Mr. Cooke expressed his displeasc:re, anthentic accounts of the present town, till informed that the man was in con- which was first rendered inost unforfinement for debt. Ilis resentiment was tunately remarkable by the piratical instantly disarmed; he went to the hair. invasions of the Danes; and then disdresser's house just as the officers were played in a more pleasing point of removing the brd, in consequence of an view, by its adjacent beach becoming execution. This scene of accumulated the scene of a lesson of practical moralisuffering in a family, was too much for ty, in which CANUTE reproved his CourMr. Cooke's sensibility; he sat down tiers for that hind of flattery, which, in silence, and after the big tear had even in tbose rude ages, seems to have, dropped upon bis manly check, he re

like the shadow, followed, and accommodeemned the goods, and sent the officers dated itself to the substance of greataway.

The main intention of his visit ness; what effect the sensible and ele. was, however, not accomplished; be gant admonition of the monarch bad inquired out the man's place of confine- upon thein, or, when it became tradiment, visited him in the Fleet Pri- tion upon their descendants, it is not son, and gave security to the creditors, here necessary to inquire. to the amount of 501. Checred with In 1838 we find that Southampton the benevolence he had accoinplished, was again the scene of, we had almost be drank freely that afternoon, and said, as it hardly could be termed reguo 7:28 publickly hissed, by those who were iar warfare, piratical depredatin, beiguorant of the cause, on the stage. ing, plundered and burned by the

The debtor, restored to his family, French, who, bowever, in consequence still wanted, though he did not ask of the warmth of their reception, bad assistance; Mr. Cooke generously al- no great reason to rejoice in their vanced 25). more; and "as generously temerity, added, that he would be repaid in hair- From the beach at Southampton, thie dressing. We are sorry to add, that gallant army embarkel which gainer! his benevolence was found to be be- immortal glory in the field of A: 1. stowed on a worthless object, who una

court. The second scene of Henry V, gratefully fled from his creditors, and art 2, although the poci, like a skilfuí from Mr. Cooke, who had so kindly historical painter, has thrown perhaps succoured him. When Mr. Cooke 100 dorp a shade upon some characters, heard of this ingratitude, it produced to let the hig? light fall upon his hero, a state of mind which procured ano

is one of those eilusions of Shakspeare, tier publick hissing. But surelv, bad that have made an impression on the the publick been acquainted with the human mir:d which nothing can eradicauses, applause must have superseded cate. every other consideration.

The West-Gate of Southampton, to

which it is now time to direct the ats. FRONTISPIECE.

tention of the reader, is, as will be ob-.

served in the View, prouninantly marked VE frontispiece which we have cho- in which it was erected; it is a low

with the architectural truits of the age* the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE, exhibits a view of the WEST-GA7E, SOUTRAMP: being in its thickness at least two grooves,

consequently carefully defended, there TON; a town, that has, from the earliest for portcullises, and six square apertures periods of history, been rendered in- for discharging arrows, pouring hot wateresting by its situation, which api ter, and other annoyances, on assailants, pears to bave attracted the attention of The tower over this gate is modernized, the Romans; a people, and indeed, per- but does not seem to have, at any haps, the only people, that ever had the time, exhibited a very beautiful apidea of combining graphic taste with military tactics; and who, at about two the Water-gate to the Wesl-gate, is a

pearance. The length of the wall from miles from the site of the present town, bout three bundred and eighty yards. on the Itchin, formed their Clausentam, now calied Bittern, of which the vesti- caution with which its Gate was de

The west-quay is small; but, by the ges of ancient walls that are still to be fended, has evidently been considered seen, and the number of Roman coins that have been found, are unquestion

as of great consequence in former ages. ablé proofs.

M. From the ninth century, we possess * Probably the tune of the Saxons.


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tions, (which have, in some sort, more COLLECTED AND RECOLLECTED,

reference to the past than regard to

the future,) it is necessiry to extend BY JOSEPH MOSER, ESQ.

them still further, while we state, that No. LIII.

the difficulties of which we have com

plained respecting the former, would, A PNLOSOPUICAL AND MORAL VIEW OF

it should seem, in a considerable de. ANCIENT AND MODERN LONDON,

gree, be obviated in this latter part

of the work by the happy discovery Witi NOTES, &c.

of the art of printing, which has multiChapter XVIII.

plied resources, and rendered the act of

arrangement more troublesome than IF, in the two preceding parts of this those of research and collection.

desaltory sketch of civic history, This, however true as a çeneral proour progress has been comparatively position, is subject to cons.derable lislor, canlour inust suppose it to have mitation, and liable to much observabeen retarded by the frequent impedi- tion. ments that have intercepted our course, The art of printing, as practised in the obstarles that we liave had to con- the fifteenth century, rather multiplied tend with, and the diificulties attendant copies than originals. The first presses upon accurate research : this combina. were cither ahnost entirely employed lion would have been s'ufficient to have in translations from the classics, or repressed the energy of curiosity, and engaged in fixing the more volatile to have counteracted the efforts of in- effusions of romance and poetry, pardustry, bad we not found a patriotic sa- ticularly those of Italy, or in impressing ti-faction ju recording by what stops thousands of reams of popular Tales our metropolitan city gradually ad- into tie service of their country, or vanced to the exalted eminence which groaning under those solid and ponit now occapies in 'lie commercial and derous tomes of ecclesiastical dullness political scale of the uniserse.

which were emphatically termed laThe paths of bistory, how often so bours : grueral history was, therefore, crer they may have been troddeu, are but little regarded; local history still not always rendered smooth in propor- less; and doinestic not at all. tion to tie numbers that have passed Aiihough, as has been seen in the over them.

preceding pages, the anuals and history In contemplating the events of for- of their country were the favourite mer periods, men very frequently dis- speculations of the l'nylish writers from cover new motives operating to pro- the timeut venerable Bede; and though, duce consequences heretviore the sport for many centuries antecedent to the of coajecture; they very frequently be fourteenth, the talenis of men of the hold events in new points of view; they greatest genius were, when relieved from derive new ideas from contemplation the intricacies of controversy, scarcely and comparison, which lead to new engaged upon any other subjects; yet conclusionis.

it does not appear that inany of their This has been the case with respect works, notwithstanding they were, perto this work in its progressi e cours, haj's, pretty catensively disseminated i pon thr .firin bass of facts, though in inanuscript, were published through vicwing them in lights diferent from the medium of the press, vutil a period our precursors or cotemporaries, we considerably si.bseqiient to the reformahave built our superscrurire, which, tion. Consonant with our designation, we In consequence of the confusion crerather irena to vrlor as a collection ated at that time liy the conjunction of inints, ciotices, and obser ations, than of acarice and ignorance, innumerable a regulas historically connected sys- pil's of scriptural treasure, autisties, teni.

manuscripts, aiul libraries of monastic To such an undertaking pribor our literature, that might have diffused talents nor our time arr: dijual. or, if light over transactions calcul: t d to they were, antall we rondonise our sub. have furnished us with meinoirs, caraj.si into the space to which we are at racters, ano-dvies, genealogies, litics, present limited

and an introite variety oi other vaHaving made these gercral observa- luable memorials and materiais, now

с Europ. Mag. I'ol. Li. Jan. 1507.

consigned to irremediable obscurity, or the defence of the kingdom and the sunk into total obliviou, were destroy- maintenance of the poor ed, dispersed, or lost.

The commerce of London, which bad

been in a progressive state of improveIt is, therefore, impossible, in a pur- inent from the time of the Norinan suit of this nature, to derive that assist- Conquest, seeins now to have arrived at ance which might, in many instances, a very considerable height+, particularly be wished from written documents : and as the subjects of local investigation have, many of them, been totally annihi- * The idea of this petition is extremely lated, we are precluded froin a contem- curious, because it seenis

, in 1410, to hint at plation of even their vestiges. Yet al- a mode of reliet' for the poor that was not though this generally applies to the great regularly adopted until the 434 of Elizabeth. change of property which took place at lurzer monastic establishments there were

It is well known, that annexed to all the the period alluded to, still, with respect almis-houses. In the Almonry, Westminster, to the city of London, something may be

$ogle vestiges of those were to be seen within gathered from those records which re

these tiity years. But beside these, the main, and those writings which survived abbey of St. Peter, like all others, had also the monasticdissolution; though we must an extended system of general relief. Could observe, that such was the party spirit the commons, at so early a period, have had during the contention of the two Houses annid a ot' annihilating this system, and estabof York and Lancaster, (a spirit which lishing the parochial? It is almost impossible, also burned in the bosomn of Henry the

it we consider the power of the court of Vilth, and was not quite extinguished in Rome, to believe that, comprehensive as the that of Henry the villth,) that, with

mind of Wicliffe was, and deterinined as was respert to the detail of public events and

huis temper, he could have entertained so bold the delineation of public characters, they

an idea: yet he certainly did not mean to must be examined with great aitention, and his adherents had proclaimed all the

waste his declamations uport the idle air ; he and received with great caution. grievances which were the substance of the The beginning of the fifteenth century citizens, and he had the good fortune to find

petition alluded 10 ; he had addressed the was marked by the tragical death, or that he did not speak to the deaf. The civil murder, of Richard the IId, at Pomfret

wars, it is probable, suspended the operation Castle, and the usurpation of Henry the of his doctrmes; but they were acted upon IVth; an event which laid the foundation in the subsequent age to their full extent. of those wars to which we have alluded. + The opinion of Manuel Paleologus, the At the same period the Lollards, who had Emperor of Constantinople, or of his attendbeen considerably encouraged, and in- ants, respecting the state of Europe, at least deed openly protected, by John of Gaunt,

as it appeared to the Greeks, is interesting : Duke of Lancaster, and King of Castile, mechanic arts, and they boast of the inven

--" The natives of Germany excel in the were proceeded against with a rigour that consigned more than one victim to

t101 of gunpowder and cannun. Above two the stake.

hundred free cities are governed by their

own laws:- France contains many flourishing That Wicliffe had a number of adhe- cities; of which the royal residence, Paris, is rents in the city of London cannot, from

pre-eminent in wealth and luxury-Flanders a view of the transactions of the times, frequented by merchants of our own sea (the

is an opulent province, the ports of which are he doubted. The general theine of his Mediterranean) and the ocean.–Britain (or discourses, and of those of the preachers rather England) is full of towns and villages. with whom he was connected, was the It has no vines, and but little fruit; but it dissolute lives, the enormous revenues, abounds in corn, honey, and wool, from which and the pride of the Clergy. These, to the tires muke great quantities of cloth. the inhabitants of the metropolis, who London, the capital, may be preterred to had too frequently ocular demonstration every city of the west for populatwn, opu. of the truth of part of his and their asser

Tence, and luxury. It is seated on the river tions, and, in their purses, an acute

Thames, which. by the advantage of its tide, feeling of the remainder, were popular daily receives and dispatches vessels to var subjects : 'we therefore find that they

rious countries." (Lam Chalcocondyles, l. 1.) took the lead in a petition which stated

Libis Emperor, it will be recollecied, lived

at a period when the commerce of the eastern not only the extent of clerical revenues,

einpire had fled, before the swords of the but how immense sums were collected Turks, to Venice, where, for a time, it fouand dissipated, that might be applied in risbed; but it ultimately settled iu the west,

in the export trade of woollen manu- Wool, we have observed, was at this, factures ; of which, by the statute period considered as the principal article, 7 Hen. IV, c. 9, it appears, that this the great support of commerce. It was citizens of London aimed at the mono- also deemed a sure resource in times of poly; for we there learn, that the ma- pecuniary distress. If the danger of the gistrates and traders of the city, having public became urgent; if extraordinary taken upon them to prevent cloth ma- exertions were to be inade; if revenue kers, dealers in wine, iron, (we presume was to be anticipated; in all these cases, manufactured,) oil, wax, &c., from sel. what is now done by the security of uniJing their goods wholesale in London to versal taxation, then principally rested any

but citizens; the Parliament, there. upon this staple. Of this an instance fore, enacted, that they miglit freely sell occurred early in this century. Upon those articles, by wholesale, in London, the subsidies arising from wool, the to any of the King's subjects.

King, Henry the IVth, borrowed money In this statute it was also enacted, that for the payment of his garrison of Calais; those who did not possess twenty shil- a transaction that has been considered as Jings yearly in land or rent, (a large sum important, inasmuch as, in the opulence for that time, indeed half a qualification oflaymen, it indicates the happy consefor sundry purposes where a qualification quences of the silent influx of wealth included a inaintenance, should not put derived from commercial sources *. their sons and daughters to be appren- We have thought it necessary to add tices. But such persons were allowed to send their children to school *.

the art of printing operated, fartbing, half. penny, and penny books, spread beyond

calculation; which would not have been the and London became its emporium. Manuel,

case if the poor, who were the great encou. who had applied in vain to the Latins for

ragers of this kind of literature, had been succour, harassed with long continued war. unable to read them. fare, at length resigned his crown to his son, John the VIIth, and retired to a convent,

* The sums subscribed to this LOYALTY where he died in 1425, aged 75.

Loan were as follow:
This has been stated as an act of op-

d. pression operating against the emancipa- The Bishop of Durham.... 66 13 4 tion of the poor, by preventing their chil- Earl of Westmorland

500 0 dren from obtaining that small portion of William Lord of Rons

166 13 freedom enjoyed by mechanics; for, it will Hugh Lord of Burnel

166 13 br olvserved, ibat no person who liad been John Norbury t.....

2000 regularly indenteil, and had served, could be John Henriet...

......2000 0 i thereafter considered as a slave. But we Richard Wittyngton t ........ 1000 0

rather think it was intended to make the The Merchants of ihe Staple.... 4000 0 0 mechanic arts of more consequence, by restricting their attaininent to a higher class

The Italian Company of Albertini alsolent of people. Slavery bad, even in its very

10001. upon the security of the retention of idea, been by this time worn out in the

the custoins on wool, &c. exported by them nietropolis, and nearly so in the country.

at London, Dover, and Southampton, till their It has bein also said, that the peripission

debe should be paid up.-(Fædera, Vol. VIII, to learn to read was of little avail before p. 488.) the art of priuting had brought books within the reach of the poor; yet surely pater. † Norbury (Fishmonger) was Treasurer nosters, ave marias, and creeds, in manuscript, of the Exchequer in the last ycar of Richard bad, before this time, been cheaply disse- the 114 and the first year of Henry the IVthe nuinated by the first stationers; nay, even

Hende, Mayor 1391 and 1404, was a Draper. popular tales and ballads liad been circulated He built the parish-church of St. Swithin by the same medium. Many of the monas- by the London Stone, and several other Ieries had schools, where the children, with. eilifices for the purposes of picty and charity. out any very accurate distinction as to their Willyngton (Mercer) was, by royal authó. parents' situation in life, were tanght gratis ; rity, substituted in the place of Adain Bamme, and althouglı, even in the days et Elizabethi, Goldsmith, who died in his mayoralty. He to be able to read was, among tbe lower class was also Mayor in 1406 and 1419; (at a of people, considered as a novelty, and period when he wished to have retired from that class is still, in many instances, whol- ihe fatigue of public duty :) so that he was ly illiterate; so in the sime of Henry in office at the time of this loan. He seems the IVth the poor, probably, were ignorant also to have been Mayor of the Staple of in a still greater degree, yet were there then Calais, though residing in London, about many exceptions to that general rule, When 1420.-(MS. Bib. Cott. Galba, B. i, No. 172.)

f. s.

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these brief notices to the commercial ants a title more substantial than hetraits that have before been exhibited, raidie, it would perhaps, from the peto impress more strongly the idea of the nod in which Henry the Vlth was energy of cominerce and manufactures,

“ In swa Idling bands crown'd King," when they had taken deep, rools in the have rendered the whole of the British metropolis, and shot their fibres not only over the kingdom, but the Eu: Islands provinces to the French empire, ropean, and, in some degree, the Asian in consequence of the people of the latworlds ; for, notwithstanding the tur

ter feeling their inilitary inportance, bulent state of the country during the and drawing all the strength and rereign of Henry the I'Vth, and the still sources of this kingdom into their termore dreadful desolation that followed

ritories, By the invasion of france"

“ buglaud that brilliant but evanescent, and indeed (says Mr. Macpherson *) deceitful gleain of Gallic domination, like his predecessor, who first started

was depopulated, and Henry the Vth, which the conquest of France by Henry the fatal pretension to the sovereignty the 'th afforded; neither the adventu- of that kingdoin, found himself reduced rous spirit of the merchants of the me

to the miserable and illusory expedient tropolis, nor the industry of her manufacturers, appear to have received any money of his count:

of disninishing the value of the current very material checks; which is the more extraordinary, because in the outset of

"In short, the interests of commerce this piece of royal Quixotism the King and the happiness of the people were ordered that all the vessels of England, equally disregarded during this splendid of twenty tous burthen or upwards main of conquest aud desolation." NO should be taken into his service, (by that nothing but its own evergies could which means he collected a flect of in any degree have protecied the for1600 for the conveyance of his troops, the public mind upon conquests which,

and the rapiurous ebullitions of while the Captains of those belonging to the Tower, i. e. pien of war, had

as has becu obscrved, were futile in commission to impress men for their

their aim, and baneful in their effects, ships *; and in the

have aitorded transitory gleams of the
of it, the

latter. arrival of the English in Normandy

The coronation of the young King spread such a terror through the district, that above twenty-five thousand

(Henry the Vlth) in France was attend families fled into the adjacent province ed with a profusion which, were it not of Bretagne, and carried the art of

so well authenticated, would shake cremaking woollen cloth, of which the dibility to the centre. Bretons were hitherto ignorant, among

May 19, 1430, the King, or rather the them ; by which means the manufac

Council, borrowed 50,0031. for the exture was dispersed inore ridely through

penses of a coronation iu France. Only France, to the consequent injury of this

fifteen cities and towns appear in the

records as lenders: whereof london adcountry.

vanced 6,666). 1:38. tbl. ; Bristol, 3331. It has been justly observed, that had this conquest become permanent, had

6s. 8d. ; York, 1621. ; Coventry, 1001.; that claim to the crown of France which in an evil hour operated upon the splen

• Annals of Conimerce, l'ol. I, p. 636. did but highly romantic mind of Ed

+ There is not, perhaps, in the whole circle ward the lid, been confirmed to his

of political cconomy, a niose pleasing, cero

tainly not a more useful. speculation, than *successors; bad this cbivalrous mo

that which embraces the state of the ancient narchi, who, in his armorial bearings,

revenue and expenditure of the kingdom of first quartered the Gallic lilįes with bis England ; becarise”, by comrarison, if the own leopards, conveyed to his descend- magnitude of the object in later ages did

not set all comparison at defiance, we mglit * This is from Walsingham, we think learn to enlair the frugality (we will not, the first notice of the exisience of regular from the known purity of morlern times, say commissions for impressing men into the sea the integrity,) of our ancestors: but, he this service ; from which press warrants are de- as it may, we shall, as a curiosiis, quote the rived. In this invasion of France, it appears following statement of those accounts for ore that more than double the number of vessels

year, ending at Micbarlmas 14.0, present. d to were enployed than in that of Eduard the The King, May 6, 1421 ; which appears the IIId, 1346. Then it is stated that the whole more worthy of attention, as it shows that, hunber of ships furnished, in consequence of even in those times, the greatest part of ihe the determination of the Nural Paşliunient, public expenses were supported by the trade was only 685.

of the country.

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