3. Study this section, especially the last paragraph, for cases of contrast.


1. I profess, sir, in my career hitherto, to have kept steadily in view, the prosperity and honor of the whole country, and the preservation of our federal union. It is to that union we owe our safety at home, and Our c0nsideration and dignity abroad. It is to that union that we are chiefly indebted for whatever makes us most proud of our country. That union we reached only by the discipline of our virtues, in the severe school of adversity. It had its origin in the necessities of disordered finance, prostrate commerce, and ruined credit. Under its benign influences, these great interests, immediately awoke, ... as from the dead, and sprang forth with newness of life. Every year of its duration has teemed with fresh proofs of its utility and its blessings; and although our territory has stretched out wider and wider, and our population spread farther and farther, they have not outrun its protection or its benefits. It has been to us all a copious fountain of national, social, and personal happiness.

2. I have not allowed myself, sir, to look beyond the union, to see what might lie hidden in the dark recess behind. I have not coolly weighed the chances of preserving liberty, when the bonds that unite us together shall be broken asunder. I have not accustomed myself to hang over the precipice of disunion, to see whether, with my short sight, I can fathom the depth of the abyss below: nor could I regard him as a safe counselor in the affairs of this government, whose thoughts should be mainly bent on considering, not how the union should be preserved, but how tolerable might be the condition of the people, when it shall be broken up and destroyed.

3. While the union lasts we have high, exciting, gratifying prospects spread out before us, for us and our children. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the vail. God grant that in my day, at least, that curtain may not rise. God grant that on my vision never may be opened what lies behind. When my eyes shall be turned to behold, for the last time, the sun in heaven, may I not see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious union; on states dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in fraternal blood! Let their last feeble and lingering glance, rather, behold the gorgeous ensign of the republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their original luster, not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured, bearing for its motto no such miserable interrogatory as—What is all this worth? Nor those other words of delusion and folly—Liberty first and union afterward; but everywhere, spread all over in characters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the sea and over the land, in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart—Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!—Daniel Webster.

Note: Sometimes there is combined with the idea of

contrast another idea of question, concession, or expectation,--as in the second paragraph of Webster's speech:

Not how the Union should be preserved,

this triple inflection of the voice is equal to an inflection of contrast (2-) and in addition an inflection of expectation (/) A 2' which put together becomes a wave. (T -)

In Marmion’s reply to Douglas. This to me! the triple inflection shows contrast and exclamation.

EXERCISES Describe the method and purpose of practising exercise 36, then lead the class. Correct any errors.


You have learned to classify all utterances either as Presentation, or Discrimination, or Emotion, or Wolition. You have studied Presentation and Discrimination with some thoroughness. Now you are to learn how to analyze and express the passages that contain Emotion.

Emotion is a very important factor in speaking. It kindles the imagination; it enlists the sympathies, it cements the speaker and hearers together, it is the source of eloquence, and the incentive to action. We may therefore expect a large proportion of public speech to be tinged with Some Sort Of Emotion.

You will probably find more difficulty in analyzing Emo– tion than you found in studying Presentation and Discrimination. Usually the Speaker does not talk in order to show his feeling, but his feeling manifests itself incidentally as he utters his thought. Therefore, because emotion is thus expressed incidentally, it is at first difficult to recognize a Speaker's feelings from the printed page, though you have no such difficulty when you hear him.

This makes paraphrasing especially important. And in paraphrasing a passage containing emotion you must make clear and vivid not only the ideas, but also the feelings involved. You need to get freshly in mind not so much what the Speaker said, as the feeling he showed in saying it.

Read these two stanzas and notice the differences between sensing the feeling and merely reading off the words.


The one with yawning made reply:
“What have we seen? Not much have I
Trees, meadows, mountains, groves, and streams,
Blue sky and clouds, and sunny gleams.”

The other, smiling said the same:
But with face transfigured and eye of flame:
“Trees, meadows, mountains, groves, and streams!
Blue sky and clouds, and sunny gleams!”
—C. T. Brooks.

For convenience we may group the various Feelings into nine classes: Genial Feeling, Exalted Feeling, Stern Feeling, Awesome Feeling, and feelings of Tenderness, Weariness, Stealthiness, Agitation and Intensity.

Genial feeling is a comfortable and buoyant state of mind, serene and cheerful. There is no strong emotion, but a mild sense of pleasure in meeting people and sharing one's thoughts with them.

His reminiscences of good cheer, however ancient the date of the actual banquet, seemed to bring the savor of pig or turkey under one's very nostrils. There were flavors On his palate, that had lingered there not less than sixty Or seventy years, and were still apparently as fresh as that of the mutton-chop which he had just devoured for his breakfast.

At Lincoln Cathedral there is a beautiful painted window, which was made by an apprentice Out of the pieces of glass which had been rejected by his master.

My early life ran quiet as the brooks by which I sport– ed; and when at noon I gathered the sheep beneath the shade, and played upon the shepherd's flute, there was a friend, the Son of a neighbor, to join me in the pastime.

Deep sleep had fallen on the destined victim, and on all beneath his roof. A healthful old man, to whom sleep was sweet—the first sound slumbers of the night held him in their soft but strong embrace.

To meet and talk with one's fellowmen is a pleasure. An unspoiled, natural man has a genial, cheerful feeling whenever he sees a human face. A man in normal condition, healthy, vigorous, comfortable, will show this feeling of pleasure and kindliness in much of his conversation.

In expressing this genial feeling his bearing will naturally be reposeful, his muscles elastic and unconstrained. His voice will be in the flexible, easy pure tone. This quality of tone is resonant and musical, and is produced with the least possible muscular effort.

Mark in the margins of these selections all the feelings you recognize, but especially Genial Feeling.

Be Sure to read those passages with genuine cheerfulIn OSS.

Lucy Stone was gifted with one charm in which the ma– jority of her country women are sadly deficient. She was the possessor of a sweet, rich, mellow voice, penetrating but persuasive, and so delightful in quality that persons who had heard her Speak only once would sometimes recOgnize her years afterward if they chanced to hear her utter a single sentence. This Winning voice, united with a dignified, gentle and entirely feminine demeanor, some— times enabled her to win curious triumphs over rough and turbulent crowds. Once at an anti-Slavery meeting held on Cape Cod, at a time when Abolitionists were dangerously unpopular, the crowd which gathered around the open-air platform as the time approached for the speaking to begin, became SO unmistakably threatening and mischievous that the speakers announced to appear, one after another—slipped quietly away, until only Stephen Foster and Lucy Stone remained. Looking down upon the heaving and riotous assembly, she said to him quietly: “You had better run, Stephen; they are coming.” “But who will take care of you?” he naturally inquired. At that moment the mob made a rush for the platform, and their leader, a big man with a club, Sprang upon it close beside her. Turning to him without a moment's hes– itation, and calmly laying her hand within his arm, she said: “This gentleman will take care of me.” The astonished rioter declared immediately that he would, and tucking her arm under his and keeping his club in the other hand, he marched her through the crowd, who were already handling Mr. Foster and a few other Abolitionists pretty roughly. Then in compliance with her fervent entreaty, he mounted her upon a stump and stood guard over her with his club while she delivered her address, which was so eloquent and effective that her hearers desisted from further violence, and capped the climax by actually taking up a collection of twenty dollars to repay. Mr. Foster for the destruction of his coat, which had been torn from top to bottom in the struggle.


Their mother was just an ordinary silver tip, loving the quiet life that all bears prefer, minding her own business and doing her duty by her family, asking no favors of any one excepting to be let alone. It was July before she took her remarkable family down the Little Piney to the Claybull and showed them what strawberries were and where to find them. Notwithstanding their mother's deep conviction, the cubs were not remarkably blg nor bright; yet they were a remarkable family, for there were four of them, and it is not often a grizzly mother can boast of more than two. . The wooly coated little creatures were having a fine time and revelled in the lovely mountain summer and the abundance of good things. Their mother turned over each

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