in the export trade of woollen manu- Wool, we have observed, was at this factures ; of which, by the statute period considered as the principal article, 7 Hen. IV, c. 9, it appears, that this the great support of commerce. It was citizens of London aimed at the mono- also deemed a sure resource in tines of poly; for we there learn, that the ma- pecuniary distress. If the danger of the gistrates and traders of the city, having - public became urgent; if extraordinary taken upon them to prevent cloth ma- exertions were to be made ; if revenue kers, dealers in wine, iron, (we presume was to be anticipated; in all these cases, manufactured,) oil, wax, &c., from sel. what is now done by the security of uniling their goods wholesale in London to versal taxation, then principally rested any but citizens; the Parliament, there. upon this staple. Of this an instance fore, enacted, that they miglit freely sell occurred early in this century. Upon those articles, by wholesale, in London, the subsidies arising from wool, the to any of the King's subjects.

King, Henry the IVth, borrowed money In this statute it was also enacted, that for the payment of his garrison of Calais ; those who did not possess twenty shil- a transaction that has been considered as Jings yearly in land or rent, (a large sum important, inasmuch as, in the opulence for that time, indeed half a qualification oflaymen, it indicates the happy consefor sundry purposes where a qualification quences of the silent influx of wealth included a inaintenance, should not put derived from coinmercial sources *. their sons and daughters to be appren- We have thought it necessary to add lices. But such persons were allowed to send their children to school *.

the art of printing operated, farthing, halfpenny, and penny books, spread beyond

calculation ; which would not have been the and London became its emporium. Manuel,

case if the poor, who were the great encou. who had applied in vain to the Latins for

ragers of this kind of literature, had been succour, harassed with long continued war- unable to read them. fare, at length resigned his crown to his son, Jobn the VIIth, and retired to a convent,

* The sums subscribed to this LOYALTY

Loan were as follow: where he died in 1425, aged 75. This has been stated as an act of op

d. pression operating against the emancipa- The Bishop of Durham..... 66 13 tion of the poor, by preventing their chil. Earl of Westinorland

500 0 dren from obtaining that small portion of Willian Lord of Rons

166 13 4 freedom enjoyed by mechanics; for, it will Hugh Lord of Burnel

166 13 4 be observed, ihat no person who liad been John Norbury t.... regularly indented, and bad served, could be John Henriet....

0 0 i thereafter considered as a slave. But we

Richard Wittyngtont ...... 1000 0 0 rather think it was intended to make the The Merchants of the Staple.... 4000 0 0 mechanic arts of more consequence, by restricting their attaininent to a higher class

The Italian Company of Albertini also-lent of people. Slavery had, even in its very

10001. upon the security of the retention of idea, been by this time worn out in the

*the customs on wool, &c. exported by them nietropolis, and nearly so in the country.

at London, Dover, and Southampton, till their It has been also said, that the peridission

debt should be paid up.---(Fædera, Vol. VIII, to learn to read was of little avail before

p. 488.) the art of printing had brought books within the reach of the poor; yet surely pater. † Norbury (Fishmonger) was Treasurer nosters, ave marias, and creeds, in manuscript, of the Exchequer in the last year of Richard bad, before this time, been cheaply disse- the 11 and the first year of Henry the IVthe nyinated by the first stationers; nay, even

Hende, Mayor 1391 and 1404, was a Draper. popular tales and ballads had been circulated He built the parish-church of St. Swithin by the same medium. Many of the monas.

by the London Stone, and several other teries had schools, where the children, with. edifices for the purposes of piety and charitý. out any very accurate distinction as to their Wittyngton (Mercer) was, by royal autho. parents' situation in life, were tanght gratis; rity, substituted in the place of Adain Bamme, and although, even in the days et Elizabetli, Goldsmith, who died in his mayoralty. He to be able to read was, among tbe lower class was also Mayor in 1406 and 1419; (at a of people, considered as a novelty, and period when he wished to have retired from that class is still, in many instances, whol- the fatigue of public duty :) so that he was ly illiterate; so in the ime of Henry in office at the time of this loan. He seems the IVıh the poor, probably, were ignorant also to have been Mayor of the Staple of in a still greater degree, yet were there then Calais, though residing in London, about many exceptions to that general rule, When 1420.-(MS. Bib. Cott. Galba, B.i, No. 172.)

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these brief notices to the commercial ants a title more substantial than he-
traits that have before been exhibted, raidic, it would perhaps, from the pe-
to impress more strongly the idea of the nod in which Henry the Vith was
energy of cominerce and manufactures,
when they had taken deep, rools in the have rendered the whole of the British

“ In swa Idling bands crown'd King,"
metropolis, and shot their fibres not
only over the kingdom, but the Eu: Islands provinces to the French empire,
ropean, and, in some degree, the Asian in consequence of the people of the lat-
worlds; for, notwithstanding the tur-

ter feeling their military in portance, bulent state of the country during the and drawing all the strength and rereign of Henry the I'Vth, and the still sources of this kingdom into their termore dreadful desolation that followed

ritories, By the invasion of francc" that brilliant but evanescent, and indeed (says Mr. Macpherson *) “ England deceitful gleain of Gallic domination, like his predecessor, who first started

was depopulated, and Henry the Vth, which the conquest of France by Henry the fatal pretension to the sovereignty the lth afforded; neither the adventurous spirit of the merchants of the me

of that kingdoin, found himself reduced

to the miserabie and illusory expedient tropolis, nor the industry of her manyfacturers, appear to have received any

of disnipishing the value of the current very material checks; which is the inore

money of his mot." extraordinary, because in the outset of and the happiness of the people were

“In short, the interests of commerce this piece of royal Quixotism the King ordered that all the vessels of England, equally disregarded during his splendid of twenty tous burthen or upwards that nothing but its own evergies could

reign of conquest aud desolition.” so should be taken into his service, (by in any degree have protected the for: which means he collected a flect of 3500 for the conveyance of his troops,)

mer; and the rapiurous ebullitions of while the Captains of those belonging the public mind upon conquests which, to the Tower, i. e. pen of war, had

as has been observed, were futile in commission to impress men for their their aim, and baneful in their ettects, ships *and in the progress of it, the have aftorded transitory gleams of the

latter. arrival of the English in Normandy spread such a terror through the dis

The coronation of the young King trict, that above twenty-five thousand (Henry the Vith) in France was attend? fainilies fled into the adjacent province

ed with a profusion which, were it not of Bretagne, and carried the art of so, well authenticated, would shake cromaking woollen cloth, of which the dibility to the centre. Bretons were hitherto ignorant, among Council, borrowed 50,0031. for the ex

May 19, 1130, the King, or rather the them ; by which means the manufacture was dispersed inore widely through penses of a coronation in France. Only France, to the consequent injury of this fifteen cities and towns appear in the

records as lenders: whereof London adcountry.

It has been justly observed, that had vanced 6,666!. 138. ff.; Bristol, 3331. this conquest becoine permanent, had 68.8d.; York, 1621. ; Coventry, 100).; that claim to the crown of France which in an evil hour operated upon the splen

. Annals of Commerce, Vol. I,

p. 636. did but highly romantic mind of Ed

+ There is not, perhaps, in the whole circle ward the liid, been confirmed to his of political cconomy, a nuore pleasing, cor.

tainly not a more useful. speculation, than *Successors; bad this chivalrous mo

that which embraces the state of the ancient narch, who, in his armorial bearings,

revenue and expenditure of the kingdom of first quartered the Callic liljes with bis England; becanise, by comrarison, if the own leopards, conveyed to his descend- magnitude of the object in later aves did

not stt all comparison at deliance, wie moglit * This is from Walsingham,

we think

learn to culate the frugality (we will not, the first nouice of the exisience of regular from the known purity of marler tunes, say commissions for impressing men into the sea the integrity,) of our ancestors: but, he this service; from which press warrants are de- as it may, we shall, as it cruriosity, quote the rived. In this invasion of France, it appears following statement of those accounts for ore that niore than double the number of vessels year, ending at Michaeluas 14.0, present d to were employed than in that of Eduard the The King, May 6, 1421 ; which appears the IIId, 1346. Then it is stated that the whole more worthy of attention, as it shows that, nuinber of ships furnished, in consequence of even in those times, the greatest part of ihe the determination of the Natal Paslinnent, public expenses were supported by the trade was only 685.

of the country.

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Sarum, 72). ; and the others smaller Bishop of Winchester, Cardinal of Engsums down to 4l. Of the clergy, the land, subscribed the enormous sum of

*9,9501, Is. ; the Prior of St. John of The revenue consisted of

Jerusalem, 333). 6s. 8d.; and several d.

others coutributed smaller sums. Customis on wool

3.976 1 Subide on woul

. 26,035 18 8

John Cornwall was the only lay indiviSmall customs

2,438 911

dnal whose subscription was so high as Dusty of 12 pennies on the

500l. + (fæderu, Vol. X, p. 461.) pound in the value of gools (the whole ainount of which thenre appears to

lions and Constable of the Tower, Artillery. have been 164,7501. 158.

the King's prisoners, Ambassadors, Messen10d.)...

8,237 10 9 gers, Parliament, dic.. the Duchess of Hol

land. There remained improvided for, old 40,676 1995

debts for Harflers and Calais, the King's Casual revenues paid into the

wardrobe, and Clerks of the king's Ships Exchequer

15,066 11

and Works, Arrears to Annuitants, Debts of 1

king llenay tie Ilih, au of Ilenry tlie Total revenue .....

55,743 10 10

Vth,when Prince of Wales.--(Federn, i'ol. X,

p. 113, er VS. Bih, Cott. Cloop. F. in.) Out of which were to be supported :

* This suum does, indeerl, appear enormous: £.


but if we consider the immense riches of CarThe custoly or defenc: of

dinal Beaufort, it is not so in reality. ShakEngland

5,333 6 speare, who selom makes his historical chaThe costody of Calais and its

racters talk at randoin, in this Ecclesiastic's Mirches in time of war 19,119 5 10

address to Death, alludes to the enormity The cus:ody " of the Marches

of his acquisitions. of Scotland and Rohsburg

King Henry. How fares my Lord ? Spcak, in war

....19,500 0


Beaufort, to thy Sovereign. T'ie custody of Ireland

1,666 0

Car. If thon beest' Death, I'll give them The custody of the Castle of

England's treasure, Frounsale

666 13 4 Enough to purchase such another island, Salaries of the Treasurer,

So thon wili let me live, and feel no pain." keeper of the Privy Seal,

Henry the 17th, Part II, sct ini, Scene 3. Judges, Barons of Exche

+ Although this subscription was ostensibly quer, all other Officers of

raised to detray the erpenses of the corona. the Court

3,002 17

tion, there seems, from the largeness of the Salaries of the Officers of the

sim, to have been a design wore Jatent, Customs, &C...

547 0 0

but certainly more inportan', wluch extendSalaries of Dukes, Earls,

ed itselt into two branches; the one was in Knights. Esquires, Abbess

presents to the French nobility, the other pay of Shene, &c.

7,751 1271 to the soldiers; of which a large army was, Annuities charged on the

from the circumstances of the times, obliged Customs

4,374 4 3

to be kept on foot. The king's uncles, the Salaries of Officers of the Cus

Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester, bad never toms in several ports

274 3 4

very sanguine expectations of the benefit of

Gallic conquist; wlule the Cardinal, wbo Total expenditure fo... 52,235 16 104 opposed them in erery ring, and who pro

bably foresaw nilit advantages to himself Surplus of revenue 3,597 13 11 in his design upon the papal crown, used all out of which were to be detrayed the charges the means that bois power, his influence, and of the king's and Queen's bousehold and his wealth, supplied, to promote the scheme. wardrobe, (carnera--hosprion-yarderoba,) Tos muy probably serve as a reason why the king's works, the new Tower at Ports- neither the names of these royal Dukes, mouth, Clerk of the King's ships, the king's nor of any of their adherents, appear to

The Marches of Scotland (or what was the subsription, while that of Beaufort is at that tiine termed debatcable ground,) were so osteutatiously displayed. London, ever attended with an intolerable expeuse, without

too toni of war, and, at ihat moment, elated bring productive of any thing bui subjects with the idea of becoming the metropolis ofa for historical ballads. Berwick alone is stated visionary empire on the continent, (which to bare cost at this time 10,000 marks an- must have included the subversion of the nually.

Low Countries, her rivals in commerce,) gave + Io this account there is a disagreement with a liberality which she had soon after betwixt the totals and the particular numbers reason to repent, but which at that time, in the record, but it is inupossible to trace the in the list of British cities, distinguished her error.

as supereminently opulent.


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Passing over the dreadful contention 1410, began the building of Guildhall to which this coronation was the pre- upon the foundation of an old edifice, cursor, we coine to an era when the which is supposed, from the circumstance mechanic arls were called into opera- of the Monarch's arms having been distion to confer immortality upon the played in several parts, to bave been efforts of gevius.

erected by Edward the Confessor. Though

not totally destroyed, it was so much da. About A.D. 1440, the mental, the maged by the fire of London, that it was moral systems, were in a considerable obliged to be taken down and rebuilt degree changed by the discovery of the 1669. To the taste of Sir Thomas Rawart of printing. Upon this sulject have ing alrcady observed, we shall only add, of Gog and MAGOG, which first asio

inson we owe the two gigantic figures that its contemplation involves circum- nished both city and country in the year stances in the history of human nature 1906. So that it appears that they have as singular as they are striking: first, stood their cintury, which in some that such an immense benefit should so

instances confers immortality, and been Jong have been concealed from the European world; secondly, that the pro- have, in more senses than one, been fre

PRESENT at a hundred civic feasts; which ductions of the press should, in process quently deemed aids to mortality. of time, have become of sucb incalcu{able advantage to every class of so

Sir Thomas Falconer, Mercer, Mayor ciety ; and, tinally, that they should, in

1414, built the postern called Moorgate, point of revenue, make so astonishing Sir Henry Barton, skinner, Mayor a figure in the great scale of national 1416, seems in a very eminent degree resources as they do at present.

to have considered the safety and conHaving observed upon the religion

venience of his fellow citizens ; for he and the commerce, let us now turn

ordered lanihorns with lights to be hung to the architecture of this period, as

out on the winter evenings betwixt Haldisplayed in new erections, and, con

lontide and Candlemas; whereby, in a nected with these and the two subjects place so intersected with brooks and open we have mentioned, as its effusions began sewers, unquestionably many accidents more fully to cover the ground within were prevented the walls, and a little to extend the subro Sir Robert Chichley, Grocer, Mayor urbs of the metropolis.

1421, gave a plot of ground whercon to In contemplating this subject, it is build the church of it. Stephen, Wal

brook *. pleasing to reflect how many of the Chief Magistrates have been anxious to 1422, the west gate of London was improve and to adorn the city over which begun to be new erected by the exethey presided. We have already men- cutors of Sir Richard Wittyngton, who tioned Hende and Wiltyngion; in addi- was not only in his life, but by his retion to whom we find, that in the mayor- presentatives, a great ornamentor of the alty of Sir Jobo Shadworth, or Chad- city; we find, besides his favourite colworth, Mercer, 1201, the castellated con- lege, his name attached to a number of duit upon Cornbill, which was first built other public works, and theirs dispensing of stone, A.D. 1282, by Henry Wallis, his liberal donations in the erection of Mayor, and which was the most ancient beautifying Guildhall, St. Stephen's aCage in London, was made a reservoir of bove mentioned, Mercers' Chapel, and sweet water, conveyed by pipes of lead other fabrics. Perhaps there was no from Tyburn; on the top of which was man in the city whose lienevolent inplaced a pillory for bakers offending in fiuence was so generally fell in his time ; the assize of bread, for millers stealing of and it is certain, that there never was corn, for bawds, scolds, and other offenders.

* It has been stated, that Sir William Sir Drew Barentine, Goldsmith, Mayor Siandon, Grocer, Navor 1399, gave the 1408, built a part of Goldsmiths' Hall, ground, and that Chuchler, who Taid the

first and second stones, gaie 1001., and all and gave to the Company lands. This

the tiniber work and lead on the processione edifice was erected upon the site of one

way, and the roots of the side aisles. This, still more ancient; it was destroyed in

except for the sake of correctness, is not very the great conflagration.

material; they were, unquestionabls, both Sir Thomas Knoles, Grocer, Mayor very great benefactors to this edifice.

one whose life has since been so whim- In the mayoralty of Sir William Edsically represented *.

wards, Grocer, Mayor 1471, the conSir Williain Raincwell, Fishmonger, duit in Aldermanbury, and the standard Mayor 1426, made laimself extremely in Fleet street, works that had probably popular, by endowing the city with been suspended, were finished. lands and tenements sufficient to disa Sir Ralph Joceline, Draper, Knight charge three of its wards from their of the Bath, Mayor 1176, superintended fifteenths, &c.

the repairs of the walls of the city. Sir John de Welles, Grocer, Mayor Sir Edmund Shaa*, Goldsmith, Mayor 1431, subscribed largely towards the 1482, rebuilt the posters of Cripplenew building of the chapel by Guild- gate. hall, and of his goods the standard in Sir Thoinas Hill, Grocer, was one of West Cheap was inade. He also built the three Mayors tirat died of the the south aisle of si. Antholin's church, sweating sickness in the course of the as by his picture, (strangely there found,) year 1481. He appointed, by his feshis motto, and arms, do yet plainly ap- tament, the conduit in Grasse-street to pear t.

be built. Sir Stephen Eastfield, Vercer, Mayor In the mayoralty of Sir Henry Collet, 1437, contributed largely to the water Mercer, 1486, the cross in West Cheap conduits, which were at that time not was rebuilt in a beautiful manner. only useful, but highly ornamental, to William Purchase, Mercer, Mayor the wider streets of the metropolis. 1497, did what we have lately seen re

The “ Comely Cross,” in Cheapside, practised; he destroyed all the gardens was set up in 1442; to which ‘John and walks in Moorfields, and made them Hatherly, Mayor, contributeil. At this plain ground. Whether he had any period many works were carried on, building scheme in conteinplation dues both useful and ornamental.

not appear t. Sir Simon Eyre, Draper, Mayor 1445,

From the foregoing list it appears, built the Leaden Hall, to be a cominon that the chief magistrates of London garner for the city.

were, many of them, anxious for its During the civil wars, it appears, that improvement, and their ideas seem to the improvements of the city were sus- have been ably seconded and frequently pended: we, therefore, in contemplating ihose dreadful times, meet with more frequent instances of dilapidation than

* This was the magistrate whom we have of building

so otten seen represented in Richard the Illd: but Shaksjocare certainly never intended to place him in the ridiculous light

in which he appears on the stage. Richard * There was at the beginning of the last

used to call hun his Merchant; and Deceis. century, on the north side of Pancras-lane,

ber the 1st, in the first year of tus reign, sold the sign of the Cat. This was near Wittyng, lim some of his plate; of which a variety of ton's mansion, and probably once part of liis arueles are enumerated by Stow, ainonnung estate. But whether it bore any allusion to

to 275 lbs. 4 oz. Tiny Weigint; which, at a well known tale, it is now impossible to dis

3s. 1d. per ounce, came to 5301. 138. 41., cover.

and which the king acknowledgert to have + Stow, Seymour, &c.

received by the hands of his trusty Chaplain,

Mr. Edward Challerton. December 23 The • Many of the Mayors and Aldermen, with Henry Weaver, one of the Sueritis, affairs of Richaru 'must have been much had the distinguished bonour of the kniglie deransed, its pecuniary watts exercedingly hood of the Bath conferred on them by pressing, beture he would, we should have Edward the IVth, in the early period of his magined, have parted will bis plate, or reigo. The citizens of London were, in

have thought 550i. an object worthy Ins general, strongly attached 10 the house of allçi.tion. York from principle; though it lias, by wri- + Betulles was not, at that period, erect. ters of more ingenuity than candour, been ed; its site was then occupied by gardens stated, that this predilecuon was at the extending from Lundon Wall to th: edge instance of their wives, becanse the repre- 01 Ure great fen or moor; round whichi, as sentative of that family was the handsomes: has been before mentioned, there were raised man of his age. That Edward felt their Causeways and birds plauted with trees. attachment is certam ; for he knighted twelve Why these should have been destroyed, as Aldermen and the Recorder in the field, Ripley with a rute" seems to have liad after the riot excried by the Bastard of any concern in it, we are at a loss to conFalconbridge wus quelled.



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