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and the particular style of livius inci- proper things !:, while the folly of deat to the situation of Mr. Vines, we mei iivin; above their income's is a are of opinion ihat the emoluments of prevalesi, md catorcer by the necessiły the office he has been pleased to accept, of intaining certain appearances in are altogether inadequate to his views life", little lope can be entertained of and pretensious; and humbly submit, increasing the stock of honesty. therefore, ibai to prevent the necessiiy I recommend, therefore, Jir. Editor, of peculation, be is entitled to the sun the inicio described in the above of cleven thousand pounds per ann. plan, as th: only means of surmounting
The only objection that could be rea the dificully, and which is contornisonably urged against so extensively able to ide comraon rules of arithmetica besercial spiun, is, that there would and within the means of ail opulent be some inordinale rogues, who would and liberal wativo.
1 an yours, &c. still remain musitished. This, howeser,
SIMO.X SURPLUS. is not fair to presume, as the fact is March 8th, 1807.
G. P. otherwise ; for it is worthy of remark, that in all cases of public delinquenis,
SOUTULIPTON, FROM IYTHL. they have always had the modesty and discretion to leave something wouch
(WITH AN ENGRAVING. ) ed; nor do I believe, that in any case IT is with very singular sztisfaction they have taken inore than they thought that we are, iy the favour of an they could take with apparent safety ingenious friend, enabled to embellish to themselves. lu short, it is not pos our Magazine with a view of tie cele sible to say what good eifecis to the brated town of Southampton ; for alcommunity this plan mighénol produce, though it has, both in ancient and moand thie etect it might have ou the dern times, ben distinguished as a place minds of clainants, who would be too of very considerable importance, and madesi to ask unconscionably, ani who has been ofien described, yet we are of would in all cases be content with less opinion thai it possesses beauties which thaa ihey probably would have been cannot be too frequently brought bein private.
fore the eve of the public, because the i am confidenily of opinion, Mr. Eli- amenity viits environs, the elegance of tor, that someining should be done for its buildings, its picturesijue situation, this useful and intelligent class of sucie- ani, mpore than all, the saintrily of its ty, or presently the demands of poide, atmosphere, render it equal.y an object CIRCU VSTANCE, LUXURY, and Dissie of attraction to those that are in pursuit TION, will rise so bigh, that no place, of peasure or in pursuit of health. pension, salary, or fortune, will be able Preberetiut as yet mentioned SOUTRto kerp pace with the exigencies they AMPTon as a conimercial town; but in create. it is the inanncrs at table to this point of view it has been, and still help every one while be chooses to eat; is, equally important as in the two forand the Courmund is never refused a It is distant about seventy-six taste of another dish. in a counter mies froin the metropolis ; and is cial country, therefore, if a man hias bounded on ihe east by the river Wilien, an appetile after gain and wcalth, it on the west by the Tese or Antoo, would surely be more handsome, and which rises lilar w biichurch : these rin even politic, to feed him, than tu als vers give to the site olie tour the shape low bim to pilfer from the table, and of a peninsule; and as the buildings to take away in bis pocket more than recele from the shore, the land forms is ten times what would have served for gentle acclivity, which not only adus to his meal.
the beanty of the crup d'exil, but ren. It is to be hoped, therefore, that the ders the sirects, even after a heavy Legislature will take into their cousin shower, almost instaliy clean and dry. deration, the beitering the condition The entrancemio Southainpłon by Bar of rogues; it struck me at first, that GATE, you'ra!:c for its antiquily, has the necessary si:pply mnight be obtained been often delicated; but it is one by a tax ou hunesi meu; but I have of those things that inusi, froin the my doubts, I confess, wheiher that ever-changig variety ribich the varias would be produetive in these days, when tions of hihi, shade, clouds, foliage, the
and movilis vbjeris on the road, afford, Imponit finem sapiens et plus lovestis that muni te sein, to have an adequate of Juvenal is so little understood. The idea of its picturesque effect. On the wisc wan, it is true, may limit evcu approach to this gate, u bich lerininnics
the London Roan, clegant scals and Many new and elegant pijes of buildstately rows of trees live the way on ing have been erected within these few both sides; the occasional view of the years. Of these, Albion-place, Moirawater, which at intervals you seein to place, Brunswick-place, &c., froin the approach to ani recede from, forms an elegance of their designs, do honour to eiegant back-ground to this fascinating the taste and judgment of their archilandscape.
tects. The population of the town, The aucient hisioay of Southampton &c., is said to amount to 10,000. is involved in that of the Romans in Of the religious edifices, the principal Britain. Those people, who always se is HolyROUD Church, in the Highlecied with taste and judgment, it is pro- street. St. MICHAEL's has a slender bable became attached to a spot that, octagonal spire, which serves as a landin beauty, reminded them of their 12 mark for ships entering the harbour. tive country: they therefore formed a ALL SAINTS is an elegaut modern strucstation which they called Clausentun. ture, and exhibits a beautiful specimen This, from the discovery of coins, urns, of the taste of its architect, Mr. Revely, the remains of walls, &c., we may con ST. LAWRANCE is also in the Highclude, was probably the site on which street. The church of St. Mary is the village of Bittern, two miles frein remarkable for two things, viz. the the present :outhampton, now stands. value of its benefice, said to be 14001.
It would afford little information, and per annum, and the beautiful situation still less pleasure, were we to trace the of its cemetery. vicissitudes of this town through the The lodgings, boarding-houses, baths, barbarous ages, or to ea unicrate how inns, public-rooms, theatre, libraries, ofien it has been subject to the ravages and iniscellaneous amusements, of this of the Danes and other pirates; but it clegant town, have been so frequently should be'r peated, that it was on its described, that little information could beach that CANUTE gave to his courtiers be derived from our contracteil allusion that practical lesson of morality which to these subjects. Our only object in certainly does equal honour to his piely this sketch is, to catch the reiection and his uuderstanding.
from the print to the page, to turn the The plot said to have becn formed by mind of the reader to ihat kind of conthe Earl of CAMURIDGE, lord :crope, teinplation which the general view of and Sir THOMAS GREY, to assissinale one of the most delightful towns that HENRY THE Vtu while his tect was our Island includes may produce, and wind-bound in the port of Southampton, create in him a desire to enter into has been immortalized by Shakspeare; a minute disquisition of its interior who has, we think, given to an unsub- beautics; which, he will gather from stantial, and an almost impossible pro- these desultory hints, are in every reject,
spect equally interesting. A local habitation and a name;"
HrTue, a small hamlet on the South
ampion river, has nothing reinarkable which has consigned, whether justly or to claim any particular notice, further Lot it is now rather too late to dispute, than being a ferry to Southampton, the conspirators to eternal insamy. which is only three miles distant; but
SOUTHAMPTON in its present state ex the picturesque scenery from the shore hibits evident traces of recent improve- of this place, makes it an object to any ment. The timber buildings have re visitor io Southampton, and would fully ceded from the high streci, and brick repay his curiosity in crossing over houses have been chiedy substituted. to see this beautiful town to the best In this, which is one of the most beauti- advantage. It cominands its whole ex. ful mural avenues in England, extending tent with the public Baths, Ball-rooms, from the Bar Gate to the Water (ate, Custom-house, the Marquis of lans. there are shops, which, for the variety downe's Castle and Tower, the Ancient and richness of their commodities, may Walls
, Holyrood, t. Michael's and All vie with any in London. Here are apart Saints' Churches, itchen Ferry, and ments which, equally pleasant and com- Setley Abbey, with the full extent of modious, are frequently let to summer the River to Calsbot Castle, and the visitants. Conduits are disposed at pro Isle of Wight. per distances, which supply the place Here some small coasting vers: ls fire with excellent water; and, except in the built; the shallowness of the score eastern parts of the town, the sireeis are preventing their having any it immer well paved, lized, and regularly pa- dimensions, than fron 30 to 60 tons
ANCIENT AND MODERN LONDON,
the time of CHAUCER. The father of
English verse, and almost of the Eng. COLLECTED AND RECOLLECTED,
lisa language, seems to have descanted BY JOSEPH MOSCR, E32.
on the rices of the clergy as on a No. LVIII.
fivosriie theme. Their ambition, pride,
osleniaiion, avarice, and oiher passions 2 PHILOSOPHICAL AND MORAL VIEW or aid propensities, perhaps deserved the
custigation which he has bestowed upon WITH NOTES, &c.
them: vei it will be rernembered, that,
alihough under the influenre of John of Chapter XXIII.
Gauu!, he breathed the spirit of his E have, in the last and pre. contemporary Wickliff: his senior Boc
ceiling Chapters, seen the city cace, who could have had no such stimuof Westminster in iis propressive state lation, has been still more severe ipon of improvement, and have, in some de- the irregularities of the religious Orders: gree, endeavoured to trace the causes whace we may suppose, that they dethat operated toward the building and served both the censire and ridicule peopling that long-leylerted part of the which was so freely besiowed upon metropolis : it is, therefore, proper that
thein ; which, descending, spread among we should return to London, and, by the succeding Italian points and doa observing its state at the periods of, and velists, and is to be traced even into the subsequent to the Reformation, iloat Vatican: thence, either from molives this. our little bark down the stream of liberality or insanily, encouraged by of time to the Port at which this ihe Leo the Xih * and oiner Pontiis, sathird voyage of its desallory course
tires a!!d stories levelled at the root shall terminate.
of the establishment of which they were It has been already seen, in our
the head were circulated and promul. former pages, that within the walls of gated through Europe: the conseLondon, the churches, the palaces, and querce of which was, that although at, the mansions of the Nobility, occupied first hy slow and almost in perceptible a considerable space; the monasteries degrees, yet gathering strength and ceand houses dedicated to the reception lerity by time, they supped the founof religious societies still more; aid dation of thal superstructure which, in that these trenched upon the ground this kingdom, Berry overturneil
. which might have been employed to The unkemeiling of the Romish cominercial purposes; while the city, Fox," as it was then termeel
, must, in taken in a general view, displaved a the City, have prod..ced a very singular singular intermixture of editres de elent. The spennor of the wastic voied to splendor, to sanctity, and to buildinys, iany of which we have menindustry.
tioned, bad, froin the tinie of the arons, The Reformalion, in the change of been gradually expand... Age wier religious principles, etlecied also a change age increased their aber, cnlarged in the appearance of London, which has their size, and act to their ornabeen compared io a bee-hive; and its ments. These fabrics, venerable for inhabitants, who have breu divided into their antiquity, sili more vererable two great clauses, the religious and secure as monumenis of the Cr?fected piety Jar orders of society, to Drones and of their founders, and lightiy re:pect. Hoxer-Becs. Thesi', in corsequence able as specimens of the architectural of that event, became, at least with tasie, auei depositaries of the entusions respect to external appearance, blended of the literary and phic genius of and it is probable that, in the course of former centuries, in the cours. of a few a few years, they were thoroughly amai- years were neariy aimiditated. gamated with the mass of the citizens. The seran les among the raparious
If we for a moment take a retro courtiers of llenry was at t'rsi for spective view, we shall discover that grauis (sometimes it rents merely nos the seeds of that great event which minal) of the buildi, then for the caused so beneficial a change in the religious and moral habits of the peo
* The literary productions of the eccl's. ple, for at the same time producel so astirs encouraer by the Pootit, in their plentifál a harvest to the avaricious immo alteriency, tuly justities ev-yil... courtiers of Henry the Virth, were sown that had been sitten leture respetiva de so long antecedent to their invurity as eno mies on the gold shuud.
Europ. Mag. I'ol. LI, June 1807 Hhh
lands annexed to them. When the antecedent, become absolutely necesgreater monasteries were demolished, sary, if the revenues of the nonastic contention is said even to have descend- Orders had been consolidated into a ed so low as to their materials. Thus fund applicable to the pious purposes while one noble Lord ran away with the to wbich they were originally dedicated, stone, another took the lead, and a third (purposes by no means hostile to, but the wood, of some magnificent pile; rather concomitant with, the new sysand the progress of cupidity was to tem of ecclesiastical government ;) had be traced by the progress of Vandalic the surplus been reinvested, and the dilapidation. According to Camden *, same advantage taken of the circumthe number of monasteries that were, stances of the times with respect to from the dawn to the conclusion of the the allowed exorbitance of interest *, Reformation, suppressed in England and the scarcity or plenty of specie, or Wales, amounted to 645; (these were of its representative paper, and the large establishments + ;) also 96 col. consequent rise of land, as has been leges, and 110 hospitals. It has been done since those ecclesiastical estates lamented that all the monasteries were have been in lay possession ; Tee Poor, thus demolished, as many in the metro- if the solecism may be allowed, would polis and country, reinarkable for their bave been the richest body in the nasize and convenience, ought to have, tion. been preserved for the purposes of work With respect to financial arrangehouses and county hospitals.
ments, the reformation upon the ConBut what shall we say to the head- tinent was managed in a manner very strong fury that possessed those times, different. In Hungary, Bohemia, Gerwhen we learn that our two universities, many, France, and Switzerland, whereestablishments that have, with pro- soever the doctrines of Luther, Calvin, priety, becn termed the eyes of Eng- or their precursor Zuinglius t, prevailed, land, were included in the Dissolution the monastic Orders were deprived of Act; and that such was the zeal of their immense revenues; but those did the Monarch, that he was with very not find their way into the pockets of considerable difficulty induced to suffer Jaymen, but, in most instavces, were them to remain in their former con- treasured as a public fund applicable dition?
to purposes which, however zealous the How the city of London must have reformers might be, they would have appeared wbile her magnificent piles deemed it sacrilege to bave abandoned, were tumbling into ruins, while the or to have converted the emanations of rage against false principles satiated, real piely to uses less cousecrated. Even or rather endeavoured to satiate itself that rough Apostle" John Knox, with the grasp of real objects, is better though no propensity operated more to be conceived than described : the strongly in his mind than a desire to zeal for conversion, certainly laudable level the Roman Catholics with the in its original motives, was (as is the earth, yet, notwithstanding in his fucase in all public convulsions, whether rious zeal he defended the murder of religious or political,) in this infamed Cardinal Beaton, he would have deemand stimulated by the energies of indi- ed it a crime of at leasi equal turpitude vidual interest ; and instead of the pris- with the robbing a nan after he was tipe idea of the conversion of MINDS and MORALS, transformed, in many instances, to a sordid zeal for the conver * Interest for the use of money, then sion of goods and CATTELS.
termund usury, though always in some degree It has often, in the moinents of con coomved al, was first legalizid by the statute templation, occurred to us, ibiad when [si llen. 1111, c. 9.] Before this aime, every the reformation in the church took
one 100k us thuchi usance as he could obtaili, place, which had certainly, for years goverilly more than 10 per cent ly this
statue io, per cent is deidered to be legal interest: nilie year 13-18 it was reduced lu
71. per cent. Britannia, p. 117, ed. 1607.
1 lunile year 1516, and before Luther bad * As their riches were many greater, co was published lus celebrated propositions at Wila the dissolution of the principal ore Tipid lemberg, Ulrie Zuinglius. an ecclesj tic of than that of the staller abbess. The dela Zurich, had, with a courage and fortitude Pucation commenced in the year 1631, and truly lichatie, opposed bimself to be as was compleied o 1339.
suinptions utile Rwanan Churchia
knocked down, if he had encouraged How those incomes were applied in the application of the revenues annexed England, it is not necessary here to to any of their establishments, but to inquire: the miseries of the poor, the the most holy and charitable pur- increase of indigence, from A.D. 1539
to the beginning of the seventeenth century, is shown by the promulgation of the statute 43 Eliz.; an Act which,
however it may from others deserve From the circumstance of the applica- unqualified praise, as the foundation tion, or rather, we should perhaps say, the of a code of laws * which we feel little misapplication, of the monastic revenues, it became necessary to crect an office for the disposition to commend, was, we must
allow, both necessary and agreeable : management of the multifarious concerns which this, the greatest change of property of the poor, and agreeable to the de
necessary, as it provided for the support that had occurred in the kingdom since the Norman Conquest, involved. This office, scendants of the sharers in the spoils of which was terined the Court of Augmenta- the Church +, as it relieved thein from tion, was established A D. 1536 : it was composed of a Chancellor, Treasurer, Surveyor, and ten inferior officers. Among the last of more immaculate than its former possessors. its exertions was the arrangement of the Philosophically speaking, it may be made a income arising from the dissolution of the question, Whether, when persons of large CHANTRIES, which were foundations that fortunes were in the habits of devoting a certainly originated from superstition, and small part of their revenues to the purpose of were probably nurtured by priesteraft. singing requiems for the departed souls of Chantries were generally annexed 10 chur- their parents, husbands, wives, children, or ches, and were productive of great emolu near relations, however mistaken they right ment, as each had a separate landed estate have been, the money was not as well applied devoted to the pious purpose of performing as at present in large subscriptions to the masses for departed souls. It is stated that opera ? In the former instance, it found its there were no less than forty-seven in St. way into the pockets of Roman Catholics, Paul's Cathedral. The Grey Friars had a who we must suppose were generally pious; great number, Westminster Abbey still more, in the latter, while some otit, perhaps, conand the abbey of St. Mary, Bermondsey, its tributes to the support of an establishment, full share : indeed, there were few churches in these times, disgraceful to the nation, it in the metropolis in which chantries were
encourages Roman Catholics, who we know not founded. \From these the priests derived are venerally profigate. a very considerable part of their incomes. * The precursor of this statute (the 34 Eliz. It has been said, that by these almost con c. 5.) was the first legal and effectual parish stant orisons and requiems the flame of devo assessment for the poor in England ; though tion was kept alive ; but we fear, notwith so difficult was the subject, that there had standing its hourly excitation, it emitted but been seven antecedent ones. a lukewarm effervescence. We can still re + The church lands were, in many inmember how much the carly prayers at stances, obtamed at 110 greater trouble or Westminster were neglected; and know that expense than that of a few Bows at Court; they have been discontinued, for want of or at most, it is observed by Lord Herbert, auditors, at most of the churches in which [p. 441,] sold by the King at very low rates, the piety of our ancestors had established to enable the purchasers to heep up the them: therefore, for the same reason, we hospitality pracused by the Monks when tney believe that the inonks, in many instances, possessed them. This was enforced under a chanied by themselves. This was probably penalty of 6l. 13s. 1d. per month. But the thic ostensible cause why chantries were, in penalty not being ordinarily required, due December 1517, by Parliament, given to the 1:ospitality was nepiected, and wholly aboKiny; though the neglect, or even the abuse 1131d at ihe supplication of the Parlian, at of an establishment, is no reason why the [21 Jac. I.] This seems to have been a most profits derived from it should be a pro- impoliuc measure, as it desiroved the last prialed to other purposes. Leaving PCR vestige of the claims of the poor upon the 6 ATORY out of question, prayers for the possessors of church laneis, ind ihrew thein departed could never be deeined superfluous. at once upon the landed and trading inte This was indeed the idea of many derout terests in general. As ttle stuallest sagacity Protestants, who in vain used their efforts to would have forescen this was the natural conprevent the last remnant of that immense sequence of shutting the monastic kitchens, inass of property wluch had been, within which in former times had been ever open to fifteen years, wrested from the Romish Cler thie indigent of the neighbourhood, nad the gy, froiu being shared among those of the purchasers of church lands in eviy parish laty, who, for their pride, avarice, and nu been obliged, by their tenures, to support merous other faults, they did not deem much the poor thereui, or at least to considered