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the peasant looked cheerful; A.D. 1651, these extensive premises and the towns abounded with riches were bought of the Earl of Derby, to and=festivity. What an alteration at whose family they belonged from the present from such a charming scene! time of Edward the vith. · By the I am not expert at description, nor cañ above will, the truly benevolent testator iny fancy add any horrors to the pic- bequeathed 70001.' to purchase a fee ture ; but sure even conquerors them siinple estate, the profits of which were selves would weep at the hideous pro: to be applied for the purchase of this speets now before me. The whole place, and to found a school upon an country, my dear country, lics one enlarged and liberal plan, for clothing, frightful waste, presenting only objects éducating, and maintaining forty boys, to excite terror, pity, and despair. The from the age of six years to that of business of the husbandman and the fourteen, when they were to be ap: shepherd are quite discontinued; the prenticed, with a nioderate fee. As the husbandman and the shepherd are be value of the estates incrensed, the num. toitie soldiers themselves, and help to ber of boys was afterwards augmented favage the soil they formerly cultivated. to sixty : and by a dēcree of the Feoffees The towits are inhabited only by old in 1780, this number was again inmen, women, and children ; perhaps crcased by an additional twenty. Thus, kere and there a warrior, by wounds or eighty boys are now provided for, and loss of limbs rendered unfit for service, educated, by this establishment. teft at his door ; his little children hang Nearly one-fourth of the boys are found him, ask an history of every annually, discharged at Easter, and wound, and grow themselves soldiers others elected in their stead by the before they find strength for the field. Feoffecs, who are twenty-four in numBut this were nothing, did we not feel ber, and who have been invariably the alternate insolence of either army, gentlemen of respectability in the au it happens to advance or retreat, neighbourhood. They are rendered a in pursuing the operations of the cami body corporate by. charter, dated Nopaign: it is impossible to express the vember 20, A.D. 1665. confusion which even those who cal} Mr. Chetham by his will bequeathed themselves our friends create. Even also the 'sums of 1000l. for the purchase those from whom we might expect re- of books, and 100l, for a building, as dress, oppress us with new calamities. the foundation of a public library; for From your justice, therefore, it is that the augmentation and support of which, we hope'relict ; to you even children he devised the residue of his personal and women may coinplaiu, wbose hu- estate, alter the payment of certain manity stoops to the ineanest petition, legacies. The same truly pious and and whose power is capable of repres- charitable man, who died a Bachesing the greatest injustice.
lor, bequeathed the sum of 2001. to I am, Sire, &c. purchase religious, or,
as then called, “ godly Fuglish books," which TIIE COLLEGE,
were to be chained to 'desks, in the OR CHETHAM's HOSPITAL, churches of Manchester and Bolton, ManchESTER, LANCASHIRE. and the chapels of Turton, Walmsley, (WITH A VIEW.]
and Gorton. VIE learued historian of Man The library, whicli Mr. Chetham thus
chiester, Mr. Whitaker, contends founded at Manchester, is now becoing that the above edifice stands within the a vast mass of useful books, amounting precinct of the ancient Roman summer to upwards of 15,000 volumes ; and camp, belonging to the slation called these are carefully preserved in apartVancunium. The buildings, a part of ments appropriately fitted up for their which is represented in the annexed reception. A catalogue of them was Print, stand on a mass of rock, which published in 1791, in two volumes, 8vo. is washed by the waters of the river it is entitled “ Bibliotheca ChethamenIrk. It was formerly the residence of sis," and was edited by the Rev. John the Warden and Fellows of a College: Radcliff, M.A., who was theu librathe large and fine church belonging to rian.
J. B. which, stands at a short distance south *** T'e have heard that a different of the domestic buildings. In conse Ticw of this Building, with more ample quence of the acill of lurry Curre Accounts of it, will be published in ine BAM, Es, of Clayton, near Man- 9th F'olume of the “ Beauties of Eng. chester, bearing date December 16, land and Walcs”
A PRILOSOPHICAL AND MORAL VIEW OF
ANCIENT AND MODERN LONDON.
stance, from which profit could be deCOLLECTED AND RECOLLECTED,
rived, into the vortex of the Court of
If this, upon the broadest of all pos-
sible plans, may be deemned a general sketch of the great mass of people in the latter period of the fifteenth cen.
tury, it is necessary to fill up a small WITH NOTES, &c.
portion of the outline of every country
with a principal object, which inay stand Chapler XIX.
like the cardinal point in a map; or, Ticaruination of Great Britain, NHE circuinstances arising from the in other words, see how those people
were governed. bave, at all periods, been singular. At the commencement of the last Placed by Providence in a state that quarter of the period alluded to, Edseemed calculated to secure to it the ward the IV'th, as bas been observed, inost dignified independence, it has yet, was King of England ; Rodolphus the either by conquest, consanguinity, or Ild, Emperor of Gerinany; Louis the commerce, hecome, at times, intiinate- Xith, King of France ; Ferdinand and ly connecied with every other country Isabella governed Spain ; Naples was of Europe ; and, indee:l, upon the pi- under the domination of Ferdinand, the nions of war or traffic, stretched its re- illegitimate son of alphonso; the Papal lationship to many other parts of the Chair was filled by sixtus the lVih; globe.
and the celebrated Mattia Corvino bad It is, perhaps, owing to this gene- lately been elected, by the free voice of ral connexion, that the prominent fea- bis countrymen, king of Hungary. ture of the character of the English A.D. 1475. “ The political system of since the fifteenth century has been Europe was as vet informed. The political. Inhabiting an island divided despotic Sovereign, governing a half froin, yet in a manuer allied to, all the civilized people, had, in general, only world, an Englislıman cousiders himself two principal ends in view the supas a Cosmopolite, and becomes, in bis porting his authority at home by the turn, as anxious about the affairs of "lepression of his powerful Nobles, and Abyssinia or of Lapland, as about those the extending his dominion abroad bg of York, Pixeter, his own metropolis, the subjugation of his weaker neighor any other part of the kingdom. bours. Devoted to these objects, which
This dias, for ages, been the Puglish frequently required all their talents and character; but this, formerly, was not all their resources, the l'utentates of the character of other European na Europe behold with the utmost indif. tions. The Germans seem to have la- ference the destruction of the Eastern boured under a load which, whether empire, and the abridgment of the military or civil, encunbered without Christian territory, by a race of barbaadding variety to their ideas; or to rians, who were most probably prehave pursued with indefatigable indus- vented only by their own disænsions try tie atoms of science, and busied froin establishing themselves in Italy, their lives upon objects which, could and desolating the kingdoms of the they have been discerned, would pro- west. It was in vain that Pius the bably have been adruired. The French Ild had called upon the European Soappear to have had too mrich volati- vereigns to unite in the common cause. biy to suffer any ideas to press long The ardour of the crusades was past. enongh to encumber them; the Dutch A jenlousy of each other, or of their to have been selulously devoted to own subjecis, was an insuperable oboup otjes!; the Spaniards, in conse stacle to his entrcalies; and the good quence of a new establishment of their Pontiff was at length convis.ced that own, to liave been trembling under his eloquence would be bear employed the denunciations of a religious syutein, in prevailing on the Turkish Emperor which vas, in its purity, intended to to relinquisa his creed and embrace speak peace and good will to mankind; Christimity, than in simulating tho the Italians, who might for ages lave Princes of Europe to resist bis arms *." been lerined the spies of Europe: pervading the doinestic concerns of every * Roscoe's Life and Pontificate or Leo the nation, and dragging every circum- \thi.
Europ. Mag. 2.0?. LI. Fco. i3u7. N
This whole length portrait of the of St. Mary Aldermary *, with tile political situation of Europe, drawn by stecple. so able a master, we deemed it neces Jorn Tate, Mercer, Mayor + 1513, sary to copy, because it must correctly built the church of St. Anthony's Hospicunnects itself with the sketch that we tal in London. had before displayed, and, combined to Sir Thomas Exnewe, Goldsinith, gether, operated most intimately upon Mayor 1517, made the water conduit the politiealand moral circunstances of in London Wall, by Moorgate. the City of London, whose inhabitants, Sir Jouy MILBORNE, Draper, Mayor as we have observed of the English in 1521, founded fourteen alıns-houses by general, inquisitive after, and governed Crossed friars Church. in their propensities by foreign, more Six Rowlard Hill, Mercer, Mayot than even by doinestic events, rose, 1519, appears to have been a man of a upon the depression of the higher or liberal spirit. He founded a free school -ders of society, into legislative conse amended many highways, and built and quence. By the distraction which per- repaired many bridges. vaded Italy, commerce was frightened Sir Willian Chester , Draper, was from Florence, its mart and from Venice, Mayor 1.560. It was during this inayoritseinporium, to the British shores. Even alty that the Merchant Tailors founded the rising empire of the Turks was ad- their excellent free school for poor men's: vantageous to our Eastern systein ; and children, &c. from the wars betwixt the Germans and the French, the trade of England de
* This church, it will be recollected, obdved additional importance. The Dutch, tained the latter appellarion from being the although known as a people, had not
caldest fabric dedicated to St. Mary, in Lone vet obtained suficient consequenee in
don. Sir Henry Lieble, though so noble a the scale of nations to interfere in the body till the year 1936 or 1555; but !!!
Benefactor, had no moment set over his smallest degree with the interest of our
liun Blount, Lort Mount; ay, who married metropolis , while with the Nether. llite, bis daugetur, ordered, by his will, lands, through the medium of Antwerp, it stone to be laid over him, 11®) this colle that kind of emulation sul sisted, which, sideration, that there was no sanie upon him, although it might, in a few instances, and he had been a special beriefactor to 'excite the jealousy of London, was the building of Alliermari. church to the value certainly advantageous to both cities.
of 20001., and above;" which (says Ston)
was a great sum of money in those lines. Under these flourishing circumstances
+ lle succeeded Sir Willian Brown, who the fifteenth century closed upon the died in his mayoralty. inhabitants of the metropolis : let us # This means the bridges that crossed the
now, therefore, obscrve their operative streets of the metropolis, of which the we were consequences in the sixteenth.
a great number It does not appear that in this cc11
The Mayor inimediately preceding this. tury the Chief Mayistrates were so ange
Migistrate, viz. A. D. 155), was Sir Wi
IIAN HEWET, who is stated to have been a ious for the improvement of the city as
merchant, and to have lived on Loudon they had been in those preceding: Bridge. He is said to have possessed an
Sir WillIAM CAPEL. Draper, Mayor estate of 60001. per annum, and to have bael 1503, was the first that caused a cage three sons and one daughter. To this daughfor the punishment of vagabonds to be
ter the accident of being dropped into the set up in every ward. These were pro
Thames by bermaid happened: which, toges
ther with the heroism of Osbom, the 2011bably deemed necessary erections, and
(pater of the Duke of Leeds, is well known. therefore, with respect to police, must When the young laris grew iijl, so great wag be allowed to be improvements.
ber beauty, and so immense her fortune, Sir Thomas K NESWORTA, Fishmon
that several of the Nobility, particularly the ger, Moyor 1505, appointed the water
Earl of Shrowsbury, wished, a3 we how say, conduit àt Billingsgate to be built.
to Icart her to the ultar; but Sir William de
clared, that as Ostorn had sured hem, Oslo, Sia STEPHEN JENNINGS, Merchant should have her. In 1732 here' was it picture Tailor, Mayor 1508, built the greatest of Sir William at Kivetou lone. lle died part of the church of St. Andrew Under- 1549, as was recorded on his tomb), which was shafr.
of magpuficent worhaunip, in St. Paul's - Sir Henry KEBLE, Grocer, Mayor this tale, was Mayor 1.505. B:9h fiber ad
church. Sir Edward (bordi, the leto e 1310, gave 10001. toward the new
5011-in-law were of the company or Clour building and finishing his parish church worbcis.