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A pagan suckled in a creed outworn;
EXERCISES 38. a. Yawn; then keeping the teeth apart, close the lips and vibrate the vocal chords in a delicate hum, with no breathiness, m-m-m. b. Join to this delicate sound the various vowel sounds m-ah, m-00, m—e, m-i, without breathiIneSS. Test by holding lighted match before mouth.
You have learned to recognize sentences and passages that address the hearer's reasoning or comparing faculty. After you have studied a passage and found the author's purpose you can tell the type of Discrimination from Presensation or from Emotion or from Volition. The next problem is, how are you going to show this meaning to your hearer? You know, by careful study, that a certain passage belongs to the class of Discrimination, and appeals to the reason, but how are your hearers to know that? They must of course get it somehow from the tone of your voice and from your gesture.
Let us see what characteristics of tone are used in Dis– crimination. You remember that the characteristic of Presentation is Time; the groups being larger or smaller, and the rate of movement faster or slower, according to the ease or difficulty of taking in the thoughts. The characteristic of Discrimination is Pitch; when you show the comparisons, the differences, the particular points to your hearer, the tones of your voice change from a high key to a lower, or from a low key to a higher. This change, which is called inflection, draws attention to the word on which it occurs, and so draws attention to the particular aspect of the thought you want the hearer to consider.
Cassius. What's the matter? You look pale.
Casca. Are not you frightened?
In Casca's reply the change of pitch on the word “you” indicates a contrast between Cassius and himself. As if Casca said “I am frightened of course, are you not?”
If you will come, I will help you.
On the word “come” the voice rises about three notes. Why? To call attention to the condition on which the help will be given.
As you have already seen, the difference between what is assumed and what is asserted is shown by inflection, the voice goes downward and onward on the assertive word, and the assumed portion of the clause or Sentence is lighter and inclines to an upward inflection. In the next few lessons we shall study the most important kinds of thought that come under the type Discrimination.
Momentary Completeness. You give thought with momentary completeness when you consider it, for the moment, as an entire thought; or at least as important enough to occupy, for the time, the entire attention.
Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. X We have petitioned, \ we have remonstrated, N we have suppli– cated, N we have prostrated ourselves before the throne. N Our petitions have been slighted, X Our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult, NOur Supplications have been disregarded, N and we have been spurned with contempt from the foot of the throne. N
The reader gives these clauses in momentary com— pleteness because each is of enough importance to be considered in itself, and not as a mere preliminary to something that follows. He says by this falling inflection: we have remonstrated, keep that in mind. We have supplicated, that must not be overlooked.
Note: When the mind gathers up the preceding thoughts and feelings in a concluding statement as if it said this is the culmination of the whole matter, that is not momentary but Cumulative Completeness. The voice falls in this also, but the falling inflection is more decided, and the voice rises in a preparatory cadence just before it falls, and thus descends about five tones.
But now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian was hard put to it; for he had gone but a little way be— fore he espied a foul fiend coming over the field to meet him: his name is Apollyon. Now the monster was hid— eous to behold: he was clothed with scales like a fish (and they are his pride); he had wings like a dragon, feet, like a bear, and out of his belly came fire and smoke; and his mouth was as the mouth of a lion.
Find two other examples of Cumulative Completeness in the selection, page 91. 1. Mark the cases of Momentary Completeness in “Crossing the Bar,” page 27.
2. Mark the cases of Momentary Completeness in Lincoln's speech at Gettysburg, page 32.
3. Mark the cases of Momentary Completeness in the passage on Garfield, page 107.
4. Mark the cases of Cumulative Completeness in these three passages.
EXERCISES Describe exercise 32, explain its purpose, and lead the class in practice.
Expectation. When a phrase or clause is a preparation for some statement to follow, the voice shows the expectation by a rising inflection at the end of the phrase Or clause.
If you will come / I will help you.
At the end of the first clause, the rising inflection in your voice should lead your hearer to expect Something more. This expectation is found wherever a condition is expressed or implied.
The Wretch concenter'd all in self,
Here the participle states a condition. It is equal to
if he lives, he shall forfeit, etc. Point out the cases of expectation in the following
Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to
you.--trippingly on the tongue; but if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lief the towncrier spake my lines. Nor do not saw the air too much with your hand thus, but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I may say, whirlwind of your passion, you must acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it smoothness.
Nothing in my hand I bring, Simply to Thy cross I cling; Naked, come to Thee for dress, Helpless, look to Thee for grace; Foul, I to the Fountain fly, Wash me, Savior, or I die. In the selection, The True Kings of the Earth, page 15, mark the instances (a) of expectation, (b) of momentary completeness, and (c) of assertion.
Describe and explain the purpose of exercise 33, then lead the class in the practise.