, which was subject. It pronounced the measures readily answered, “that since the of the Cortes, “illegal, impious, and Prince's remaining seemed to be the impolitic. Illegal—because decreed general wish and for the general good, without the co-operation of the Bra- he would remain.” The declaration zilian representatives, and conse was received with great popular triquently without any manifestation umph. The usual exhibition of an of the national will. Impious--as opera commemorated the day, the shewing the contemptuous indiffer- Prince and Princess appeared in their ence with which the Cortes disposed box, to receive the homage of the of their existence, as if they were a audience; and the national hymn, band of miserable slaves, erected to written and composed by the Prince

after being left in this be subject to the caprice, and abanmptuous desertion and doned to the will of their masters; me years, it was finally and not a coequal kingdom as they

a store-house for lum- were, more powerful, and possessing ding was suffered to go more resources, than Portugal ber

the vaults and offices self. Impolitic—because it was prebybeggars and negroes. cisely at the moment when their ure of the King was the union was likely to be most advanEal change of measures. tageous to the mother country, that putery which had been she chose to fill them with disgust

, extinguished, was again and to render in the eyes of the raised, and a demand world their separation a matter of

total independence. both justice and necessity.” This f the mother country strong language was echoed by all nd as an act of rebel- voices. A still more direct denial of rs were haughtily is the authority of the Cortes was

up the government, couched in the address of one of the y into the hands of a Andrada family, men distinguished Fernment more ame- for their abilities, and their succesIl of Portugal, and, as sive high employments under the deasure, to send the crown. “How dare those Deputies 5, without delay, to of Portugal,” says this bold manifesavel for his improve- to, “without waiting for the concurI understood phrase rence of the Deputies of Brazil

, lece and exile. gislate on a matter, involving the

situation had now most sacred interests of the entire delicacy. Open re- kingdom? How dare they deprire ecree must have been Brazilof her Privy Council, her Court denouncement as a of Conscience, her Board of Comescence must have merce, her Court of Requests, and so as the sovereign of many other institutions, just 'esta

But he was soon blished among us, and which prothe dilemma. The mised us such future benefits? Where cely ordered to be now must the people apply for jusnd the Prince had tice in their civil and judicial coned his “dutiful sub- cerns ? Must they once more, after Ell of his illustrious enjoying for twelve years the advanuproar arose from tages of speedy justice, seek it in a razils to the other. foreign land, across two thousand

for the first time leagues of ocean, among the procrasty, popular meet- tinations and corruptions of Lisbon iots, the general tribunals, where the

oppressed suitor and things, com- is abandoned by hope and life ?But I of the ordinance the more pungent part of the address

creation of a so was an appeal to the Prince, to know tay of the Prince whether he would allow himself" to e newspapers led be led about like a schoolboy, suréspertador Bra- rounded by masters and spies.The Awakener) was Camera presented an address exdiatribes on the pressed in the same terms, which was ed the measures readily answered, that since the cal, impious, and Prince's remaining seemed to be the because decreed general wish and for the general good, tion of the Bra- he would remain.” The declaration es, and conse was received with great popular trimanifestation umph. The usual exhibition of an

Impious--as opera commemorated the day, the tuous indiffer- Prince and Princess appeared in their Cortes disposed box, to receive the homage of the if they were a audience; and the national hymn, ves, erected to written and composed by the Prince

himself, was sung with extravagant hand, declaring that if applause.

sary, he would fire But this determination was in im. Within the stated tim mediate bazard of being roughly guese were all embark changed. The Portuguese battalions, out of the harbour. I which felt themselves still strangers those anxious trans in the land, murmured loudly against Pedro had continued what they termed rebellion to the timation among the pe authority of their country, and threat- cellence in a King wi ened to seize the Prince's person, for the want of energy and carry him on board. They assem- instinctively connect bled round the theatre for the pur- power; and the mona pose of their seizure, but the Prince bits himself fluctuati escaped. They next took post up- unequal to casualties, on a hill, with their guns pointed sive of results, instar down on the city. A civil war his high estate in the was all but begun. Yet the disci. By the mere fact of h pline of the Portuguese was baffled narch, he is prohibitec by the rude zeal of the people. The solution which might popular force continued to pour in in an inferior grade; during the entire night,--arms and the throne, for the ex ammunition were brought from con- of command, Dom Jo siderable distances on mules and qualities of a paternal horses, and by daybreak the Portu- rapidly forfeited the guese battalions were astonished to by his indolence, timi find themselves besieged by five cision, Dom Pedro thousand suddenly armed soldiers, over all his unpopula hourly increased by the population rather eclipsed them from the neighbouring districts. The lustre of his one great battalions soon made another and not troubled throne-dec less formidable discovery, that in the struggle with their preparations for war, they bad troops he was every 'forgot the essential of provisions, zarded his ease, hist and that if they remained but a little life, hourly; and by longer in their position, they must this trying time, he shu be starved. They had now no re- ple that he possessed source but to surrender, which they their obedience that did, with the Prince's stipulation ved by personal intre that they should be sent to Europe. But when he had ti But the transports not being ready, steps of Empire, he the troops were suffered to encamp pelled to learn, that on the opposite side of the bay, un successful ambition h til preparation was made for them The new spirit of to put to sea. But yet when the which had lifted his time arrived, the troops again refu, power, suddenly beg sed to move. Dom Pedro now acted through the province with the necessary promptitude. He hao, the Minas Gera ordered a division of Brazilians into other of the chief d their rear, to prevent their march on enormous empire, ea the city, and at the same time moor. European kingdom, ed two frigates in their front. Going the right of separ on board one of them, he declared to The policy of the Por the commander of the Portuguese, promoted those divi that he gave him but till the next idea of keeping the r day to make up his mind on the sub- ment in check. The ject; and that if he was not ready to dependence was actu embark at that time, he would order the great province o a general assault by sea and land. and a provisional & Suiting the action to the word, he pointed. As this wa displayed himself on the quarter of the principal gold deck, with a lighted match in his of the most powerful

intelligent of the empire, Dom Pedro and that was enough for the Brazi. resolved on striking at rebellion lians. On that day, a deputation there, without delay. Leaving the of the Camera waited on him with government of Rio de Janeiro to his the proposal of the title of “ Confriend, Andrada, and ordering troops stitutional Prince Regent, and Perto march on all sides in the direc. petual Defender of Brazil.” The tion of Villa Rica, the capital of the next invitation was, to call a geneinsurgent province, he took the ral council to deliberate on the afmanly resolution of setting out in fairs of the kingdom. This was equiperson, and actually preceding the valent to a declaration of independtroops to the centre of insurrection. ence; and the actual declaration was The daring nature of this action was soon to follow. the source of its success. The in The Portuguese Cortes, like all surgent army had marched out to the modern makers of European fight the troops whom they expected constitutions, were Jacobins, and, to meet on the road to their capital of course, at once blunderers, imThey met only the Prince, and whe- postors, and tyrants. With the Jather astonished, or corrupted, or cobin, in all countries, personal cucaptivated, they received this soli- pidity is the sole impulse, and the tary opponent with shouts, put them- extinction of every man and thing selves under his command, and above himself the sole object of his marched back to Villa Rica. Insur- success. Generally flung out of the rection hid its head at his approach, natural and honest ways of acquiring or rather was turned into sudden character, he is poor and characterloyalty, for the independents joined less; and he knows, or will adopt no the deputation which came forth to better way of balancing his ill luck, welcome the sovereign. Dom Pedro than by sinking every honester and had the good sense to be satisfied better man to his own level. Uniwith the submission, declared him. versally a personal profligate, heartself, so far from hostile to indepen- less in his private intercourse with dence, that he was its warmest advo- society, without allegiance to God, cate, congratulated them on having, or fidelity to man, he becomes an like himself, burst asunder all fetters, advocate for every extravagant claim and gave a huzza for the constitu- of popular passion; is a clamourer tion, religion, honest men, and the for the independence of all religions, men of the Minas. No punishment in all their forms, which all, in all was inflicted, except the politic sus- their forms, he equally despises; depension of a few of the leaders from votes himself to the cause of license public employment. He then turn. in every land, under the insulted ed his horse's head, galloped back to name of liberty; and with every eleRio; on his arrival went instantly to ment of scorn for all human rights, the Opera, announced there to the interests, and feelings, utterly conshouting multitude the submission of temptuous of human nature, and the province, and thus showily closed looking on the people but as a toola campaign of thirty days, during fraudulent in all his dealings, and which he had accomplished a jour. false in all his protestations, he proney of a thousand miles, through claims himself ihe champion of poforest, mountain, furious river, and pular rights throughout all nations. trackless wilderness, continually in The Portuguese Cortes acted in peril, and accomplished the still the full spirit of this character. The more hazardous object of appeasing slightest claim to equality of priviand reconciling a remarkably daring, leges was scofied at. The Brazilians turbulent, and headstrong portion of were pronounced rebels, troops were his people.

sent to coerce them; and while the His popularity was now unbound. rabble of Portugal were giving law ed, and it was dexterously made a to the throne, the halls of the Cortes ground for a new advance in power. resounded with the bitterest taunts The 13th of May, the anniversary of of the members against the fair his father's birth, was singularly claims of Brazil, seconded or dicchosen to consummate the usurpa- tated by the most furious clamours tion of the son; but it was a holiday, of the mob, which were suffered to

**re, Dia Pedro and that was enough for the Brazi.

Cai rebe..ien lians. On that day, a deputation In air. Leatizz tie of the Camera waited on him with *22* RceJzero to his the proposal of the title of “Con SP 12211 Eidez troops stitutional Prince Regent, and Per» ZI12 sessize direc. petual Defender of Brazil.” The

23ech of the text invitation was, to call a gene****: 0:34, że took te ral council to deliberate on the afHILL 2.2 äs out in fairs of the kingdom. This was equi

23:01 Paris? tue talent to a declaration of independ. SUNTED. ence; and the actual declaration was

TEL:3 was soon to follow. 2 * Sa Te in. The Portuguese Cortes, like all sam rain sized out to the modern makers of European **s** derespected constitutions, were Jacobins, ard,

16 Qersoeir capitalof course, at once blunderers, imTarte Prez, ad ule postors, and tyrants. With the Ja**

No compe, or cobin, in all countries, personal cuesite 2 mered as soli pidity is the sole impulse, and the HIT 13:3; 3.aspai theme extinction of erery man and thing ****et, ard abore himself the sole object of his 21.,

tenis kur success. Generally flung out of the xizmisch, natural and honest ways of acquiring perNamecuca character, he is poor and character. 7.7.2 edes used less; and he knows, or will adopt no * dacaze terih so better way of balancing his ill luck, weincheies254222. Tom Pedro tan br sinking erery honester and biri sese i be sarisced better man to his own level. Uni

Descriza declared lin. rersally a personal profligate, heart

walan boste to indepen. less in his private intercourse with dece, si le trasis warmes: adro societs, without allegiance to God, chie, cena:ed den on haring, or fidelity to man, he becomes an Le disses, ansiasuc der ali festers, adrocate for every extraragant claim iare a buzz for the constitue of popular passion; is a clamourer wa, redior, honest men, and the for the independence of all religions, men of the Midas Sopunishment in all their forms, which all

, in all mas indicied, except the politie sus- their forms, he equally despises; de. peasion of a few of the leaders from rotes himself to the cause of license pub.c employment. He then turne in every land, under the insulted eilis horse's lead, galloped back to name of liberty; and with every eleRio; on his arrirai went instantiy to ment of scorn for all human rights

, the Opera, announced there to the interests, and feelings, utterly conshouting multitude the submission of temptuous of human nature, and the province, and thus showily closed looking on the people but as a toola campaign of thirty days, during fraudulent in all his dealings, and which he had accomplished a jour- false in all his protestations, he

proney of a thousand miles, through claims himself the champion of poforest, mountain, furious river, and pular rights throughout all nations. trackless wilderness, continually in

The Portuguese Cortes acted in peril

, and accomplished the still the full spirit of this character. The more hazardous object of appeasing slightest claim to equality of priviand reconciling a remarkably daring, leges was scofied at. The Brazilians turbulent, and headstrong portion of were pronounced rebels, troops were

sent to coerce them; and while the his people. His popularity was now unbound- rabble of Portugal were giving law

to the throne, the halls of the Cortes ground for a new advance in power: resounded with the bitterest taunts The 13th of May, the anniversary of of the members agaiust the fair his father's birth, was singularly claims of Brazil, seconded or dicchosen to consummate the usurpa- tated by the most furious clamours tion of the son; but it was a holiday, of the mob, which were suffered to

crowd their avenues and galleries. at Bahia now became
The few Brazilian deputies vainly public attention. Dom
attempted to reason; they were put played his habitual activi
down by uproar. The Brazils, a ter- casion, collected troops
ritory as large as Europe, and hourly and ammunition from all
rising in wealth, population, and ge- made a still more impo
neral acquirement--an empire, whosesion in the person of Lor
smallest province was larger than whom he put at the
the whole of Portugal -- were treated Imperial fleet, and in
as the toy, the slave, or the victim of patched to Rio. The e
the rabble legislation of Lisbon; and was strong, amounting
orders were sent out commanding ships, with 398 guns,
the Prince's return to Europe within Brazilian amounted on
four months; and denouncing all the with 250 guns. But the
military who continued to obey him, der's name was a tower
as traitors to Portugal. But this act of he found the Portuguese
violence was equally an act of folly. in order of battle, and
The blow was too late. The Prince, tacked them, But his
on receiving the dispatches, virtually worked by inexperience
consigning him to a dungeon, de- and by Portuguese, who
cided at once on resistance. After relied on. He yet force
contemplating them seriously for a guese line, but he found
time, he drew the natural conclusion, ill seconded, that after
that on his decision turned the ques, he was forced to retire.
tion of personal sovereignty or chains. ing the next day to the
He exclaimed, “ Independence or found that the enemy had
Death!” The exclamation was caught ened under the guns of
like a Roman omen-was repeated batteries; he therefore
on all sides; and from that moment them, and urged the blo
the Brazils were free. The town of such vigilance, that t
Piranga, where this event occurred, were speedily on the verg
is still commemorated as the cradle But a blockade was not s
of Brazilian independence.

ployment for the stirring The next and natural step was the officer, He determined formation of a legislature. By the harbour, and surprise the advice of the Council, a general as- English commodore in tl sembly of Deputies from all the acquainted with thes provinces was called, to assume the gallant blockader, advis functions of a Parliament. And the iuguese Admiral to tak first act of the nation, thus establish- cautions against a night ed in its independence, was to shew the Portuguese thought its gratitude' by, proclaiming Dom and, like a true son of th Pedro its sovereign. On the 22d of the rest to fortune. He October, he was publicly shewn to on shore with the Gene the soldiery and the people, in the fire from the bay at ten Campo de Santa Anna, as “ Consti- him that the Englishm tutional Emperor, with the unani mistaken; Lord Coche mous acclamation of the people.” tacked the fleet at ang The tinge of republicanism thrown cover of the night, hel over this high acknowledgment, was ship into the midst of t destined to colour the whole future was already alongside history of this brief sovereignty; but, ral's vessel. The wind for the time, all was contidence, him thus far, and in a triumph, and perhaps sincerity; and more bis boarders wou whether with the tacit object of upon the deck of the marking the popular influence on But by one of the chan the occasion, or in the mere captiva- in that climate, the tion of a sounding title, the Saint lost away at the moment, ar her rights, and the Square was ant found himself pow thenceforth named the Campo d’Ac- midst of the enemy's fle clamacáo.

was of much more impo The Portuguese garrison and Aeet the guns of their batte

ed, and it was dexterously made a

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