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fessions. No proof, however, is yet the general security. The works of given of an intention to repair the defence on our maritime frontier have other wrongs done to the United accordingly been prosecuted with an States; and, particularly, to restore activity leaving little to be added for the great amount of American pro, the completion of the most important perty seized and condemned under ones; and, as particularly suited for edicts, which, though not affecting co-operation in emergencies, a portion our neutral relations, and therefore, of the gun-boats have, in particular not entering into questions between harbours, been ordered into use. The the United States and other bellige- ships of war before in commission, rents, were nevertheless founded in with the addition of a frigate, have such unjust principles, that the repa. been chiefly employed as a cruising, ration ought to have been prompt and guard to the rights of our coast'; and ample.

such a disposition has been made of In addition to this and other de, our land forces, as was thought to pro. mands of strict right on that nation, mise the services most appropriate and the United States have much reason important: In this disposition is into be dissatisfied with the rigorous and cluded a force, consisting of unexpected restrictions to which their and militia, embodied in the Indiana trade with the French dominions has territory, and marched towards our been subjected ; and which, if not dis; north-western frontier.. This measure continued, will require at least corre- was made requisite by several murders sponding restrictions on importations and depredations committed by Infrom France into the United States; dians; but more especially by the me

On all those subjects our minister nacing preparations and aspect of a plenipotentiary, lately sent to Paris, combination of them on the Wabash, has carried with him the necessary in- under the influence and direction of a structions; the result of which will be fanatic of the Shawanese tribe. With communicated to you ; and by ascer- these exceptions, the Indian tribes retaining the ulterior policy of the French tain their peaceable dispositions towarda government towards the United States, us, and their usual pursuits. will enable you to adapt to it that of I must now add, that the period is the United States towards France. arrived, which claims from the legisla

Our other foreign relations remain tive guardians of the national rights a without unfavourable changes. With system of more ample provisions for Russia, they are on the best footing of maintaining them --Notwithstanding friendship. The ports of Sweden have the scrupulous justice, the protracted afforded proofs of friendly dispositions moderation, and the multiplied efforts towards our commerce in the councils on the part of the United States, to of that nation also. And the informasubstitute, for the accuniulating dantion from our special minister to Den- gers to the peace of the two countries, mark, shews, that the mission had been all the mutual advantages of re-esta. attended with valuable effects to our blished friendship and confidence, we çitizens, whose property had been so have seen that the British cabinet perextensively violated and endangered by severes, not only in withholding a recruisers under the Danish flag. medy for other wrongs, so long and se

Under the ominous indications which loudly calling for it, but in the execution commanded attention, it became a duty brought home to the threshold of our to exert the means committed to the territory, of measures which, under executive department, in providing for existing circumstances, have the cha

time;

racter as well as the effect of war on ern portion of our own hemisphere, our lawful commerce.

and extend into our neighbourhood. With this evidence of hostile inflexi. An enlarged philanthropy, and an bility, in trampling on rights which enlightened forecast, concur in impono independent nation can relinquish, sing on the national councils an obliga. congress will feel the duty of putting tion to take a deep interest in eir the United States into an armour and destinies ; to cherish reciprocal sentian attitude demanded by the crisis, and ments of good-will; to regard the pro. corresponding with the national spirit gress of events; and not to be unpre. and expectations.

pared for whatever order of things may I recommend, accordingly, that ade- be ultimately established. quate provision be made for filling the Under another aspect of our situranks and prolonging the enlistments ation, the early attention of congress of the regular troops ; for an auxiliary will be due to the expediency of further force, to be engaged for a more limited guards against evasions and infractions

for the acceptance of volunteer of our commercial laws. The practice corps, whose patriotic ardour may of smuggling, which is odious every court a participation in urgent servi where, and particularly criminal in free ces; for detachments, as they may be governments, where, the laws being wanted, of other portions of the mili. made by all for the good of all, a fraud tia ; and for such a preparation of the is committed on every individual as well great body, as will proportion its use. as on the state, attains its utmost guilt, fulness to its intrinsic capacities. Nor when it blends, with a pursuit of ignocan the occasion fail to remind you of minious gain, a treacherous subser. the importance of those military semi- viency, in the transgressors, to a foreign naries, which, in every event, will form policy adverse to that of their own a valuable and frugal part of our milie country. It is then that the virtuous tary establishment,

indignation of the public should be The manufacture of cannon and enabled to manifest itself, through the small arms has proceeded with due regular animadversions of the most success, and the stock and resources of competent laws. all the necessary munitions are adequate To secure greater respect to our to emergencies. It will not be inex. mercantile flag, and to the honest in. pedient, however, for congress to au- terests which it covers, it is expedient, thorize an enlargement of them. also, that it be made punishable in our

Your attention will of course be citizens to accept licences from foreign drawn to such provisions, on the sub- governments, for a trade unlawfully ject of our naval force, as may be re- interdicted by them to other American quired for the services to which it may citizens ; or to trade under false cohe best adapted. I submit to congress

lours
or papers

of the seasonableness, also, of an authori. A prohibition is equally called for ty to augment the stock of such mate- against the acceptance, by our citizens, rials as are imperishable in their nature, of special;licences, to be used in a trade or may not at once be attainable. with the United States ; and against

In contemplating the scenes which the admission into particular ports of distinguish this momentous epoch, and the United States, of vessels from foestimating their claims to our attention, reign countries, anthorised to trade

is impossible to overlook those de. with particular ports only. veloping themselves among the great Although other subjects will press communities which occupy the south- more immediately on your delibera

any sort,

tions, a portion of them cannot but enabled us to defray the current exbe well bestowed on the just and pences, including the interest on the sound policy of securing to our manu- public debt, and to reimburse morethan factures the success they have attained, five millions of dollars of the principal, and are still attaining, in some degree, without recurring to the loan authounder the impulse of causes not per. rised by the act of the last session. manent ; and to our navigation, the The temporary loan obtained in the fair extent of which is at present latter end of the year 1810 has also abridged, by the unequal regulations been reimbursed, and is not included of foreign governments.

in that amount. Besides the reasonableness of saving The decrease of revenue, arising our manufacturers from sacrifices which from the situation of our commerce a change of circumstances might bring and the extraordinary expences which on them, the national interest requires have and may become necessary, must that, with respect to such articles, at be taken into view, in making commenleast, as belong to our defence and our surate provisions for the ensuing year. primary wants, we should not be left And I recommend to your considerin unnecessary dependence on exter- ation the propriety of ensuring a suffinal supplies. And whilst foreign go ciency of annual revenue, at least, to vernments adhere to the existing dis- defray the ordinary expenées

of

gocriminations in their ports against our vernment, and to pay

the interest on navigation, and an equality or lesser the public debt, including that on discrimination is enjoyed by their navie new loans which may be anthorised. gation in our ports, the effect cannot I cannot close this communication be mistaken, because it has been seri- without expressing my deep sense of ously felt by our shipping interests ; the crisis in which you are assembled, and in proportion as this takes place, my confidence in a wise and honourable the advantages of an independent con- result to your deliberations, and assuveyance of our products to foreign rançes of the faithful zeal with which markets, and of a growing body of my cooperating duties will be discharmariners, trained by their occupations ged; invoking, at the same time, the for the service of their country in times blessing of heaven on our beloved of danger, must be diminished.

country, and on all the means that may The receipts into the treasury, du- be employed in vindicating its rights ring the year ending on the 30th of and advancing its welfare. September last, have exceeded thirteen

(Signed) JAMES MADDISON. millions and a half of dollars ; and have Washington, Nov. 5, 1811.

LIST OF PATENTS IN 1811.

1

Mr William Clerk, Edinburgh, for sundry apparatus or machinery for a newly constructed grate for prevent the manufacture of felt or stuff hats. ing smoke, and regulating heat. Mr Bundy, Camden-Town, for a

Mr David Meade Randolph, Golc new method of heading pinsi den-square, London, for a method of James Frost and Son, Sutton-street, manufacturing all kinds of boots, shoes, Clerkenwell, for an improvement on &c. by means of a substitute for cocks, or an improved lock-cock. thread made of hemp, flax, or other Mr Richard Woodman, Hammeryarns.

smith, for a method of manufacturing Mr John Kent, Southampton, for a all kinds of boots, shoes, and other new method of moving all kinds of articles. goods or' materials to high buildings, Mr Henry Stubbs, Piccadilly, for a or from deep places.

new-invented grand imperial Aulzum, Mr Winsor, Pall Mall, London, for from three to twenty feet wide, with improvement upon his former oven out seam, and to any length or colour, stove for carbonizing all kinds of raw for decorating rooms, &c. fuel, and for extracting the oil, acid, Mr John Isaac Hawkins, Great tar, gas, &c.

Titchfield-street, for a certain instru. Mr Thomas Meade, Yorkshire, for ment applicable in mechanics as a bamethods of making circular or rotative lance or equipoise steam-engines upon an entire new prin- Mr Thomas Pott, Hackney, for a ciple.

new process of freeing tarred rope from Mr Edward Shorter, Wapping, for tar, and of rendering it of use to the an apparatus for working pumps. manufacturer. Mr Bryan Donkin, Bermondsey, for MrJohann George Deyerlein, Longof new construction.

acre, for a machine, new principle, or Mr David Matthew, Rotherhithe, method, of making bricks and tiles, for an improved method of building and other kinds of pottery. locks, and for opening and shutting Mr Peter Stuart, Fleet-street, for the same.

a new method of engraving and printMr John White, Westminster, for ing maps, &c. the discovery of a certain substance Mr John Lindsay, Grove-house, which is capable of being converted Middlesex, for a boat and various apinto statues, artificial stone, melting- paratus, whereby heavy burdens can pots, bricks, tiles, and every descrip- be conveyed in shallow water. tion of pottery:

Mr Winsor, Pall-mall, for a fixed Mr Richard Wilson, Lambeth, for telegraphic light-house, &c. for signala

a pen

tones.

and intelligence, to serve by night and for certain improvements in apparatus by day.

for the combination and condensation Mr John Deakin, St John's-street, of gasses and vapours applicable to Middlesex, for improvements in the processes of distillation. kitchen range.

Mr Richard Jackson, Southwark, Mr John Bradley, Old Swinford, for an improved method of making Staffordshire, for a new method of the shanks of anchors and other large making gun-skelps.

bodies of wrought iron. Sir Isaac Coffin, for a new inven- Mr Samuel Hill, Serle-street, for a tion of a perpetual oven for baking more effectual method of joining stone bread.

pipes. Mr Ralph Wedgewood, Oxford- Mr David Loeschman, Newmanstreet, for a new character for lan- street, for improvements in the musical guage, numbers, and music, and the scales of keyed instruments with fixed method of applying the same.

Mr William Doughty, Birmingham, Yr Joseph Dyer, Gray's-inn, for for a method of combining wheels for improvements in the construction and gaining mechanical powers.

method of using plates and presses for Mr George Lowe, Cheapside, for copper-plate printing. British shirting cloth.

Mr Hall, Walthamstow, for a meMr Egerton Smith, Liverpool, for thod of manufacturing from twigs or a binnacle and compass.

branches of broom, mallows, rushes, Mr James Bell, Whitechapel, for and other plants of like species, to improvements in refining sugar, and in serve instead of fax or hemp. forming sugar-houses of a certain de- Mr Thomas Wade, Nelson-place, scription.

Surrey, for a method of imitating lapis Mr John Gregory, Islington, for a lazuli, porphyry, jasper, &c. method of tunning and cleansing ales Mr John Statter, Birmingham and and beers into casks.

Holborn, for a steam kitchen and Mr Arthur Wolf, Lambeth, for im- roaster. provements in the construction and

Mr Walter Roch fort, Bishopgateworking of steam-engines, calculated street, for an improved method of preto lessen the consumption of fuel. paring coffee by compression.

Mr Peter Durand, Hoxton-square, Mr John Turmear and Charles Se. for a method of preserving animal and ward, Cheapside, for a new lamp, callvegetable food, &c. a long time from ed the Liverpool Lamp. perishing

Mr Joseph Dyer, London, for a Mr John Cragg, Liverpool, for im- machine for cutting and removing all provements in the casting of iron roofs the kinds of furs used in hat-making for houses, &c.

from skins, and for cutting the skins Mr William Muller, London, for into strips or small pieces. improvements in the construction of Mr John Frazer, Sloane-street, for pumps.

a discovery of certain vegetables, and Mrs Sarah Guppy, Bristol, for a a way of preparing them to be manu. mode of erecting and constructing factured into hats, bonnets, chair-botbridges and rail-roads, without arches toms, baskets, &c. or starlings, by which the danger of Mr William Bundy, Camden-town, being washed away by floodsis avoided. for an improvement on stringed instru:

Mr John Stancliffe, Tooke's-court, ments.
VOL. IV. PART II.

Y

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